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The Bequest of 
Colonel George Earl Church 
. 1835-1910 






' ^?'H« 



By captain RICHARD F. BURTON, 

F.R.G.S., ETC. 

The aboriginal Indian ^Tupy) of Brazil. 

VOL. I. 



[All Rights of Translation aiid Ec^Jroduction reserved.] 







F.R.aS., ETC. 




[All Rights of Translation and Keprodioction reserved.] 


1<^ 5 



&c. &c. &c. 

My Lokd, 

I HAVE not solicited tlie honour of prefixing your name to these 
pages. A " Dedication by Pennission " might be looked upon as an attempt 
to take sanctuary after committing the crime of publishing harsh truths, 
and of advocating opinions which are not those of an influential majority. 
But I am irresistibly tempted to address a fellow-anthropologist, whose 
enlarged and enlightened world-knowledge, collected, not only in the Closet, 
but by the close inspection of travel, and by the study of mankind, promises 
to our native land the broad measures and the solidly based policy which 
during the last third of a century have shared the fate of other good inten- 
tions. The glorious year 1867, the commencement of a new era in the 
British Empire, may take as its device — 

" Anglia sui-ge, 
Immo resurge, tuaiu refei'o tibi mortiite vitam. " 

Tour Lordship's name is well known in the Brazil ; its fair rej)ort is that of 
a Statesman pledged to progress, who acts upon the belief that the welfare 
of his own country is advanced by the advancement of all other nations. 
If this my latest journey have the happy effect of di'awing your attention to 
the Brazil, a region so rich in Nature's gifts, so abounding in still latent 
capabilities, and so ardent for development ; to an Empire bound to us by 
the ties of commerce, and by its high and honoui'able bearing in matters of 
public credit ; to a people which excites our admiration by its young and 
glorious history as a Colony, and by a perseverance, a patriotism, and a self- 


reliance in the last tlu'ee years' war, of which the proudest of Eui'opean 
races might be"proud ; and to a community endeared to us by its monarchical 
and constitutional government, and by the friendly relations which date 
from its Independence Day, I shall not deem (to use the stereotyped phrase) 
that my time and labour have been expended in vain. 

I have the honour to be, 

My Lord, 

Tour most obedient humble servant, 


Ex-President Anthrop. Soc. London. 

Santos, Sao Paulo, 
July 23, 1868. 


Before tlie reader dives into the interior of Brazil with 
my husband as a medium, let me address two words to 

I have returned home, on six months' leave of absence, 
after three years in Brazil. One of the many commissions 
I am to execute for Captain Burton, is to see the following 
pages through the press. 

It has been my privilege, during those three years, to 
have been his almost constant companion ; and I consider 
that to travel, write, read, and study under such a master, 
is no small boon to any one desirous of seeing and 

Although he frequently informs me, in a certain Oriental 
way, that "the Moslem can permit no equality with 
women," yet he has chosen me, his pupil, for this distinc- 
tion, in preference to a more competent stranger. 

As long as there is anything difficult to do, a risk to be 
incurred, or any chance of improving the mind, and of 
educating oneself, I am a very faithful disciple ; but I 
now begin to feel, that while he and his readers are old 
friends, I am humbly standing unknown in the shadow 
of his glory. It is therefore time for me respectfully but 
firmly to assert, that, although I proudly accept of the 
trust confided to me, and pledge myself not to avail myself 

viii PREFACE. 

of my discretionary powers to alter one word of the 
original text, I protest vehemently against his reUgious 
and moral sentiments, which belie a good and chivakous 
life. I point the finger of indignation particularly at what 
misrepresents om^ Holy Roman Catholic Church, and at 
what upholds that unnatural and repulsive law, Polygamy, 
which the Author is careful not to practise himself, but 
from a high moral pedestal he preaches to the ignorant as 
a means of population in young countries. 

I am compelled to differ wdth him on many other 
subjects ; but, be it understood, not in the common spirit 
of domestic jar, but with a mutual agreement to differ 
and enjoy our differences, whence points of interest never 

Having now justified myself, and given a friendly warn- 
ing to a fair or gentle reader, — the rest must take care of 
themselves, — I leave him or her to steer through these 
anthropological sand-banks and hidden rocks as best he or 
she may. 


14, MoNTAou Place, 
Montagu Square, W., London, 
November, 1868. 




Amid such scenes with danger fraught and pain, 
Serving the fiery spirit more to 'flame, 
Who wooes bright Honour, lie shall ever win 
A true nobility, a deathless fame : 
Not they who love to lean, unjustly vain. 
Upon th' ancestral trunk's departed claim ; 
Nor they reclining on the gilded beds 
Where Moscow's Zebeline downy softness spreads. 

Not with the viands new and exquisite, 
Not with the wanton languid promenade, 
Not with the varied infinite delight 
Which can so much the generous bosom jade ; 
Not with the never conquered appetite. 
Which Fortune, ever delicate, hath made. 

Which suffers none to change and seek the meed 

Of Valour daring high heroic deed : 

But by a doughty arm and weapon's grace 
Gaining the glory which is all his own ; 
With weary vigil, in the steel-forged case, 
'Mid wrathsome winds and bitter billows thrown ; 
Conquering the torpid rigours in th' embrace 
Of South, and regions destitute and lone, 
Swallowing the tainted rations' scanty dole 
Temper'd with toil of body, moil of soul : 


Forcing the face, with fullest raastciy, 
Confident to appear, and glad, and sound, 
When met the burning balls, which, whistling by, 
Bespread with feet and arms the battle ground, 
"lis thus the bosom, nobly hard and high. 
Spurns gold and honours with contempt profound ; 
Gold, honours, oft by thrust of chance obtain'd, 
And not by dint of virtuous daring gain'd. 


Thus grows the human spirit heavenly bright. 
Led by Experience, truest, excellent guide ; 
Holding in view, as from some towering height, 
The maze of mortal littleness and pride : 
He who his path thus lights with Reason's light, 
"Wliich weak affections ne'er have might to hide. 
Shall rise (as rise he ought) to honour true, 
Against his will that would not stoop to sue. 















XI. — A WALK ABOUT SAO jolo d'el-rei (Soutli Side) . . 116 
















XXIV. — LIFE AT MORRO YELRO— {Continued) . . . . 236 












XXXV. — VILLA RICA, NOW OURO PRETO (Wcst End) . , 344 

XXXVI, — OURO PRETO CONTINUED (East End) , . . . 360 




XL. — TO SABARA 423 

XLI. — TO CUIABi. 435 




The Brazil is, especially to the foreign traveller, a land of 
specialties. As he disembarks at Pernambuco the questions 
proposed to him, even from the guard-boat, are : Is he a Mer- 
chant ? an Engineer ? a Naturalist ? a Doctor ? — No ! then — he 
must be a Dentist ! And — I presume that he is not a Royal 
Duke or a " Bristol Diamond," with loan legibly -smtten on his 
brow — he will do well, especially if bound for the Far West in the 
Land of the Southern Cross, to be or to become one of the five 
recognised castes. 

Like the stranger herd, Brazilian authors have also been 
mostty specialists, each bound to his specific end. When the 
Annalists of the Jesuits and the Franciscans had had their day, 
the old travellers preceding the savans who were charged with 
the demarcation of the frontiers were explorers ])\xre and simple ; 
who, if they An'ote at all, wrote only Roteiros or Itmeraries. 
Among the Portuguese may be mentioned the celebrated 
natm-alist, Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira, sent in 1785-6 on a 
scientific expedition to the River of the Amazons. The active 
and intrepid Paulista, Dr. de Lacerda (1790), who, by-the-bye, 
was forbidden to use instruments by a certain D. Bernardo Jose 
de Lorena, Captain-General of the Provmce of Sao Paulo — a 
veritable Sultan of Waday — and who died at the Capital of the 
African Cazembe, was a mathematician and astronomer. Dr. 
Jose Vieii'a Couto (1800-1), of Tejuco, now Diamantma, was a 
mmeralogist ; so was the Pater Patriae the Venerable Jose Boni- 
facio de Andrada e Silva, of Santos (1820). Major Coutinho, the 
experienced Amazonian traveller, is an officer of engineers. 

YOL. I. B 


The Netherlanders, in the olden days, sent the litterateur and 
historiogra^Dher, Gaspar Baerle, alias Barlseus (" Eerum per 
Octennium in Brasilia' gestarum Historia," Amsterdam, 1647), 
whose j)onderous Latin folio has now an anthi'opological interest; 
Piso of Leyden, and the German Marcgraf (1648), who laid the 
fomidations of systematic botanical study; Ai-noldus Montanus 
(1671), plagiarised by the often quoted Dapper ; and G. Nieuhof 
(1862). Amongst the Germans are Hans Stade (1547) ; the 
Prince Maximilian of "NVied Neuwied (1815-1817), naturalist and 
ornithologist; and H.R.H. Prince Adalbert of Prussia, who 
travelled in Brazil ; * the savans Spix and Martins (1817-1820),! 
the Humboldt I and Bonpland of Southern America ; the Baron 
von Eschwege, a mineralogist ; besides the elder Varnhagen 
and Schuch (senior), Langsdorff and Natterer, Pohl, Bunneister, 
and other names well known to science. 

The French, not to mention the ancients, as De Sery (1563), 
the " Montaigne of the old travellers " ; the Capuchin Claude 
d' Abbeville (1612), Yves d'Evreux (1613-14), and Eoulox Baro 
(1651), have contributed the mathematician La Condamine ; 
the botanist Auguste de St. Hilaire (1816-1822) ; the naturalist 
Count Francis de Castelnau (1843-1847) ; and the astronomer 
M. Liais (1858-1862). Besides these are the less reputable 
names of M. Expilly (1862), who, as his " Bresil tel qu'il est " § 
tells us, came out as a maker of phosphorus matches ; and M. 
Biard (1862), who came out as a portrait jiainter, and who 
produced a notable caricature. 

The Anglo-Americans sent Messrs. Hernden and Gibbon, 
ofl&cers of theu' navy (1851), to reconnoitre the Valle}' of the 
Amazons. Mr. Thos. Ewbank (1856) was an engineer. The 
two valuable and now neglected volumes of Mr. Kidder (1845) 

* Travels of H. R. II. Prince Adalbert t According to M. de Castelnau the 

of Pnissia in the South of Eurojie and in Librarj' of Rio de Janeiro preserves a 

Brazil, with a voyage uj) the Amazon and the curious document, highly characteristic of 

Xingti. Translated by Sir Robert H. colonial days : this is an order to arrest and 

Schomburgh and John Edward Taylor. 2 to deport Humboldt, if ever found upon 

vols. Boguc : London, 1849. The Counts Brazilian soil. 

Bismarck and Oriolla accompanied this § I cite with pleasure the judgment 

traveller, who ascended the Xingd as far as passed by M. Liais u])on this disreputable 

Piranhaguara. _ production (L'Espace Celeste, 210): " C'est 

f Travels in Brazil, Ijy Dr. Joh. faire injure au bon sens de ses lecteurs que 

Bapt. von SpLx and Dr. C. F. Phil, von d'ecrire de pareiUes absurdites. Au reste 

Martins. London : Longmans, 1824. 2 le livre en question est rempli d'inexacti- 

vols. octavo. I saw this translation at the tudes. Si I'auteur I'avait intitule le Bresil 

little English Librarj', Pemambuco, but tel qu'il 7i'est pas, il serait d'une verite 

have never been able to procure the original. parfaite. " 


were written by a missionary, and the joint production of Messrs. 
Kidder and Fletclier was the work of missionaries.* Of late 
sundry "opuscules" have been published by ''General" Wood, 
Dr. Gaston, and the Eev. Mr. Dunn, colonists, and by Capt. 
John Codman, who commanded a steamer upon the coast. 

We English have given the "British merchant" Luccock 
(1808-1818) ; the mineralogist John Mawe (1809-1810) ; the 
accurate Ivoster (1809-1815), settled in trade at Pernambuco ; 
the Reverend Mr. Walsh, High Church and Protestant (1820) ; 
Dr. Gardner, the botanist (1836-1841); Mr. Henry Walter 
Bates, the accomplished natm-alist and entomologist (1847-1859), 
who, in his earlier labours on the Amazons Eiver was accom- 
panied by Mr. A. P. Wallace ; Mr. Hadfield (1854), who visited 
the coast and prospected for it steam navigation ; the naturalist, 
Mr. R. Spruce ; and the engineer, Mr. William Chandless, who 
are still pushing their adventm-ous way to the skii-ts of the Andes. 
Nor must I conclude this skeleton list without mentioning Dr. 
Lund, the learned Dane, who lived amongst the extinct Saurians 
in the caverns of Minas Geraes, and the ichthyologist and 
"man of pure science," Professor Louis Agassiz of Boston (1865- 
1866), a traveller received with the greatest enthusiasm of which 
the Brazil is capable. 

In this brilliant assembly a mere tourist would or should feel 
somewhat out of place. I, however, had also an especial object, 
— e son pittor anch' io. H. I. Majesty had remarked with much 
truth that Central Africa is fast' becoming better known to 
Europe than the Central Brazil.! Even at Rio de Janeiro few 
would believe that the valley of the Rio de Sao Francisco, 
popularly but ungeographically called the Southern Mississippi, 
is in any but a state of nature. My plan then was to \dsit the 
future seat of Empire along the grand artery ; how I would 

* Brazil and the Brazilians, portrayed pudent plagiarism, printed in 1860 by the 

in historical and descriptive sketches by Religious Tract Society, 56 Paternoster 

Rev. D. P. Kidder and Rev. J. C. Fletcher. Row, London, and entitled "Brazil : its 

Philadelphia : Childs & Peterson. London : History, People, Natural Productions, &c. " 
Triibner & Co. 1857. A new edition, with f I do not call the country "Brazil," 

corrections, has lately been issued by Jlessrs, when she does not ; nor indeed does any 

Sampson Low & Co. , London. other nation but our own. Worse still is 

This production has been somewhat the popular anachronism "Brazils," which 

harshly described in semi-official documents was correct only between a.d. 1572 and 

as an "elaborate fulsome puflf which has 1576, when the State was split into two 

done much mischief." Its principal injury governments ; and yet the error still lives 

to the public has been to engender an im- in the best informed of our periodicals. 


make known the vastness of its wealth and the immense variety 
of its ijroductions, -which embrace all things, between salt and 
diamonds, that man can desire. In Minas Geraes alone the 
traveller finds a " countrj' as large and a soil and cHmate as fertile 
and salubrious as those of England,"* an atmosphere of " (pstas 
et non (estiis" where the " tyranny of nipping winds and early 
frosts " is unknown ; and, finally, a ft habitat — or rather the old 
home! — for the nobler tropical man about to be, when the so- 
called temperate regions shall have done their work. " I hold to 
the opinion," says Mr. Bates, " that though humanity can reach 
an advanced stage of culture only b}' batthng \\-ith the inclemencies 
of nature in high latitudes, it is under the Equator alone that the 
perfect race of the future will attain to complete fruition of 
man's beautiful heritage, the earth." 

The date of my journey fell happily enough. The Seventh 
of September, that glorious Independence Day of the Brazil, 
worthily'' commemorated itself by throwing open to the merchant 
shijis of all nations the Ilio de Sfio Francisco and the Sweet- 
water Mediterranean fiulher north. The Minister of Agriculture 
and Public "Works had dcsi)atched a steamer to be i)ut together 
on the upper com'se of the stream. The President of Minas had 
lately granted to a Brazilian civil engineer a concession to exploit 
by steamer the tributary valley of the Rio das Yelhas. An 
Enghsh suiweyor was laying out a line of rails to connect the 
Capital of the Empii'e with the City of Sahara, the futui'e St. 
Louis ; thus it was proposed to link to the Southern Atlantic the 
water-way which receives a thousand streams, that drains 8800 
square leagues of one province only, and which is ready to suj)- 
port twenty instead of the present poor two millions of souls. 

Nor is this all. The youngest of empires and the only 
monarchy in the New "World, so richly dowered with physical 
beauty and material wealth still buried in her bosom, so magni- 
ficent in geographical position, with a coast line like that of 
Euroi^e between the North Cape and Gibraltar J appears to be 

* The area of England is 57,812 square pcct to detect the vestiges of man's earliest 

miles; of Minas Geraes 20,000 square abode." Falconer, (^uart. Joum. of Geol. 

leagues. 1865. And the great L;iw of Progre.ssion is 

■f "It is rather in the great alluvial apparently evolving the future continents 

valleys of tropical or sub-tropical rivers, and islands of earth more rapidly within the 

like the Ganges, the Irrawaddy, and the tropical than in the temperate latitudes. 
Nile," (let me add, the Euphrates, the + M. Van Straten de Ponthez (Le Bresil, 

Kiger, and the Indus), " where we may ex- ii. 27). Sir John Herschel (Physical Geo- 


Fortune's favourite child. In 1852,* when the importation of 
slaves became a nullity, the country was dismayed, and not 
without reason, by the prospect of a deficient labour-market. f 
Comj)ulsor3^ service was then the sole source of prosperity to the 
agricultmist ; it was purely and simply his gagne-pain. 

But her star, her " good luck," as say those hostile to the Brazil, 
prevailed. In 1860 South Carolina " retracted the connection of 
State and Union," and resumed her independence. Five 3'ears 
afterwards Southerners began to exchange for happier regions 
theu' desolate homes. The movement w^as fondly fostered bj'" the 
Brazilian Government ; and in January, 1868, the number of the 
immigrants was stated as follows : — + 

Province of Parana § (near Curitiba, Morretes, and Paranagua) . 200 persons. 

Sao Paulo (Ribeira district, Campinas, Capivarhy, &;c.) || . . 800 „ 

Rio de Janeiro (in and about the capital) 200 „ 

Minas Geraes (Rio das Velhas, &c.) 100 „ 

Espirito Santo H (on the rivers Doce, Linhares, and Guandu) . 400 „ 

Bahia 100 „ 

Pernambuco 70 „ 

Para 200 „ 

Total . . 2700 

graphy, p. 87), informs us that Soutli + A work lately published and attrihuted 

America has an area of 6,800,000 square to H. I. M. the late Maximilian, who 

miles, and a coast line of 16,500 ("1 to visited Bahia between June 11 and June 

420 "—1 : 412 !), and that it has "little 19, 1860, gives a melo-dramatic episode of 

to boast of good harbours." This cannot be a fight inside the Bay between a slaver and 

said of the Brazil, which has some of the a cruiser. Unfortunately, it adds tliat the 

finest ports in the world. slaves who saved themselves by swimming 

* In 1850 the import slave-trade was were employed by the Bahian Railway, whose 

lirohibited liy law ; in 1852 the most active concession severely prohibits sei-vile labour. 

measures were taken, and since that time J J^Ij authority is Mr. Charles Nathan 

it has virtually lieen extinct. A committee of Rio de Janeiro, who in 1867 contracted 

of the House of Commons (July 19, 1853) with the Imperial Government to bring out 

gave the following figures : — in 18 months 1000 families, or 5000 agri- 

In 1847 imported 56,172 culturists. In the list given above he does 

,, 1848 ,, 60,000 not include "the New York thieves, &c.,- 

,, 1849 ,, 54,000 who generally work themselves to the Plate 

,, 1851 ,, 3,287 lliver in a few months." The change of 

In 1853, imported 700 (of whom the steamer-embarkation from New York to 

greater part were seized by Government). Mobile and New Orleans has partly remedied 

In 1854 the only slave-ship was seized the "scum "evil, 
by the authorities in the Bay of Serinhaem § Principally settled by Missourians, 

(Pernambuco), and the cargo was set free. who come with considerable capital, and 

This was the effect of an enlightened who in a few years will make this centre 

majority, who, as M. Reybaud says, raised very important. 

the cry, " No more traffic in slaves ! Euro- || Mr. C. A. Glennie, long acting Consul 
pean colonisation ! " It was far from being at Sao Paido, estimates the emigration to 
the work of cruisers. On May 3, 1862, the Ribeira at 400 — 500 souls, and the rest 
Mr. Christie reported officially to H. ]\I.'s who have passed thi'ough Santos, at 375 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs that souls, or 75 families x 5. 
the importation had wholly ceased, and that % The Rio Doce is preferred on account of 
its revival appeared an impossibility ; and its magnificent scenery, facilities for trans- 
yet we have retained the Aberdeen Bill, port, and superior soil upon which the 
one of the greatest insults which a strong plough can be used, 
ever offered to a weak people. 


Tlie official list of immigrants into Eio de Janeii'o dui-ing 1867 
gives : — 


. 4822, or nearly half the total, 

North Americans 

. 1575 


. 647 


. 357 

Irish . 

. 220 

Other nations 

. 2411 

Total . . 10,032 

The current year expects 10,000 : fii'st-class planters appear 
inclined to come out to a country where an equal area of ground 
produces three times as much cane as Louisiana does. Sugar is 
rapidly supplanting cotton, which has not heen found to pay,* 
and the " Southrons " in the Doce district are studying coffee, 
•which will jirohabh' become a favourite culture. 

Thus has begun a steady inflow of hard-working, long-headed 
practical men, accustomed to the use of machinery, and forming 
in each settlement a nucleus around which Euroi^ean labourers 
can cluster. As slavery diminishes so immigi'ation will increase, 
and it is good to bear in mmd that the two cannot co-exist. 
Presently the stream will set in of itself without extraneous aid : 
the Germans will appear, the Anglo- Scandinavians, and in fact 
whatever pullulates in the fecimd North. f And thus the Empire, 
despite the want of black hands, Avill gain labour and follow in 
the path of the great Northern Republic.! 

In the Valley of the Siio Francisco River, the emigration 
process has begun, and the pioneer of civilization is now on its 
banks. M. Dulot has proved how well calculated is the sub- 

* Thus one acre in cotton produces 12 500 fannei-s with small capitals of from 

arrobas (each 12 lbs.), when clean at £100 to £1000. The 391 souls above 

10$000 = 120$000 (say £12). The same alhided to were settled in the colonies 

land gives in sugar, 35 an-obas at 5$000 = Principe D. Pedro (S»'\ Catherina) and 

175$O00, besides the coarse rum obtained Cananea in Sao Paulo, 

from skimmings and so forth. J The torrent of Irish emigration set in 

+ In February, 1868, a detachment of towards the United States in 1847, when 

53 persons was sent from London to Kio de the famine raged. On March 1, 1845, the 

Janeiro, and a second party of Irish families, population of the island was nearly S^ 

making a total of 338 souls, was being millions ; on April 1, 1868, it was a little 

formed. Their passage money was found above 54 millions ; and it is calculated that 

for them, and the agreement was that they on April 1, 1871, it will hardly exceed that 

should receive ten days' maintenance free on of Belgium. During the 20 years succeed- 

landing in the Brazil, and have the option ing that time (1866) the great Republic 

of purchasing 100 acres a head at 2 shil- had received an increase of 3,500,000 

lings per acre, for the usual term of 5 souls, or one-third the population of the 

years. In March, 1868, I heard that the Brazil. The latter, it is computed, doubles 

Government agent was about to send out her population in 30 years. 


tropical plateau of the Brazil to be a home for Frenchmen. 
How much more, then, for the swarming hive of Northern Em-ope 
and for the Anglo- Scandinavians, vulgarly called Anglo-Saxons, 
who, at an earlier and more energetic x^eriod of theu' history, 
would have asserted and proved themselves to be the natural 
colonizers of the South Temperate zones of the world ? 

It is evident in om' present state that every pound sterling 
charitably wasted upon catechizing races about to perish, and upon 
the barren hopeless savagery of Africa and AustraUa, is a pound 
diverted from its proper pm'pose. We still devote fifteen vessels 
of war, 1500 men, and nearly a million of money per annum, to 
sujpport a Coffin or Sentimental Squadron, which has ever proved 
itself powerless to prevent negro-export, whenever and wherever 
black hands were in due demand, and whose main effect upon AVest 
Africa has been to pamper " Sa Leone," that Hamitic Sodom 
and Gomorrah, to fill a few pockets, to act as a iDolitical machine 
for throwing dust into the public eyes, and greatly to increase the 
miseries of the slave and the misfortmies of his contment. 

At the same time we boast of more than 900,000 paupers or 
persons in receipt of relief. Our poor-rates cost us per annum 
a total, actually expended, of 6,959,000/. : the increase of 1867 
over 1866 varies from 4'8 to 19*6 per cent. Population advances 
in the old home in a geometrical, subsistence in an arithmetical, 
ratio. The plague-spot of England has been declared to be 
** over- suckling and under-feeding." Overcrowding produces the 
horrors of the Black Country, and of Terlmg and Witham in the 
** Calf County." Hence the state of " City Ai-abs," of bondagers 
and hop-pickers, of " Shefiield saw-grmders and Manchester 

The million and a half per annum thus thrown away upon 
" propagatmg the faith " and maintaining a Squadron effete in its 
political use, would long ere tliis have grown to be a " removal 
fund." It would have made loyal emigrants of the unfortunate 
Connaught Irish, and would have supplied strong arms and 
wilUng hearts to om' colonies, that still want, as does the Brazil, 
farm-labourers and house-servants. Durmg the last score of 
3'ears we have allowed millions to exile themselves from our 
shores and to become Fenians in the New World, a thorn in the 
side of the present generation, preaching to the world in words of 
fire the inefficiency, to use no harsher term, of our rule, and a 


scandal to future ages. But the fatal system based upon the 
tripod " Quieta non movere,'" " Apres nous le Deluge,^' and the 
command of Glencrow so grateful to the feeble and the super- 
annuated in body and mind, has allowed us to di'ift into this oiu' 
latest and least excusable difficult}'. 

Half a generation ago, the Irish landlord, the propagator of 
constitutions and the supporter of " oppressed nationalities," 
must have known that at least about Sligo discontent was rife, 
that armed men were drillmg at night, that Catholics had thrown 
off the trammels of the priest and the confessional, and that 
Ii'ishmen were ready at any moment to strike a blow for what 
they held to be then- rights. 

It was not, however, judged proper to startle the many respect- 
ables into whose hands the fortunes of Great Britain had fallen 
since the year of grace 1832, and from whom only 1867 and its 
consequences can liberate us. The volcano might throb and 
boil mider the feet of the initiated few, but they were bomid to 
feel it and to make no sign. Every parliamentary question upon 
the subject was answered in a style the most jaunty, off-hand, 
and self-sufficient ; no motion could be made without incurring 
personal ridicule or obloquy, and the result has been 1867. 

Thus f{ir the damage done is irreparable, but we may still pre- 
vent the evil from spreadmg. 

The Anglo-Scandinavian and the Anglo-Celt have been de- 
scribed as the great "na\'vies" of the globe. Before them 
mountains are levelled ; they dig rivers, they build cities, they 
convert the desert place into a garden — Utah becomes Deseret, 
the Land of the Honey-bee. The world still wants them ; they, 
in turn, can find many a happier home than Great^Britain, where, 
indeed, it is hard to understand how a poor man can consent to 
live. The workman coming to the Brazil a miner, a carpenter, 
or a blacksmith, becomes a mining-captain — perhaps a mine- 
owner — an agent or land-proprietor, an engineer. The petty 
shopkeeper in Europe here calls himself at least a merchant, 
possibly a capitaHst. The hedge-schoolmaster is a professor ; the 
clerk rises from 100/. to 300/. a-year. The governess, so far from 
being an upper servant, with a heart-wearying lot before her, too 
often becomes the head of the establishment, and rules it with a 
rod of iron. 

To these and many others, especially to the unmarried of 


Europe, the Brazil may say, in the words of Holy Writ — 
" Venite ad me omncs qui lahoratis et onerati estis, et ego reficiam 

It has been said that the lower orders of Englishmen, which 
word includes Irishmen, do not, as a rule, flourish in the Tropics ; 
that they are mostly, when " left to themselves," a race 

Of men degenerate surely, who have strayed 
Far from the lustrous glories of their sires, 
Deep-mired in vanities and low desires. 

But these pages will prove that, with discipline and under strict 
surveillance, they can do wonders, and when Southerners from the 
United States shall have settled in the Empire, these men, so 
well accustomed at home to "drive" whites and to deal with the 
jjroletaires and the colluvics gentium of Europe, will soon supply 
the necessary curb. 

Hitherto the Brazil has suffered from being virtually a terra 
incognita to Europe. She is deficient in that powerful interest 
which arises from " nearness," and she subtends too vast an angle 
of vision. The books published upon the subject are mostly, 
I have said, those of speciahsts : they are, therefore, of the 
category " hiblia a hihlla ; " and none can be catalogued as 
belonging to the class " which no gentleman's library should be 

But as far back as 1862, the London Exhibition proved that 
this region excels all others in supplying the peculiar species of 
cotton wdiich oui* manufacturers most demand. Since that time 
the fleeting thought of war perhaps did good to both countries 
by introducing them to each other. And now our ever-increasing 
relations, social and commercial, with this vast and admirable 
section of the South American Continent, must lead in time to 
a closer and better acquaintance than anything that we can now 
imagine. A great national disgrace was required to atone for the 
national sin of neglecting our East Indian possessions. The 
Brazil, I believe, now incurs no risk of being forgotten. 

In 1864-5, whilst all other nations exported to the Empii'e 
6,850,300?., Great Britain supplied 6,309,700L out of a total of 
13,160,000L During 1865-6, the figures became respectively 
6,434,400Z., 7,375,100?., and the united sum 13,809,500Z. The 
year 1866-7 presents, notwithstanding large purchases of raw 


materials, a large decline.* This, however, is transient, the effect 
of depreciated currency and of deficient industry, resulting from 
a three years' campaign that drained gold and blood to a distant 
region — in fact, a Crimean affair in South America. Finally, 
Anglo-Brazilian debts amount to a little above 14,000,000?. 
My motto in these volumes, as in others, has been — 

Dizei em tudo a verdade 
A quern em tudo a deveis. 

And certainly the Public has a right to the writer's fullest confi- 
dence. It is, however, no pleasant office, when treating of the 
Gold Mines worked by English companies, to describe correctly 
the system which has " got them up." But it is not just that the 
Brazil should bear blame for the unconscience of those who "rig 
her markets ;" and when '' Brazilian specs are not favom'ites: all 
the Stock and Joint- Stock Companies connected with the comitry 
are at a discount ; " whilst the money market Review threatens the 
Empire with the thunders of that monetary Vatican, the Stock 
Exchange ; and when it is reported, even at this moment, that 
the Brazil, before effecting a loan, will be compelled to pay debts 
which she does not owe, it is only fair to show the cause, and to 
call wrong acts by their right names. Of course, unless the 
whole trick be told, it is better not to tell the tale at all. The 
reader, however, will perceive, it is hoped, that I have pointed to 
the system, not to individuals, and that m describing two suc- 
cesses amongst a dozen failm-es, I have done my best homage to 
honesty and energy. 

AVhile sketching the Highlands of Brazil as far as they were 
visited by me, my handiwork is totally deficient in the *' beautifi- 
cation" of which " serious travellers" complain. It is mostly a 
succession of hard, dry photogi-aphs with rough lines and dark, 
raw colom-s, where there is not a sign of glazing. The sketch, in 
fact, pretends only to the usefulness of accuracy. The day must 

* The Brazil imported from England— The progress of the Brazilian revenue 

Durintr the half-year ending may thus be laid dowTi : - 

June 30, 1866 . . £3,789,882 In 1864-5 ... 56,995 : 928 $000 

During the half-year ending ,,1865-6 ... 58,146 : 813$000 

June 30, 1867 . • 2,738,460 „ 1866-7 ... 61,469 : 437$000 

But even ^ath tins falUng off she stands ,, 1867-8 not less than 61,535 : 000 $000 

eighth in the list of our customers, ranking The estimates for the fiscal year 1869 

below the United States, Germany, France, are calculated to be— 

Holland, Egypt, and Turkey; above Italy, Receipts . 73,000 : 000 $000 

China, and Belgium, and far above Russia Expenditure 70,786 : 932$000 

and Spain. SuhjIus . 2,203 : 067 $000 


come when tlie outlines clrawii by other pens will he compared 
with mine, which will thus afford a standard whereby the progi'ess 
of the country may be measm'ed. It was judged better to place 
before the reader certain portions in diary form, not to spare myself 
the toil and trouble of " digesting," but to present the simplest 
and the most natural picture of travel. The Brazilians, who, hke 
most young peoples, have a ravenous and almost femmine appetite 
for admiration and tender protestation, will find my narrative rude 
and uncompromising. Foreigners here resident, who are gene- 
rally badly affected to the country,* and who hold it the j)art of 
patriotism and a point of honour to support a compatriot against 
a native, however the former may blunder or plunder, will charge 
me with " Brazilianism ; " but the impartial will give me credit 
for a smcerity that refuses to flatter or even to exaggerate the gifts 
of a region which I prefer to all where my travels have hitherto 
extended. Thus I may escape the charge freely made against 
almost all who have written in favour of the Brazil, nameh', that 
of having been "induced," or, to speak plam English, of having 
been bought, t 

I have purposely used the word " sketching." My journey 
covered more than 2000 miles, of which 1150 miles in round 
numbers were by the slow progress of a raft. The time occupied 
was only five months, between June 12 and November 12 of 1867 : 
as many years might most profitably be devoted to the Rio Sao 
Francisco alone, and even then it would be difficult to produce of it 
an exliaustive description. I have, however, been careful to collect 
for future travellers, who shall be masters of more time than my 
profession allowed me, hearsay accounts of the interesting natural 
features, the geological remains, and the rock-inscriptions hitherto 
unworked. Koster, in the beginning of the present century, drew 

* Like every country struggling for recog- their domestic concerns. " (Agassiz, Journey 

nition among the self-reliant nations of the in Brazil, i^p. 515-6). "A Rio de Janeiro 

world, Brazil has to contend with the i)re- on ne connait guere que Rio de Janeiro, et 

judiced reports of a floating foreign popu- Ton meprise un pen trop tout ce qui n'est 

lation, indifferent to the welfare of the land pas Rio de Janeiro," says Auguste de Saint 

they temporarily inhabit, and whose appre- llilaire with great truth, 
ciations are mainly influenced by private t This is at present the jjopular way to 

interest. It is much to be regi'etted that dispose of their opinions who think well of 

the Government has not thought it worth the Brazil. We find extensive reference to 

while to take decided measiu-es to correct ' ' paid puffers of Brazil, and lackeys of its 

the erroneous impressions cun'ent abroad Legation, " even in the " Brazil Correspond- 

concerning its administration ; and that its ence, with an Introduction." London: 

diplomatic agents do so little to circulate Ridgway, 1863. 
truthful and authoritative statements of 


attention to these "written rocks" in the bed of the northern 
Parah^'ba River. I believe that such antiquities are to be found 
in many parts of the north-eastern shoulder of the South Ameri- 
can continent, which approaches nearest to the Old World. And 
I hope in a futiu'e volume to show distinct " vestiges of some 
forgotten people who possessed the country before the present 
race of savages (the Tupy family), and of whom not even the most 
vague tradition has been presen-ed."* 

My second volume ends suddenly at the Great Rapids of the 
Rio de Sao Francisco instead of placing the traveller at its 
mouth. This is perhaps a caprice. But my pen refused to work 
upon the petty details of a few leagues of land travel and a mere 
steamer trip down stream, whilst my brain was filled with images 
of beauty and grandeur. Nor would further narrative have been 
of any especial service. A thousand vacation tourists will learn 
at length that yellow fever in the Empire is not an abiding guest, 
that her shores can be reached in ten days from Europe, that no 
long sea-voyage is more comfortable or so pleasant, that the 
Highlands of the Brazil, which popular ignorance figm'es to be a 
swampy flat, are exceptionally healthy, and have been used as 
Sanitaria by invalids who had no prospect of life in Europe, and, 
lastly, that a short fortnight spent in the country upon a visit to 
Barbacena in the I)ro^ince of Minas Geraes, -s-ia the D. Pedro 
Segimdo R. R., will offer the finest specimens of the three great 
geogi-aphical features of the land, the Beiramar or seaboard, the 
SeiTa do Mar, maritime range or Eastern Ghauts, and the Campos, 
commonly translated prairies. They will not neglect to visit the 
Niagara of the Brazil, and they will find Paulo Affonso, King of 
Rapids, more accessible than northern Scotland. From the 
agents of the Bahia Steam Navigation Company at S. Salvador 
and on the lower Sao Francisco River thej' will meet with every 
attention, and at the office they will obtain more general know- 
ledge of the country tlian can be packed into a handbook. 

The Appendix contains a translation of a monogram b}- M. 
Gerber, C.E., describing Mmas Geraes, one of the tj-jiical provinces 
of the Empire of the Southern Cross. It is simi)l3' a compila- 

* Southey (Histoiy of Bi-azil, ii. pp. 30, Franciscan may be trasted, with characters 

653). The laborious author adds, "Rocks also, have been recently found in Guyana, 

sculptured •n'ith the representations of the most savage part of South America, and 

animals, of the sun, moon, and stars, with hitherto the least explored." 
hieroglyphical signs, and if an incurious 


tion. But it forms an excellent base for future labours, and it is 
a good specimen of the stores of local information now locked up 
from the world in the pigeon-holes of BraziHan literature. I 
foiled to meet the distinguished author at Ouro Preto, and I am 
bound to make an apology for having translated liim without his 
express permission. 

Were I here to quote all the names, Brazihan and English, to 
which the pleasure and the profit of my journey are due, the list 
Avould occupy many a page. They have not been ignored in 
these volumes, and now they shall not be troubled with anythmg 
but the heartfelt expression of my liveliest gratitude. 

To conclude. The kindly reader will not criticize the smaller 
errors of sheets which were not corrected in proof.* Dming 
my absence from England, my wife, who travelled with me through 
Minas Geraes, will take upon herself the work of revision, but the 
last " coup de peigne " must necessarily be wanting. 


This Essay has extended to an undue length, but it woukl not he complete 
without a list of the authors whose names I have used, and a few observations 
upon the subject of their labours. 

John Mawe : the only edition known to me is " Voyages dans l'Int6rieur du 
Bresil en 1809 et 1810, traduits de I'Anglais par J. B. B. Cyrils." J Paris, 
Gide fils, libraire, 1816. I have not seen his " Treatise on Diamonds and 
Precious Stones, inchiding their History, Natural and Commercial, to which 
is added some account of the best method of cutting and polishing them." 
Svo. London, 1813. The Englishman in the Brazil must often meet his 
countrymen, if he would meet them at all, in the garb ^of the Gaul. Thus 
only have I seen the excellent volumes of I\Ir. Koster, so often quoted by 
Southey, and known in the Brazil as Henrique da Costa. The edition is 

* Former travellers have noticed a criticising. Tliere is a Hakhiyt Society for 

"fatality" attaching to works upon the republishing with annotations those who 

subject of the Brazil, the unconscionable date from a certain number of centuries, 

number of errata required Ijy Manoel Ayres The modems, however, must be read as 

de Cazal, MM. Spix and Martins, Joze they wrote ; and since the days when they 

Feliciano Fernandes Pinheiro, Eschwege, wrote, many things have been changed. In 

PizaiTO e Araujo, and the first publication due course of time they will all be deemed 

by Saint Hilaire. worthy of the Hakluyts, and, meanwhile, 

•f" In the following pages the names of notices of their labours will be as valuable 

certain authors will recur ^vith unusual to future students as they are unpleasant 

frequency. The object of these repeated to the reader in the present day. 

quotations from what are now "standard J This venerable author has merited, by 

works, " is complimentary, not ci'itical : no attracting to her the attention of Europe, 

one knows more than myself how little my the gratitude of the Brazil, 
own errors and shortcomings justify me in 


" Voyages dans la Partie Septentrionale du Bresil, &c., par Henri Koster, 
depuis 1809 jusqu'en 1815." Traduits de I'Anglais par M. A. Jay. 
Paris, 1818.* 

" Voyage au Bresil dans les annees 1815, 1816 et 1817, par S. A. S. Maxi- 
milien, Prince de "\Vied-NeuA\ied ; traduit de I'Allemand par J. B. B. Cyrids." 
Paris, Arthur Bertrand, 1821. " Prince Max." the Lord of Braunberg, has 
made epoque, and his collections were valuable in illustrating the natural 
history of the Brazil. 

M. Auguste de Saint Hilaire visited the Brazil in the siiite of the Due de 
Luxembourg, and during the -whole six years between April 1, 1816, and 1822, 
he travelled over 2500 leagues. This author is respected by the Brazilians 
more than any other ; he is almost German in point of exactness and pains- 
taking, and tlie only fault to be fomid -with his narrative is its succinctness, an 
unusual offence. Of his works eight A'olumes are familiar to me, and I have 
fjuoted them under their respective numbers : 

I, Voyage dans les Provinces de Rio de Janeiro et de Minas Geraes. 

Paris, Grimbert et Dorez, 1830. 
II. Voyage dans le District des Diamans et sur le Littoral du Bresil. 
Paris, Librairie Gide, 1833. 

III. Voyage aux Sources du Rio de S. Francisco et dans la Pro^Tnce de 

Goyaz. Paris, Arthur Bertrand, 1847. 

IV. Voyage dans les Provinces de Saint Paul et de Sainte Catherine. 

Paris, Arthur Bertrand, 1851. 

I could not meet Avith his " Flora Brasiliaj Meridionalis," -which -was edited 
-with the collaboration of MM. Jussieu and Cambassedes, nor with the " Plantes 
Usuelles des Br(5siliens," nor A\ith the " Histoire des Plantes les plas re- 
marquables du Bresil et du Paraguay." 

The last French author whose travels in the Brazil were of importance is 
the Count Francis de Castelnau, who directed the " Expedition dans les Parties 
centrales de rAmerique du Sud." Paris, Bertrand, 1850. 6 vols, in 8vo. 

I have often refened to Robert Southey, whose " History of the Brazil " has 
been admirably translated into Portuguese by a Brazilian. 

The three folios, at present scarce and unpleasantly expensive, amply 
desen'e another edition, Anth notes and emendations. This "great under- 
taking " of the Laureate's " mature manhood " is characterised in his two 
valuable volumes by Sr. A. de Vamhagen (Historia Geral do Brazil, ii. 344), 
" not so much a historj^ as chronological memoirs, collected from many 
authors and A-arious manuscripts, to serve for the lustory of the Brazil, Buenos 
Ayres, Monte-s-ideo, Paraguay, &c." f 

* It aVjounds in the worst misprints, for the same objection. The historical part of 

instance in the first vohime : Cava for Card liis work is far valuable than the por- 

(Prcf. xxxvii. ), Assogados for Affogados tions devoted to general information, and 

(12), Poco for Toqo (13), Alsandega for the concluding chapters are exceedinglj- 

Alfandega (52), Alqueise or Alque^re for unsatisfactory. 

Alqueire (55 and 219), Jaguadas for Jan- Southey's History was continued in two 

gadas (93), Cacinebas for Cacimba.s (131), volumes by "John Annitage, Esquire," 

Homems for Homens (214), Andhorina for Smith & Elder, London, 1836. The 

Andorinha (232), Guardamare for Guarda- author wa.s engaged in commerce at Rio de 

mor (295), Serra Pequeno for Pequena Janeiro, but he wrote under high oflScial 

(333), and so forth. information, and his book T^ill ever be most 

t Sr. Vamhagen is open to somewhat interesting. The English edition and the 


" Notes on Rio tie Jaiieii-o and the Sontliern Parts of Brazil, taken during 
a residence of ten years in that country, from 1808 to 1818." By John 
Luccock. London, Strand, 1820. These " Notes" belong to the folio days of 
travel : -we Avonder Avhat a " work" would have been. The laborious historian, 
Sr. Varnhagen (ii., 481), alludes to his not having been able to procure the 
volume, hence we may judge how little it is known. 

" A History of the Brazil," «S:c., &c. By James Henderson. London, Long- 
mans, 1821. This is also a folio ; it is 'rather a compilation than an origmal, 
and thus it wants the freshness and utility of its rival. 

" Notices of Brazil in 1828 and 1829." By the Eev. R. Walsh, LL.D., 
M.R.I.A. London, AVestley & Da^ds, 1830. The two stout octavos require 
correction with a liberal hand ; the author seems to have believed every tale 
invented for liim, and he \'iewed the Empire through the dark glances of 
our rabid anti-slavery age, happily now past. He is one of the authors who 
according to Saint Hilaire, have materially injiu'ed British prestige in the 

" Travels in the Interior of Brazil." By George Gardner, F.L.S., Super- 
intendent of the Royal Botanical Gardens of Ceylon. London, Reeve, 1846. 
This estimable author spent in the Empire the years between 1836 and 1841. 
His forte is botany, but he was also a man of general knowledge, who vnote in 
a pleasant unassuming style, Avhose geniality is still appreciated.* 

An immense mass of information touching the Brazil is to be found in 
the official and other documents published at Lisbon, esj^ecially in the 
" Collec^ao de Noticias para a Historia e Geograj^hia das Na^oes ultra- marinas 
que vivem nos dominios Portuguezes, ou Ihes sao A'isinhas. PubHcada jiela 
Academia Real das Sciencias." Lisboa, na Tj'pographia da Mesma Academia 
1812. The seven octavos are read by few but students, and at present the 
English public has everything to learn of the truly noble Portuguese litera- 
ture. As a rule we dislike the language because it is nasal, and we have a 
deep-rooted and most ignorant idea that Portuguese, the most Latin of all the 
neo-Latin tongues, is a " bastard dialect of Spanish." 

" Annaes Maritimos e Coloniaes, Publicagao Mensal redigida sob a direcgao 
da Associacao Maritima e Colonial." Lisboa, Imjn-ensa Nacional. Of this 
valuable collection many series have been published. I Avas imable to pur- 
chase a copy at the Imprensa Nacional. The Royal Geographical Society of 
London objected to send their volumes beyond the Atlantic, and my debt of 
gratitude is to my friend the geographer, Mr. Alexander Findlay, F.R.G.S.f 

Portiigiiese translation are both out of print, Triinensal," issued by the Instituto His- 

and well merit re-issue, if possible with torico Geograjihico of Rio de Janeiro. The 

notes and amijlifications. publication is so carelessly sujiplied that it 

* The object of this note is not to is well uigh useless. The libran' attached 

notice contemporary English authors — Had- to the Faculty of Sao Paulo, one of the 

field (1854), HinchliflF (1863), and others. nearest approaches to a Brazilian universitj- 

I cannot refrain, however, from expressing has no complete copy, four years' numbers 

my admiration of the " Naturalist on the are wanting, and since 1866 no copies have 

River Amazons," by Henry "Walter Bates. been forwarded. As regards the Institute 

London, ]\Iurraj^, 1863. "Publishers say itself I can personally afford no informa- 

that our public does not care for Brazil," tion ; during my frequent visits to Rio 

the author once told me : his volumes have de Janeiro the honour of an invitation 

certainly given the con-ection to this idea. to attend its meetings never extended 

1" It may be deemed curious that no to me. 
mention is here made of the ' ' Revista 


A ponderous but valuable work (which an index Avould make ten times 
more useful), in 9 volumes, is the " Memorias Ilistoricas do Rio de Janeiro e 
das Provincias Annexas h JurisdicQao do Vice-rei do Estado do Brazil," por 
(Monsenhor) Joze de Souza Azevedo Pizarro e Araujo. Rio de Janeiro, 
ImpressSo Nacional, 1822. Another is the Corographia Brazilica of (the Abb^) 
Manoel Ajtcs de Casal, the " dozen" of Brazilian geographers. The book 
(printed in 1817) is well known, not so the author : his birth-place has never 
been discovered, and the only detail of his career which came to light is that 
he returned with the Court to Portugal and there died. He is now, despite of 
a few inaccuracies, one of the classics. Of purely geographical compilations 
we have the " Diccionario Geographico Historico e Descriptive do Imperio do 
Brazil." Por J. C. R. Millet de Saint Adolphe. Paris, Ailland, 1845. This 
work, in two volumes, is a mere compilation and is exceedingly incorrect. 

AVorks of local use are — 

"Memorias sobre as Minas de Minas Geraes, escripta cm 1801, polo Dr. 
Jose Vieira Couto." This excellent little book, which is philosophical, unpre- 
judiced, and not witliout eloquent and picturesque descriptions, was republished 
by MM. Laemmert & Co., Rio de Janeiro, 1842. It will frequently be 
referred to in the folloAving pages. 

" Viagem Mineralogica na Provincia de S. Paulo," por Jose Bonifacio de 
Andrada e Silva, e Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada. I am unable to give 
the date, as my copy Avants the title page, and none of the Andrada family 
could supply the information. It has been translated into French by the 
Councillor Antonio de Menezes Drnmmond, and it was publislied in the 
" Journal des Voyages." 

" Historia do Movimento Politico que no Anno de 1842, teve lugar na Pro- 
vincia de Minas Geraes." Pelo Conego Jose Antonio Marinho. The first 
volume was published 1iy J. E. S. Cabral, Rio de Janeiro, Rua do Hospicei, 
No. 66, in 1844 ; the second in the same year by J. Villeneuve e Comp'", 
Rua do Ouvidor, No. 65. " Padre Marinho " was a red-Iiot Lusia or Liberal ; he 
was however much esteemed, and after the Revolutionary movement was 
crushed, he lived out the rest of his daj's, taking an active part in public 
affairs, at Rio de Janeiro. There is also a Chronological History of the affair 
taken from the opposite stand-point, and published under the auspices, it is 
said, of the President of Minas Geraes, Bernardo Jacintho da Veiga. 

" Informaoao ou DescriiJ^ao topographica e politica do Rio de S. Francisco," 
pelo Coronel Ignacio Accioli de Cen^ueira e Silva. Rit) de Janeiro. Typographia 
Franceza de Frederico Arverson, Largo da Carioca, 1860. Colonel Accioli has 
laboured hard and well in the field of local Brazilian literature. 

" Almanak AdTuuiistrativo, Civil e Industrial da Provincia de Minas Geraes, 
para o anno de 1864," organisado e redigido por A. de Assis Martins e T. 
Marquez de Oliveira. 1° anno. Rio de Janeiro, Typographia da Actualidade. 
A 2nd volume appeared at Ouro Preto, Typographia do Minas Geraes, 1864 (for 
the year 1865). I had hoped to see a 3rd in 1868, but it has not yet been 

" Rapport partiel sur le Haut San Francisco, ou Description topographique et 
statistique des parties de la Province de Minas Geraes comprises dans le 
bassin du Haut San Francisco, precedt-e de quelques aper9us generaux sur la 
meme Province," par Eduardo Jose de Moraes, Lieutenant du Genie de I'Armee 
Bresilienne. Paris, Parent, 1866. Its object is a canal. 


As regards the Tupy or Lingua Geral,'* a suliject now so deeply interesting 
in the Brazil, from whose settled portions the " Indian" element is so rapidly 
disajipearing, I have used the — 

" Grammatica da Lingua Geral dos Indios do Brasil, reimpressa jjela 
primeira vez neste continente depois de tao longo tempo de sua publica9ao em 
LisLoa," por Joao Joaquim da Silva Guimaraes.' Bahia, Typograpliia de Manoel 
Feliciano Sepulveda, 1851. 

" Diccionario da Lingua Tuj'jy chamada Lingua Geral dos Indigenas do 
Brazil," jDor A. Gonial ves Dias. Lipsia, F. A. Brockhaus, 1858. The author was a 
linguist, a traveller, and a poet, and his early death cast a gloom over his 
native land. 

" Chrestomathia da Lingua Brazilica," pelo Dr. Ernesto Fineii'a Franca, 
Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1859. 

A useful handbook to those studying the Flora of the Empire is the 
" Systema de Materia Medica Vegetal Brasileira, etc., etc., extrahida a tradu- 
zida das Obras de Car. Fred. Phil, de Martins," jdcIo Desembargador Henrique 
Velloso d'Oliveira. Rio de Janeiro, Laemmert, 1854. It is something more 
than a translation of the Latin volume,t published by the learned Bavarian. 
Upon the Rio de Sao Francisco I was accompanied by the — 
" Relatorio concernente d Exploracao do Rio de Sao Francisco desde a 
Cachoeira da Pirapora ate o Oceano Atlantico, durante os Annos de 1852, 1853, e 
1854," pelo Engenheiro Henrique Guilherme Fernando Halfeld. Impresso por 
ordem do Governo Imperial. Rio de Janeiro : Typographia Moderna de 
Georges Bertrand, Rua da Ajuda, 73. This small thin folio is of convenient 
travelling dimensions. Not so the enormous and costly — 

" Atlas e Relatorio concernente a Exploragao do Rio de S. Francisco desde a 
Cachoeira da Pirapora ate o Oceano Atlantico, levantado por ordem do Govemo 
de S. M. 1. Senhor Dom Pedro II.," pelo Engenheiro Civil Henrique Guilherme 
Fernando Halfeld em 1852, 1853, e 1854, e mandado lithographar na litho- 
graphia Imperial de Eduardo Rensburg. Rio de Janeiro, 1860. The plans do 
honour to lithography in the Brazil. His Imperial Majesty, an Honorary Mem- 
l)er of the Royal Geographical Society of London, was pleased to forward, in 
18(55, a cojjy of this huge folio to our library. 
For the Rio das Velhas I had provided myself with a' copy of the — 
" Hj'drographie du Haut San Francisco, et du Rio das Velhas, resultats au 
point de vue hydrographique d'un Voyage effectue dans la Province de Minas 
Geraes, par Emm. Liais. Ouvrage publie jjar ordre du Gouvernement Imperial 
du Bresil, et accompagne de Cartes levees par I'auteur, avec la collaboration de 
MM. Eduardo Jose de Moraes et Ladislao de Sonza Mello Netto." Paris et 
Rio Janeiro, 1865. This is a work having authority, and the style of the folio 
is worthy of its matter. 

M. Liais tells its in his Preface (p. 2) that he has " collected numerous 
documents upon a crowd of other than hydrographical questions, and has 

* Tlie fii-st publication upon tlie subject Lingua Brasilica," Lisbon, 1687. I have 

was the " Arte da Grammatica da lingua a copy of the 4th edition, Lisbon, 1795. 

mais usada na Costa do Brazil," by the t " Systema Materia Medica; Vegetalis 

venerable Anchieta, published at Coimbra, Brasiliensis Composuit, " Car. Frid. Phil. 

1595, and now of extreme i-arity. dc Martins. Lipsice, apud Frid. Fleischer, 

The Jesuit Padre Luis Figueira also 1813. 
printed an ' ' Arte da Grammatica da 


conscientiously studied the soil, the nimes, the cdiniate, the natural pro- 
ductions, the agriculture, and the statistics of the country." These he promises 
to issue with his Atlas, but in a more portable form. But besides five otlier 
Memoires upon various scientific subjects,* he has yet published, I believe, 
only " L'Espace Celeste,"t ■which contains notices of his travels and labours in 
the Empire. 

This list of studies is not imposing. It would, however, have been even less 
so, but for the imwearied kindness of my excellent fi-iend Dr. Jose Innocencio 
de Moraes Vieira, Librarian to the Faculty of Law (Faculdade de Direito) in 
the City of Sao Paulo. 

* These are, 1, "De I'Emploi des Ob- + Emm. Liai.s, Astronome de roinserva- 

servations Azimutales pour la Deter- toire Imperial de Paris. " L'Espace Celeste 

mination de.s Ascensions cU-oites," &c. ; 2, et la Nature tropicale, Description jihy- 

" Theorie des Oscillations du Barometre " ; sique de I'Univers, d'aprfcs des observations 

3, "De I'Emploi de I'Air chaufie comme personnclles faites dans les deux liemi- 

force motrice " ; 4, " De I'lnfluence de la splidi'es." Preface de M. Rubinct, dcsseins 

Jler sur les Climats " ; and (promised in de Yan' Dargcut. Paris, Garnicr Brothers 

1865) 5, "La Continuation des Explora- (no d.atc). 
tions scientifiqtics au Brcsil. " 



"Rieu an moude ii'esfc aussi beau, peut-6tre, que les envirou3 cle Rio cle Janeiro." 

St. Hilaire. 

I AM about to describe in this volume a holiday excursion 
which we made to the Gold Mmes of Central Minas Geraes via 
Petropolis, Barbacena, and the Praii'ies and Highlands of the 
Brazil. Our journey has a something of general interest ; m a 
few years it will have its Handbook and form a section of the 
Nineteenth Century " Grand Tour." And I venture to predict 
that many of those now Hving -oill be Avhiided over the land at 
hurricane speed, covering sixty miles per hour, Avliere our painful 
" pede-locomotion " wasted nearly a week. Perhaps they may 
fly — Queui sahe ? 

My project was, then, to visit the head-waters of the Pio de 
Sao Francisco, the mighty river here trivially called the Brazilian 
Mississippi, and to float down its whole length, ending b}^ way of 
bonne houche with the King of Papids, Paulo Affonso. In this 
second act of travel, wdiich is not a hoKday excursion, the 
diamond diggmgs were to be inspected. 

After eighteen dull months spent at Santos, Sao Paulo, I was 
graciously allowed leave of absence by the Right Honourable the 
Lord Stanley, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs. By command of His Majesty the Emperor of 
the Brazil, I was supplied with a " Portaria"* — Podoroshna, or 
especial licence to travel; it bore the signature of His Excel- 
lency the late Councillor Antonio Coelho de Sa e Albuquerque, 
Minister for Foreign Aflfaii'S, a name immortalised by the decrees 
of December 7, 1866, and July 31, 1867, which admitted the 

* In former times the Portaria dispensed such trifling economy, and can hardly say 
tlie traveller with pajang femes, tolls, and ^\-hether it is still useful for " dead head- 
other small charges. I did not attempt ing. " 

20 THE HK;HLA^"L)8 OF THE IJKAZIL. [< hap. i. 

■world to, and which reguhited the inhmd navigation of the Brazil. 
The Minister of Agriculture and Public Works, His Excellency 
the Councillor Manoel Pinto de Souza Dantas, who took the 
liveHest interest in the journey, honoured me Avith a cu-cular 
letter addressed to the authorities of his owai Province, Bahia, 
where he had lately been President, and where his wishes were 
law. Finally, the eminent Dex^uty of Alagoas, Dr. AureHano 
Candido Tavares Bastos, Jun., whose patriotic enthusiasm for 
progi-ess has so urgently advocated the freeing of the coasting 
trade and the opening of great fluAdal lines,* kindly gave me a 
variety of introductory letters. 

Under such auspices Ave — that is to say, my Avife and the 
inevitable Ego — with a negret ansAvering to the name of Chico or 
Frank, after exliausting the excitements of the " Ilio Season," 
left that charming but someAvhat droAVsy, dreamy, and do-little 
Capital on the fortunate Ember-day, Wednesday, June 12, 1867. 
Affectionate acquaintances bade us sad adieux, prognosticating 
every misery from tick-bites to kniving. What Dr. Couto calls 
the " old system of terrors " is not yet obsolete, and I Avas looked 
upon as a murderer in X)Osse, because Mrs. Burton chose to 
accompany me. A " synthesis of cognate habits " induced Mr. 
George Lennon Hunt to see us embark, and he Avas not alone, 
for there are " good children " even amongst the John Bull-lings 
of the Brazil. 

" Rio Bay," like all the beautiful sisterhood, from Cornish 
" Mullions " AvestAvard to the Bay of Naples, must be seen 
in " Avar-pamt." Most charming is she when sitting under her 
rich ethereal canopy, Avhilst a varnish of diaphanous atmosphere 
tempers the distance to soft and exquisite loveliness ; when the 
robing blue is perfect brilliant blue, Avhen the broAvns are dashed 
AA'itli pink and purple, and Avhen the national colours suggest 
themselves : green, A'ivid as the emerald, and yelloAV, bright as 
bm-nished gold. Then the streams are silver, then the seam's 
are marked orange and vermilion as they stand straightly out from 
the snowy sand or the embedding forest, then the passing clouds 
form floating islets as theii' shadows Avalk over the waters of the 
inner sea, so purely green. Then the peasant's whitewashed hut 
of tile and " Avattle and dab," rising from the strand of snoAvy 

* His book, *' Yalle do Amazonas " (Rio de Janeiro, B. L. Gamier, 1866), is a 
valuable statistical study of the River, and amply deserves translation. 


sand, becomes opal and garnet in the floods of light wliieh suggest 
nothing but a i3erpetual springtide. And every hour has its own 
sj^ell. There is sublimity in the morning mists rolling far away 
over headland brow and heaving ocean ; there is grandeur, love- 
liness, and splendour in the sparkling of the waves under the 
noon-day sun, when the breeze is laden with the perfume of a 
thousand flowers ; and there is inexpressible repose and grace 
in the shades of vinous purple which evening sheds over the same. 

Combine with this soft and fairy-like, this singular feminine 
beauty of complexion, a power and a majesty born of the size 
and the abrupt grandeur of mountain and peak, of precipice and 
rock, which would strike the mind of Staffa, and which forbid 
any suspicion of efleminacy. Such effects of Nature, at once 
masculine and womanly, alternately soft and stern, necessarily 
affect the national character. The old sneer that the family of 
Uncle Sam must not hold itself to be a great people because 
Niagara is a great cataract, contains even less truth than such 
sneers usually contain. The " Aspects of Nature " are now 
recognized influences upon the ideality and the intellect of man. 
*' Onde ha o grande e o hello," says Sr. Castilho, with eminent 
l)oetic instinct, " apparece logo a poesia;* and now even we of 
the little island readily own that " size becomes in the long run 
a measure of political power." And is not the Beautiful the 
visible form of the Good ? As these pages will prove, travel in 
the " Land of Dye-wood " resembles travel in no other land. 
It has a gentleness, an amenity of aspect which the sons of the 
rugged North see for the first occasion, and which they must 
never expect to see again. At the same time we shall find 
amongst the people pronounced traits of character, and an almost 
savage energy, which show bone as well as smoothness of skin. 

There are, however, times and seasons when Eio Bay, the 
Charmer, bears a stormy dangerous brow, upon which it is not 
good to look. Again there are days, especially in early winter 
from May to June,t when her frowns melt into smiles, and when 

* " Where the Grand and the Beautiful Spring, and Summer), viz.: — 1. Spring, 

exist, there the Poet soon appears." This beginning September 22 ; 2. Summer, 

pai-t of the Brazil i.s a just middle between December 21 ; 3. Autumn, March 20 ; 

those physical extremes which over-stimu- and 4. Winter, June 21. The Guarany 

late or which depress the imagination. "Indians," or indigenes, more sensibly 

f The Europeanized seasons in this part divided the year into two halves, "Coaracy- 
of the Brazil, as "adapted to the Southern ara," sun-season, and "Almana-ara," rain- 
Hemisphere, are the normal four (the Aryan season. ' ' They are the divisions which we 
division being originally three, Winter, recognize now," says Sr. Jose de Aleucar iu 


tears follow her laughter. Of such sort was that Wednesday, 
the Emher-da}', m the year of grace 1867; it came hard upon 
a terrible shipwrecking gale. 

Rio de Janeii'o, the "very lo^-al and heroic city," viewed from 
the quarter and station of the " Prainha," alias " Maud's "Wharf," 
does remind eye, nose, and ear of certain sites on the Thames 
which shaU be nameless. You hustle through a crowd of blacks. 
You make the little jetty under a barrel roof of corrugated and 
galvanized iron, between piles of coffee sacks, whose beans, 
scattered over the floor, show that the ruthless "piercer"* 
lias plunged in his scoop, withdrawn his sample, and stocked 
his home with plundered caffeine. Near the coarse i)ier of 
creakmg planks lie swamped canoes and floating boats, a red 
di'edging craft, simdry little black steamers, a crowd of loading 
shij)s, and a scatter of crippled hulks ; a dead dog floats lazilj' 
past us, the smoke of Dover stifles us, the clang of hammers 
has power to agaccr our nerves, and we acknowledge the savour 
of that old Father who once harboured Le Brut of Troy. But 
here the picturesque " Moito da Saude " — the Hill of Health — 
sits by the shore clad in Tanga kii'tle of grass and tree, whilst 
close behind, towering high in air, the gigantic detached block 
culminating in " Tijuca Pealv," overlooks the scene like the 
monarch of moimtains he is. 

To the south-east are the yellow-ochre buildings of the Marine 
Arsenal, long and low, and Ijisbon-like, witli windows jcalousl}' 
barred. The surroundings are a tall red slii)-slied, a taller black- 
shed, fronted by a big, antiquated, and green-painted craiia| piles 
of coke and coal, rusty ginis, and old tanks and boilen^umber 
the ground ; in front floats a ship newly born to ocean life, and a 
mob of smaller craft are made to hug their great mother, the shore. 
But, agam, the upper part of this jiicture is Silo Bento's stern old 
l^ile, with its massive square front of monastery pitted and dented 
hy the cannon-balls of the stout French corsair,! with its pj-ramid- 
capped belfries, whose weathercocks have been weathered dowai to 
spikes, and with its gardens of rich sward and luxuriant banana 
stretching far away in our rear. 

his admiraLle romance, Guarany, vol. i. or "rains," a result also brought about of 

3C1, " and the only seasons which really late years by extensive cultivation and dis- 

exist in the Brazil. " Moreover it may be foresting. 

said that Rio de Janeiro, the citj', placed * furador, the " sampler : " the word 

in the interval between the Trades and the wants, methinks, a letter. 

Variable willll^^, li;is no rej.nibr "dries" fDiiguay-Trouin,wlio bombarded it in 1711. 


And now the little steamer "Petropolis" is under way, making- 
nine knots per hour, very unlike the "open boat"* affected by 
the travellers of 1808 — 1825. AYe rush past the Ilha das Cobras, 
" Snake Island," a little lieaj) of green slo^^e and granite scarp, 
with bran-new docks and ancient lines of fortalice and building, 
all ochre-tmted, to show public property ; past the shipping 
channel, all hull and mast ; past the big red Custom-house, said 
to have cost £300,000, and already showing a graceful sag of some 
four mches m the centre ; past the low, solid buildings, not without 
the usual steeple, on the Illia das Enxadas, or " Isle of Hoes," 
known to the Briton as the " Coal Island," which was sold for a 
song, and which is now worth a mint of pounds sterling ; past the 
distance-dwarfed eastern wall of the Bay, m the upper part broken 
hills, by contrast liiUocks, and below a town and outlying villages, 
with houses and villas, forts and churches ; past the '' Island of 
the Governor" (Salvador Correa de Sa), very properly called in 
the Enghsh " Long Island," from its length of twenty-eight miles, 
where the ant-eaterf having been eaten out, the ant eats out the 
former ; past Paqueta, of old " Pacata," shaped like a figure of 8 
— that " lovely insular gem," shady with mangos and cashews, 
and myrtles, and the olive-lilce Camara,t the coquette called the 
Capri of Bio — classical, charmmg, and happily without a Tiberius; 
past the bight of Mage, which deluded the first discoverers into 
misnaming this little Mediterranean "Biver of January," and 
which caused their descendants to miscall themselves Fluminenses, 
or People of the Biver ; § past slabs of rock, each growing its one 
or two bunches of vigorous verdure, fruit of that mighty coition 
of equinoctial sun and tropical rain ; past ej^ots of dull white 
granite boulders, the blocs perches and roches moutonnees of 
l)e Saussure ("Verily," exclaims a friend, "its name is 

* "Falua. " Anthropologists are advised to visit Long 

+ Especially tlie species called Tamandua Island. It contains kitchen-middens of 

{i.e., Taixi-monde, ant-trap) Mirim, or oy.ster and other shells locally called 

little ant-eater (Myi-mecophaga tetradac- " Sambaquis, " and is rich in aboriginal 

tyla), as opposed to the greater ant-eater, skulls and stone celts. 

Tamandua Cavallo or bandeira (Myrmeco- J A Lantana, one of the Verbenaceae, a 

phaga jubata, Linn.). The often recurring common wild tree in the j^rairies of the 

word miry, merem or mirim (Portuguese Brazil. 

— inlio — inha — sinho, etc. ), a terminal bor- § Hence we still read in French and 

rowed from the Tupy-Gruarany tongue, English " Gazetteers, " and " Compendiums 

means small, lesser, least, opposed to osu, of Geography," "Rio de Janeiro, or Rio 

asii, wasu, guasu, ussu (it varies accord- de Janario, on the Rio River;" "Rio de 

ing to the syllable preceding it), magnus, Janeiro, situee h. I'embouchure du flouve 

major, maximus. The latter corresponds du meme nom. " (Dictiounaire de la Con- 

with the termination ao in Portuguese. versation, F. Didot, Paris, 1857.) 


boulder ! ") — some the size of a bouse, rounded and water-rolled, 
otbers acutangular, and brought on thin ice -rafts and floes by the 
Glacial Theory from yon towering range of Swiss physiognomy. 
We look behind us, and the glance plunges into the open sea 
through the portals of the Colossal Gate, sentinelled by an ami}' 
of peaks. We look in front at a northern wall, the Serra do Mar, 
or Sea Range ; to the north-east rise the Organ Mountains proper, 
with theii' four sharp needles of darker blue, silhouetted against 
the undefined yapoury background, and resembling anything but 
organ-pipes;* due north is the Star Range,t where a break and 
a knob of rock, the usual Cabeca de Frade, or " Friar's Head," 
mark the natural zigzag taken by the road ; while to the north- 
Ayest the pjTamidal and sharpl}' outlined peaks of the Serra de 
Tingua prolong the mighty curtain in the direction of SHo Paulo. 
And now, eleyen miles dul}^ left behind, we dash towards a sprink- 
ling of huts and a low line of mangroye, backed by the sub-range, 
heaps of dark green hill shagg}' with second growth, and not 
unfrequentl}' topi)ed by a white church. This is the " INIaua 
Landing Place," and here ends Act No. 1 of to-day's travel 

Before we tread the shaky, creaky, little plank-jetty leading to 
the railway carriages, we may incidentally remark that Maua Bay 
and Paqueta Island supply Rio with the best oysters. Bad, how- 
eyer, are now the best. The Riyerines should, like their northern 

* I may suggcbt that the discoverers of the northern continent. The chain be- 

called them Serra dos OrgaOs from the huge gins in tlie north of Espirito Santo (S. hit. 

tree cactus (Cactus arboreus, in Spanish 1C° — 17°), where it continues the Serra dos 

Organo) which abounds in these mountains. Aj-mores, and thence it runs some 150 

As regards the altitude a jjopular error miles from E. N. E. to \V.S.W. It is a 

makes the Organ Mountains never to ex- barrier cutting off the hot, damp, and 

ceed 1300 metres. Professor Agassiz (A fever-haunted maritime lowlands of the 

Journey in Brazil, chap. 2) tells us that coast or Beiramar, from the dry and healthy 

the highest summits of the Organ Moun- highlands of the interior, and though only 

tains range only from 2000 to 3000 feet, a score of miles from the capital it is still 

and in chap. 15, quoting M. Liais, who in a state of nature. 

makes the maximum altitude observed by Estrella, the port at the foot of the 

him 7000 feet, he ignores Gardner, who range, and north of "Mau;i,"was a place 

foimd a still greater height. According of great consequence and bustle during the 

to Captain Bulhoes the Alto da Serra is first quarter of the present centui-y : all 

883 -21 metres, the road in front of the the imports and exports of the Far West 

palace at Petropolis 812, and the Peak of passed through it, and large covered boats 

Tingua upwards of 2000. The Tijuca is with flat bottoms connected it with the 

1050, and the Corcovado 661 metres. cai)ital. It was then 

+ The Sena da Estrella is probably so " Diifertum nauti.s, cauponibus atque 

called from the beautiful highlands of Cen- malignis. " 

tral Portugal. It is part of the Serra do jMar Now it has i)assed tlirough the court, has 

or Maritime Range, which here corresponds obtained its discharge, aud is hopelessly 

with the AUeghanics, or Appalachian range ruined. 


brethren of Californian San Francisco, send for spat or ojster- 
seecl to New York, or, better still, to Baltimore. The aboriginal 
mollusk might meanwhile be greatly improved by scientific ostrei- 
culture. Bed the bivalves for six months where there is no 
seaward current, but where the rising tide mixes salt water with 
fresh. There must be artificial collectors to prevent the spat 
being carried away and lost, and which will save the trouble and 
expense of removing it to another place. Feed them for the 
last fortnight Avith "farinha"* or other flour. So shall you see 
the long, thick, black beard give way to delicate meat, and the 
thin angular flatness become plump and rounded. 

Here begins Act No. 2. The Maua Eailwa}-, upon which the 
engine first whistled in the Brazil,! is a very small chapter in 
that latest and best Euangelion which began, one year before the 
Brazil was born, Avitli the fii'st " Stockton and Darhngton Rail- 
way Act," April 19, 1821. Like other little things, "Maua" 
had a mighty soul. At the Fete of Industry, when its godfather 
ojiened it, he is said to have exclaimed, " A Barra do Rio das 
Yellias." {E)i route to the valley of the Sao Francisco River.) 
But unhappily double the sum authorised — £*G0,000, instead of 
i'30,000 — was expended upon a road, not a railroad, and the 
l)rophecy has still to fulfil itself. 

The engine pulls us slowly, feebly up a valley, or rather a 
gully, wmding through the lowest sub-range. Then we come to 
a flat, a strip of the Pontine Marshes — a true crocodile country, 
all mud and mangrove, miasma and mosquitos, watery even during 
the driest weather, and in places sandy and sterile. Ai-ound the 
smgle station, " Inhomirim," the land bristles Avith the Piri-piid, 
or Brazilian papyrus,! tall and tufty as that of Sicihan Anapas, or 

* When farinlia, "the flour pcir excel- arraugedfor the Company on December 23, 

lence," is mentioned, the readerwill under- lS55,and the total cost was 1,743:764$121 

stand that it is the "wood-meal" (farinha (£174,300), or 105 : 683 | 000 per kilo- 

de pao), of the Euphorbiaceous " Manihot metre (£10,508). 

utilissima " (not " Jatropha Manihot"), t " Piri-piri " resembles " papjTus " in 
the black or poisonous manioc. The French sound, but the likeness is superficial. Piri 
colonies call it Cassave, hence our Cassava, is the common rush, and 2^ii'i-piri (rush- 
er Cassada. I will not describe the prepa- rush) is the largest species. The Tupy 
ration, this has been done by a century of language delights in the onomatopoetic or 
travellers. the "ding-dong," "bow-wow," or " ca^- 

t In the Esbogo Historico das Estradas mag," and like many other barbarous 

de Ferro do Brazil (por C. B. Ottoni. Rio: tongues it expresses augmentation and 

A'illeneuve, 1866) we are told that the magnitude by reduplication. Thus mure 

contract was made on April 27, 1S52 ; the is a flute; mure-mure a large flute. Ara is 

trains began to run over the whole line in a itarroquet ; ara ara, contracted to arara, 

December, 1854; the rules and regulations (big parroquet), a macaw. As remarked 


as the produce of the "NVhydah higoon. It shows the saltness of 
the soil, and it has never yet made paper. The girding liills are 
dull green with poor second growth, fit only for hedges. On our 
left runs the " Estrella Road," and here and there a few palms 
and plantains, or a tall myrtle, brown with breathing bad air, and 
clad in rags of gi'ey Tillandsia moss, show that the squatter or 
settler is not fiir oft". As we approach the maritime mountains 
there are rich fields and clearings for cattle, all the work of the 
last two 3'ears, and made despite the deadly swamp-fevers. After 
eleven miles or more, exactly 16'5 kilometres, we reach the Root 
of the Range. Here we strangers stare wonder-stricken at the 
colossal amphitheatre of "Eastern Ghauts" that fronts us, with 
shaggy wall forested to its coping, with tremendous flying but- 
tresses shot forth frt)m the main mass, and with slides of bare 
granite, fiimous INIontagnes Russes for Titans at play. How we 
ai-e to get up is a mysteiy, till our courier, the indefatigable 
George F. Land, a Britisher withal, points from the flat to a kind 
of gap on the right, the path of a superficial torrential drain 
which feeds the rivulet Inhomirim.* It is tlie key-stone of the 
gigantic inverted arch, up which the admiiable road constructed 
by Government painfully winds. 

Now opens Act No. 3 — the gem of the piece. Our well-packed 
carriage is drawn by four mules; thorough-bred horses could not 
stand such woik. Up we go, blessing the projectors of this 
smooth, gutter-lined, and parapetted Macadam:! it is a Simplon 
with prodigious windings ; the gi'adient is 1 : 10. In places a 
man may address his friend in the third zigzag above or below 
him ; and a pedestrian who takes the old mule-track will reach 
the mountam crest before the coach, which galloj)S over nearly 
the whole new way. Up we go under giants of the virgin 
forest, tall and slender as the race of man in these regions, 
all struggling with fierce energy, like the victuns of the Black 

liy M. Ga>tling the trick is found in most of torrent of the zigzag valley may be con- 

thc ancient languages. He cites -nvpipvpeos siilered its licad waters?. Some call it the 

(pro ■nopifi]pfos) and irop(pvpa, wliidi are " Fragoso River ; " but Fragoso (the 

doublings of irvp, and our modem pa-pa rugged) is tlic name of an estate upon 

and bon-l)on. its banks, still preserved l>y the single 

* Piz.aiTo makes Inhomirim to be a small station two kilometres from the Serra 

comii)tiou of Anhum-mirim, "the little foot. 

field," and Mawe, a poor linguist, degrades + Tlie travellers of 1808 — 1816, men- 
it to "Moremim." The stream is also tion the broad "cal9ada," or paved way of 
called from the port near its mouth, "Rio Estrella, but it was doubtless a vcrj- i-ude 
da Estrella," and the boats of bygone days original of the modem edition. 
]ilied up it towards the mountains : the 


Hole, for life, which is sun and air, each bearing the "strange 
device Excelsior" (not Excelsius), and each forming when old 
a conservatory, a hortus, hut not siccus, a botanical garden 
of au'-plants and parasites — along .perpendicular cuttings of 
hard red clay based on blue gneiss, and mossed over with 
delicate vegetation (the Germans here grumble that weeds 
grow everwhere when grass will not) — below dank over- 
hanging boulders, and past Trogiodytic abodes, whose dripping 
approaches are curtained and fringed with a loveh' pendent vege- 
tation of ribbon-lilce fern, the maiden-hair or " feather-leaf" 
contrasting with the gaunt brake, five feet tall.* Everywhere 
the soft rush and plash, and the silver}^ tinkle and murmur of 
falling water, make music in our ears. This beautiful abundance 
is ever present in the Sea-range of the Brazil, ever ready to 
quench the traveller's thirst. Up we go, gradually relieved from 
undue atmospheric pressure, the air waxing tliinner and more 
ethereal, and a corresponding lightness of spii'its developing 
itself. The white road glistens in the sun as if powdered with 
silver, and fragments of crystallized quartz suggest diamonds to 
the Northern eye. At every turn there is a noble view of the 
lowlands, and happily, in this rainiest of spots,! we have a fine 
evening. Usually in the mornings, thick white vapours lie Hke 
the waters of a lake, or rise in smoky wreaths from spots Avhere 
the foliage offers no mechanical obstruction. In the afternoon, 

* A pest of the Brazil, locally called 1819—21. London, lEurray, 182.5) con- 

Sainambaia (^Vlertensia dichotoma oi- Pteri.s found.s this fern with the Umbahuba or 

caudata). I do not know why St. Hilaire Umbauba (Cecropia peltata, see chap. 

III. i. 13, wi-ites Camambaia : this is cer- xxix. ), "the tree which the sloths love 

tainly not the modern orthography. Mr. to frequent." Gardner (p. 478) makes no 

Caldcleiigh (Travels in South Amei'ica, such mistake. 

t On a similar formation in the province of Sao Paulo we have the following results 
for January — December, 1867 : — 



Alto da Serra, Afari- 

Sao Paulo, 

35 direct 

on sea level. 

time Crest. 

miles fr( 

jm the sea. 

January . 

. 11-18 inches. 

11-6 inches. 

2-21 inche.s. 


. 8-22 ,, 




. 10-39 ,, 



April . 

. 3-0-i ,, 




8-86 ,, 



June . 

4-8.5 ,, 




. 13-98 ,, 




• 4-57 ,, 




. 12-20 ,, 




. 6-88 ,, 




. 10-00 ,, 



December . 

6-24 ,, 



Totals . 100-41 147-4 35-49 


cold mountain mists, dense as cliauldron-fumes, cling to the cliffs, 
course down the mighty sides, seethe up from the deep shaggy 
clefts and valleys, and, swift as racers urged by the hollow- 
sounding wind, scud and whiid over the dark and lowering 
hill-tops: you would think it a foamy ocean rushing to flood 
the world. Again about sunset, when the southern bay lies in 
all its glory, the Serra is often drenched by a sharp pitiless 

The noblest panorama is at tlie Alto da Serra, the summit of 
the Pass, some two thousand nine hundred feet above sea-level,* 
especially when a late shower has waslied the air of mote, spore, 
and c()r})uscule. Here you stand, enchanted by the glories of the 
view. Tlie picture is set in a monstrous "invert," whose abut- 
ments are on the riglit or west a gigantic cone of naked granite : 
to the left is a mountain shoulder clothed with dense forest, and 
cai)ped with one of those curious knobs of bare rock,t gneiss, 
porphyry, or greenstone, so common in this Sea-Kange. Between 
them, seen almost in bird's-eye view, is llio Bay, reduced to tiny 
proi)ortions : it is best described by its distances, which form 
a study for the perspectivist. The first is the jagged and gaslied 
slope of mountain upon wdiose crest Ave are, with valle3's and 
ravines hundreds of feet deep, and densely wooded, as if fresh 
from the Flood. It falls sharp and sudden upon the second, 
the Beiramar, t or maritime plain, chequered with bright green 
l)atches of field and marsh, and studded with hills like mole- 
earth, tunudous in shape : the Railway, springing from the red 
and black station, extends its straight and angular lines over the 
surface, and abuts on the edge of the Bay. Possibly we see tlie 
train, with its long white jilume of steam streaming and tossing in 
its wake — no unpicturesque object at this distance is the final 
destroyer of moribund feudalism. The thii'd is the silvery 
surface of placid inland sea, broken b}' the dark length of 

* I dill not measure it. St. Ilil. II. and it duulttlcbs dates from the days wlien 

i. 11, assigns to the Pass in the Serra up the bare-footed shavelings were giants in 

which he travelled an altitude of 1099 "55 the land. There are also several " Rios do 

metres = 3(307 feet. He makes Petropolis Frade, " in which Franciscan and other 

732 '80 metres = 2405 feet above sea level. missionaries have been drowned. 
As has been before shown, Captain Bulhoes J Also called Sen-a Bai.xa, opposed to 

gives a lesser height to the Pass, and a Serra Acima, the Highlands of the Brazil, 

greater altitude to Petropolis. Tlie word corresponds with the Italian 

t This is the " Cabeva de Frade " before Maremma, the flats along the Mediterra- 

alluded to. Tlu-oughout the P.razil it is nean from Leghorn to Amalfi. 
the popidar name for these naked knobs. 


Governor's Island, still fronting bright Paqueta, both the centres 
of smaller satellite formations. Backs this basin the white mass 
of City, sitting near the waves, with shipping that dots the shore- 
line: above it, beginning with the " little turn to the left" into the 
misty Atlantic, are all the Avell-knoAvn featm'es of the majestic 
block, the Sugarloaf bending backwards from the Morro da 
Cruz ; the fantastic Corcovado, here like a parrot's beak ; the 
Gavia Cube, even at this distance quaint and strange, and 
the lumpy dome of Babilonia's rock ; whilst the Tijuca Peak, 
apparently double and bifid, towers with cloudless outline, deep 
blue upon a sky-blue gi'ound. And to the right there is still a 
fifth distance, beautiful and mysterious, where filmy highland 
blends with the lower heavens. 

This is beautiful — a delight, an enchantment ! But there is 
no anorexia here, and certain materialisms, appetite for instance, 
are becoming impudent. A cold wind rushes through the Pass, 
and the thermometer has fallen from 72° (F.) to 62° — shivering 
point in the Tropics. We shoot the Barreii-a da Serra, the mucli 
misplaced toll-gate, loudly calling for a writ " de essendo quietum 
de Theolonio," and the station of Villa Theresa. Then through 
the southern quarter of Petropolis, the "Ueberpfalz" of the 
German colonists, the northern town being theii' " Lower Pala- 
tinate." We leave Maurm Valley to the right, and descending 
rapidh', we find om'selves, after a last stage of ten miles,* 
comfortably housed in the "Hotel Inglez," kept by Mr. and 
Mrs. Morritt. 

Here the curtain frills upon a pleasant scene, composed mainly 
of a dining-room and a bed-room. 

* Namely, eiglit miles to the summit of the range — the old road being three — and 
two to the hotel. 

cHArTJ<:ii 11. 


Aqui pclo contrario poz Xatiira 
Por BrasoGs da primeira arcbilectiira, 
Volumes colossaes, corpos cnormes, 
Cylindros de granite desconformes, 
3Ia.«saj<, que nao ergiicrem nunca liumanos 
Mil bra^os a gastar, gastar mil annos. 

AgsiimjfQuo Fr. tVanrinco dc S<lo Carlos. 

I HAVi: given a few i»iigts to tliis Coekncv trip, tliis ]h-azili;in 
run down iVoni liondon to lUelnnond. My ohject is partly tliat 
the thousands who well know the way may thus be able to test 
the accuracy of my descriptions. Books of travel, it may be 
remarked, depend for pernuinent character upon the opinion of 
*' experts," — that is to say, of those who live, or who have lived, 
amongst the scenes depicted. There is a well-known woi-k, 
much read in England, but called in Kgypt the " Ivomancc of 
the Nile;" despite many editions, it is dyhig the death. 

Moreover, ns hinted iu the last Chapter, vacation and other 
tourists will not long neglect the "Empire of the Southern 
Cross." The beauties of yesterday and to-morrow may be 
reached Avithin three weeks of tranquil and varied voyage 
from Lisbon ; and he who has coached from Ilio de Janeiro to 
iwvi de Fora will have seen Nature in equatorial Africa and in 
the lowlands oi Hindostan. Some day the public will unlearn 
the "fact" that yellow fever is endemic in the Brazil,* and will 

* It is partly the fault of Brazilian daring that yellow fever in the Brazil is an 

authors that this evil report has become abiding guest. The disease between 1850 

chronic in Europe. Thus in the "Com- and 1861 ajjpcared upon the coast with- 

])endio Element^ir " of Sr. Thomaz Ponijteo out extending to the highlands, and then 

de Soiiza Brazil (4th edit. Ilio: Laenimert, vanished suddenly as it came. It is re- 

1864, p. 472), we read of the climate of grettable to see such statements in i)Opuiar 

Rio Janeiro, " £ jmuco salubre, principal- books intended to " knowledge," 

mente depois da invasilo da febre amarella, and to think of tlie fate of the hapless 

que alii ficou endemica." The little vo- scholar who, before he ciin Z:ho«' anything, 

lume published by the Religious Tract is compelled to go through a triple process 

Society in 1860 was as i)remature in de- — to learn, to unlearn, to releam. 

CHAP. 11. J AT FET110P0LI8. 31 

master the truth that her clmiate, duly considermg that it is 
distinctly tropical, is one of the healthiest in the world. 

The reason wliich led me carefully to sketch the excursion 
from the metropolis to Petropolis, dispenses me with describing 
the latter. Yet, in this its horn* of extremest need, when the 
D. Pedro II. Railway is threatening to annilulate the coaches 
by abstracting the passengers, and to shut up the Maua line by 
withdrawing its salt and coffee ; and when even ^Ii-. Morritt, 
who, in 1841, horsed the last mail to Manchester, threatens to 
close his hotel and to give up his labours, commenced in 1853, 
Petropolis must have a few Imes of praise from me.* 

It is no small matter to find witliin five hours of Rio de 
Janeiro a spot where appetite is European, where exercise may be 
taken freely, and where you enjoy the luxmy of sitting in a dry 
skin. No place can be better fitted for the Pedro Segundo College, 
which is now in the heart of the city, and the countrj'- to the 
west is invaluable as a sanitarium. Petropolis was left unscathed 
by the yellow fever of 1849— Gl,t and by the cholera of 1856. 
It abounds in mineral springs, especially the ferruginous ; and in 
the "Municipality of the Court," the Columbia of the Brazil, 
many of both sexes suffer from gastric derangement, and want 
a " Bismarck " — blood and ii'on. Surely His Imperial Majesty 
\yill not abandon this St. Cloud, this city of his own creation, 
the "small, miserable village of Corrego Secco " — "Dry Stream 
Bed" — converted by him into a court and cascine. 

PetropoHs — or rather, the " City of S. Pedro de Alcantara " — 
may be said to date from 1844. She is a child, but old enough 
for a municipal chamber and aldermen, police authorities, and 
all the other material of self-rule or misrule. This lust for city- 
ship, a part of " fonctionmanie," is prevalent in the Brazil as in 
the United States. Mr. Bayard Taylor terms it a " vulgar, 
snobbish custom." I presume that boys everywhere long to 
shed their jackets, and that few men despise a "fat appomtment." 
See her on a bright, clear day, and you will find her a " coolness 
to the eye." Down the main thoroughfares, " Emperor Street " 

* Thus it is that in 1867, though the road yellow fever hy Dr. Croker Peuuell, Rio, 
has been paying steady dividends of about 1850. Yellow fever in the Brazil appa- 
13^ per cent., the value of the stock has rently does not rise high : the city of Sao 
not improved above quotation of 46§ per Paulo, also 2000 — 2400 feet above the sea- 
cent, discount. (Annual Report of Mr. level, escaped the plague. In Venezuela, 
Henry Nathan. ) I am told, the fever line extends to nearly 

+ Sly authority is a short report upon double that altitude. 


and "Empress Street," pour bubbling, clear brown, gravel- 
floored streams, the Piabanlia* and its feeding runnels, purer 
than those of Salt Lake Cit}-. Encased in lively green grass, 
they are crossed by black and scarlet bridges, and they will be 
shaded with velvety stapelias, feathery Brazilian cedars, f and 
quaint Barrigudos, the pot-bellied, spindle-like bombax. \\^e are 
now in the land which produces the pine tree and palm, a more 
poetical and picturesque combination than the orange and 
myrtle, which here also are at home. Detached houses, villas 
and kiosks, chalets and cottages, extend themselves, form Imes 
and fine off, giving to the jjlace on paper the look of a gigantic 
crab, whose centre is where the Piabanlia proper begins. Poly- 
chrome is the taste, and it is good — always excepting white 
pilasters upon dark chocolate ground. INIany roofs are painted 
red — the Briton mutters "pigs' blood;" but the tint lights up, 
lilie the eye of a snake, the cool dark verdure of the hanging 
forest. In the flowery season the gardens are gorgeous ; there 
are country walks in all rhumbs, and you can find a solitude 
within five minutes of your door. The naval officer who com- 
l)lained of Petropolis because he had always to look upwards, 
could easily have discovered points from which to look down 
upon wonderful glimpses and prospects of blue-green back- 
ground. Nor is it a hardship to gaze upon mountain sides and 
peaks so ununiform in shape ; here with the virgin forest seen 
in profile from a partial clearing, there deep with gathered 
shade, twined and corded, throttled and festooned with all its 
llianas, tufted with wonderful epidendra and air-plants, bearded 
with gigantic mosses of grotesquest shape,! and rich in every 
vegetable form from the orchid to the cardamom, from the simple 
bamboo and palm to the complicated mimosa, from tlie delicate 
little leaves of the myrtle to the monstrous aroids and the 
quaint stiff" cecropias or candelabra trees. 

* It derives its name from a small J Called in tlie Brazil Barbadc Pan. The 

fresh-water fish. Mr. Walsh has named people here ignore the use of this epijihyte, 

it "Pialnmda." I have been careful in which makes excellent girths, .surcingles, 

ascertaining the meanings of indigenoiis and bands that require elasticity and 

words which ere long will be forgotten strength. On the other hand its a.strin- 

throughout the Brazil. gent properties are well known, after a 

f Cedrella odorata, a fine scented tim- bone-dislocating ride, or a heavy fall witli 
ber. The superstitious in the Brazil will a mule, the sufierer is put into a hot bath, 
cut it but will not burn this wood, which in which the moss has been boiled, and he 
supplied the " True Cross. " The trembling soon feels the benefit of the "tanning- 
maple once enjoyed the same reputation in process. " 


Nor is the population of Petropolis less pleasing than the 
scenery. We are not in the " Helvetic Meridionale," hut in a 
tropical Ems, where the Yalle3's are thals, the rills are backs, 
and the hills are gehirge ; where white-headed boys shout at us, 
and open-faced Avomen smile at us, and where the broad accent 
of the Fatherland falls with agreeable reminiscences upon our 
ears. Compared with the formalit}^, not to say the primness, 
and at times the moodiness, of the Luso-Latin race, these bees 
of the northern hive appear peculiarly genial, and my friend 
Mr. Theodore de Bunsen justifies me in asserting that as a rule 
the Creole Germans are here an improvement upon the Teuton 
at home. 



" Au milieu d'line des vallees les plus accidentees du globe, veritable vallce Alpine, 
une route magnifique, aux pentes douces et regulieres, comme il en existe a 
peine encore dans I'Europe meme, oeuvre gigantesque par les immenscs 
travaux d'art qu'elle a occasionus, et qui fait honneur au Bresil, unit Petro- 
polis, ou mieux Rio de Janeiro, ii Juiz de Fora." — .1/. Lials. 

The dtirk of other clays, when the difficulties of Brazilian travel 
were to be dreaded, used to spend half a week on mule-back 
between Petropolis and Juiz de Fora. The distance is 9I5- miles, 
or, more correctly speakmg, 146*8 kilometres. We shall see the 
end of it in nine hours, halts not included. It may be divided 
into three sections — forty miles of descent, twenty-one of flat, 
riverine valle}', and thirty of ascent. 

^, AVe Avere six in the jaunting car, Major Newdigate and his 
brother, "on the rampage," from Canada; a personage whom I 
shall call Mr. L'pool; and om* host, Mr. Morritt. I never saw so 
good-tempered a man as the latter ; it was admii'able to mark the 
unflinching patience with which he stood the galling fire of inter- 
rogation from four persons armed with four several note-books, 
and each asking simultaneously his or lier own question. We 
called him the " Angel Morritt." 

At 6 A.M. on Saturday, June 15, 1867, the top-heavy mail, 
carrying seventeen passengers, and twenty-eight mail bags, a 
weight of thi-ee tons, left the Hotel Inglez, and revived many 
coachmg recollections. It was purel}' English, rigged out a la 
Bresilienne. The panel was inscribed " Celeridade," instead of 
bearing Her Majesty's arms. The country bumpldiis were slaves 
of both sexes, whose Garibaldian shirts showed that they were in 
process of sale. The guard mounted a glazed and japanned hat; 
coachey was a stout yomig German, and the team was composed of 
four fiery little mules. It is a spectacle to see their rearing and 


dancing, and when the ostler casts off, their frantic rush and 
plunge at the collar, especially in the cool of a Petropolis morn- 
ing. *'A11 right" is then a temporary "all wrong." On the 
other hand, no passenger can quote the old growl — 

" Heavy roads, and horses weak, 
Coaclmiaii drunk, and guard asleep." 

We bowled in our char-a-banc through the city of D. Pedro, 
down the valley of the Piabanha, over the noble road known as 
the Uniao e Industria. The old highway to INIinas Geraes, de- 
scribed by travellers, and still traced upon our maps, lies far 
below, to the right. It is marked by large deserted houses, and 
by huge hedges of the artichoke-shaped Pita,* curious in its 
flower, the last production of a long, hardy life. As early as 
1840 Gardner passed over ten leagues of rolling road, intended 
to connect the Capital of Minas with that of the Empire ; and 
the Provincial Assembly at Ouro Preto raised by law upwards 
of .^40,000, to be recovered by tolls. The new line, whose 
thoroughness of execution is admirable, was laid out by the super- 
intendent, Capt. Jose Maria de Oliveira Bulhoes, of the Imj)erial 
Engineers, and his aides, Messrs. FlageoUot and Vigouroux, as- 
sisted by the two Kellers, father and son.f I saw, without sur- 
prise, in the virgin forest, French road-rollers, civilized aj)pliances 
which had not reached London by May, 1865, when the hoofs of 
blood-horses, and the costliest wheels from Long Acre, still did 
the dirty work, t 

The team was changed at the " Farm of Padre Correa," situated 
in a hollow surrounded by low hills. It is mentioned with gratitude 
by many a traveller. § The good farmer-i^riest, so celebrated for 

* Agave americana, or fcetida, also ney in Brazil, p. 63) speaks of "French 

called yucca and bayonet plant, from its engineers," but omits the name of Captain 

straight, stifF-armed leaves. Its fibre is Bulhoes, which appears in evei-y inscrip- 

Avell kno^vn, and the robust flower-stalk, tion. Thus foreigners in the Brazil often 

thirty feet Mgli, supplies the best of razor claim and manage to carry off the honours 

strops, and of corks for the insect-ijinking due to the natives. 

naturalist. This is the part properly called + In April, 1868, road locomotives were 

Pita, a word popularly transfen-ed to the tried upon this road with entire success : 

whole. steam omnibuses for passenger traffic, and 

t The germ of the idea was a railway traction engines for hea^-y goods, are to be 

STirvey made for the Barao de Maud by an introduced in lieu of mules. 
English engineer, Mr. Edward Brainerd § John Mawe (1809) speaks of Padre 

Webb. The road was projected in 1857, Correo, his negi-oes, his forges, and his hos- 

under Sr. Mariano Procopio Ferreira Lage. pitality. Luccock (1817) describes Padre 

When we travelled there, M, Audemar v>as Correio, his mansion-house and his ambition, 

resident engineer. Prof. Agassiz (A Jour- St. Hilaire (1819^, Caldcleugh (1821), and 


his peaches, has long been dead, and the house, which formerly 
received ro3'alty, now lodges the company's live stock. Now the 
aspect of the road waxes motley. There are mule troops (tropas), 
divided, as usual, into lots of seven or more, each "lote" being 
attended by its own "tocador," or driver. These sliips of the 
luxuriant S. American desert are freighted with salt and sundries, 
forming the provincial imports, and they bring from the interior 
coffee and cotton, raw^ and worked. The brutes are our " black 
beasts ;" they ic'tll stop and turn to us their sterns, and lash out 
fiercely, and huddle together, and dash down the middle of the 
road, as if determmed to upset us. The *' cachorro brabo,"* or 
fierce dog, here an ''institootion," flies at us from every turn. The 
four-wheeled carts are paliDably German, ver}" unlike the Brazilian 
" plaustra," which have descended unaltered through modern 
Portugal from ancient Rome. Pigs meet us in droves : as usual 
in the Emj)u*e, they are fat and well-bred, especially the short- 
legged and big-barrel'd " box-pig." f Some of the goats, with dun 
golden coats and long black beards and points, remind me of 
Africa. The sheep are far from being Merinos; lean, ragged, 
and ram-horned, the}' justify the popular prejudice against mut- 
ton. + Black cattle are i:)ainful si^ectacles, scarred and eaten by 
the white grub of the local Tzetze. § The day is coming when the 

Gardner (1841), have not forgotten liim, God which took away the sins of the 

and the Rev. Mr. Walsh (1829) saw part workl." St. Hil (HI. i. 44, 225) casts 

of the Imperial family at the establish- doubt upon the assertion, and declares that 

ment. mutton is poor food in the hot parts of the 

* "Bravo" — wild, and sometimes "poi- Brazil. ]\Ir. Walsh (ii. 54) confirms the 

sonous " — ajiplied to fruits and plants, is assertion that there is a popular prejudice 

generally pronounced "brabo." Hence our mutton, and so we may remember 

mutilated word "Brab," or wild date there is in Naples. The objection is also 

tree. This is a legacy from the "Gallego," mentioned by John Mawe (i. chap. 5, and 

who calls Vinho Verde "Binho Berde," as especially in chap. 7.) 

with us high hills become " 'igh 'ills." The My second volume will prove that in one 

peciiliarity is of old date, as Scaliger shows, pai-t of the Brazil, at least, mutton is pre- 

"Baud temere antiquas mutat Yasconia ^^""f^^/o beef, and is held to be the natural 

food of man ; also, that the meat is excel- 

Cui nihil' est aliud ' .-ivere ' quam lent, not only in the highland prairies so 

( v,;V|g,.„ ' " well-ntted for wool growing, but upon the 

hot banks of the Rio de Sao Francisco. 

+ Porco Canastra, a term derived from As a rule, throughout the Empire, how- 

" Tatu Canastra," the armadillo of that ever, food prejudices are uncommonly 

shape. It differs from the true Tatu (the strong, and the art of Soyer is uncommonly 

black tatou of Azara, Es-sais, tome 3, 175), weak, 

and from the tatu -peba, or flat tatu. § It is called "Berne." The word is 

J "Mutton was, and still is," says generally explained as a corruption of 

Luccock (p. 44), "in small request among Yerme (worm), but I believe it to be of 

the people of Brazil, some of whom allege, Guarany origin. The wonn is mentioned 

perhaps jestingly, that it is not proper food by Azara, who believes that it penetrates 

for Christians, because it was the Lamb of the skin. Prince IMax (i. 29) reasonably 


fine beef of Sao Paulo and Parana will supplant, at Ptio de Janeii-o, 
the over-driven, under-fed, and worm-blown meat which now 
scantily supplies her monopolised butcheries. 

At the stations we find the usual varieties of the Gallinacefe. 
There are a few Guinea fowls, sometimes pure white albinos. 
They are rarely eaten, not because they are bad, but because they 
prefer an ant diet. Pigeons multiiily : here, as in Russia, they 
are a "holy emblem." The goose is a bird to be looked at, and 
is generally as safe from the Brazihan, who believes that the main 
of its diet is snakes, as from the ancient Briton. Unless fattened 
it is dry and tasteless as the turkey, perhaps the worst of all 
volatile in the Empire. The best are the ducks, especially the 
young "Muscovies" or "Manillas" (Anas Moschata, Canard de 
Barbarie, indigenous in the Brazil). There is another variety 
of almost anserine proportions, and these are often half wild, 
flying away from and returning to their homes. Of poultry 
proper there are the common breed, the knicker-bocker'd Cochin 
China, here not "A 1 for the table;" the "Pampa" or piebald, 
prettily marked with black on a white ground ; the " Nanico," a 
pert, pretty bantam ; the Gallinha napeva, a short-legged or 
"dumpie";* the " Sura," a tail-less variety — nothing to do with 
M. de Sora ; the "Tupetuda" or "Cacarutada"; the "Polish" or 
"pollish," so called from its top-knot; and the Arripiado or 
frizzly chicken of the United States, used in African superstitions. 
The latter, when gaitered down the legs (emboabas or sapateiras), 
is an excellent la3^er of eggs. The tall thin bird, with a peculiar 
screaming and prolonged crow, which travellers have converted 
into a singing cock (musico), and which the superstitious believe 
to be a descendant from the bird which warned St. Peter, 
startles the stranger's ear.f There are also fowls with dark 
bones, wdiich the people sell cheap, holding them as the Somal 
do all volatiles, to be s e mi -vult urine. We especially remark the 
gallinaceous hermaphrodites, hens with spurs, and the haughty 

doubts this. Many tales are told of negroes and I tried to bring Lome caged specimens, 

losing their lives in consequence of the but they all died en route, 
grub being deposited in the nose and other + The people say that this arises from 

places: if squeezed to death and not ex- "Gogo," not the pip, but a thickening of 

tracted, it may, of course, produce serious the membranes of the throat. John Mawe 

results. The usual treatment is by mer- tells us that in his day the bird was gi-eatly 

curial ointment. valued when its voice was fine. The sound 

* This bird can hardly run, and fattens always appeared to me "croupy." 
qiiiekly. I found the breed in Unyamwezi, 


look of the cock. One of the most interesting, and by far the 
ugliest, is the Gallinha mesticia, or da India, a lank, ragged hu-d, 
with yellow shanks and a dark bottle-green plume turned up with 
red ; the crimson neck and breast are nude of feathers naturally, 
but apjiearing as if plucked. A specimen of this bird is kept in 
the poultry-yard, as the hog in the Persian stable, to maintain its 
health by attracting all the sickness. Hen-wives, and husbands 
afflicted with the hen fever, may learn that in the Brazil those 
neutrals, the capons, are remarkable as dry-nurses, tending 
chickens with a parent's care. And the much-talked-of crane, 
the agami or ogami of the Amazonian basin, described as bear- 
ing the relation to poultry which a shepherd's dog bears to 
sheep, and locally called " Juiz de Paz." Juge de Paix is, so far 
from being a feathered Quaker, and despite his "pretty looks 
and ways," the most turbulent and pugnacious of his family. 

I reserve for a future book my observations upon the acclimati- 
zation of the magnificent Gallinacese of the Brazil. Europe has 
borrowed but one bird from the New AVorld. llemain the cu- 
rassoa (Hocco or Miitum, Crax Alector) ; the many species of 
Jacii (Penelope), more gamey in flavour than our pheasant ; the 
Nambu or Inamba (Tinamus) ; the Capoeira (Perdix guianensis 
or dentata) and man}- others. 

Many roadside tenements appear to be, but are not deserted ; 
the inmates are "cutting tie-tie,"* as the local slang is ; they have 
fled during the day from conscription into the bush, t The third 
stage from Pedro do Bio to Posse (Possession), t becomes inte- 
resting. The broadening Biver Valley affords a vista of the now 
respectable Piabanha, no longer a rowdy mountain torrent. 
Gigantic slides of forest- crowned granitic rock, bare-sided and 
smooth-slojied, except where jDitted with weather-holes and tufted 
with Tillandsias and Bromelias, which seem capable of gi'owing 
upon a tea-table, rise sheer in the brilhant blue-pink air of morn- 
ing. The climate is a notable improvement u^jon that of Petro- 

* Tii-ando Cipo. This word, sometimes little studied. 
■v\Titten SiiJo, and erroneously Cii)6 (the til 1" I would remind my readers, that during 

or cedille not being requii-ed), means in the Crimean war, when a conscription was 

Tupy a root : Cipo im, for instance, is talked of, it was declared that the jjopula- 

the climbing salsaimrilla. In the Brazil tion of certain works in Derbyshire would 

it is equivalent to the Portuguese " tre- "flee to the mines, and lead a sort of 

pador" (climber^ to our "lliana," and to Robin Hood life under ground." 
the Anglo-negro "tie-tie." The best for X Guarda da Posse — the Guard of taking 

making rope is said to be the Cipo cururu ; Possession — was an old name for military 

but these climljcrs and ■\'ines are of x;ourse ijosts. 


polls ; there the warm clamp sea breeze condensed bj' the cold 
momitain tops, drenches the Serra, and ''tips over" into the 
settlement ; here it is glorious summer, with the winter of dis- 
content a few miles to the south. Coifee begins to appear, but in 
lowly guise, stunted and sickl}"; the soil is mean, and the shi'ub is 
too closel}' planted. " Clear sowing" would make the half better 
than the whole ; moreover, field hands are wanting, the soil is 
rarely *' beneficed,"* and the surface shows a carpet of weeds. 

Posse is a place of some importance, wliicli collects the rich 
produce of the districts about the Porto Novo da Cunlia to the 
east. After Luiz Gomez, the sixth station, the land wants 
nothing but rotation of crops ; and the cotton cure would heal all 
its present ills. From the roadside under the grassy humus of 
the River Valley, Professor Agassiz found " drift " in immediate 
contact with the floor of crystalline rock, and he observed that 
where it lies thickest, there the coffee flourishes most. It deter- 
mines, he says, the fertiUty of the soil on account of the great 
variety of chemical elements contained in it, and the kneading 
process which it has undergone under the gigantic ice plough. 
The glacial theory has inserted its tlim edge into the Brazil ; the 
student, however, is puzzled to account for the absence of those 
grooves and striee which in other lands show the gravitating 
action of the ice fields. Nor has any satisfactory explanation 
been given ; the sun and rains of the tropics can hardly effect 
what the frosts and the sudden climatic changes of the temperates 
have failed to effect, f 

The Piabanha now flows between heights of the blackest virgin 
forest ; and the dark lush verdure, contrasting with the grey- 
yellow or pale-green of the poorer lands, shows its wealth. In the 
cuttings we find a paste of red clay + deeply tinged with oxide of 
iron, proceeding from the mica and based upon whitish grey 
gneiss. The banks are a double line of noble growth, the 

* Bemficiado. Improvements made by and declivities of tlie liills. I am aware 

a tenant are called " bemf eitorias. " how preposterous it seems to sujjpose that 

t My excellent friend, Dii Chaillu (2nd the same movements of ice which have 

Exp. , chap. 15), found these marks distinctly modified the surface of land in northern 

shown upon rocks close to the Equator : counti'ies, can have taken place here imder 

"Whilst I am on the subject of boulders the Equator ; but I think it only proper to 

and signs of glaciei-s, I may as well mention relate what I saw with my o^\ti eyes." This 

that, when crossing the hilly countiy from testimony is the more valuable as the author 

Obindji to Ashira-land, my attention was seems not to see its import or its impor- 

drawn to distinct traces of grooves on the tance. 

surface of several of the blocks of gi-anite + Barro vermelho, of deep colour, like 

which there lie strewed aljout on the tops brick dust. 


" vestinienta " or clothing by which the Brazilian farmer judges 
the soil. In places the precipices are so thickly covered with 
timber and undergi'owth, that the river dashes unseen down its 
bed. Worth a million of money if within excursion trains 
of London or Paris is the bamboo-copse.* The cane appears 
in cones and live columns that invest the trees, in piled up 
feathery heaps, in serpentines and arches, in the most fantastic 
figures, and in those gi'aceful waving curves upon which the eye 
delights to dwell. There is an immense variety, from the thorny 
large-leaved pinnated and thick-stemmed " Taquarussii," fifty to 
sixty feet long, to the tufty and lanceolate Criciuma, which cuts 
like the sugar-cane, Avhilst other species bend over the road, 
tapering m the semblance of a fishing-rod. Thyrsi of climbing 
plants, chnging to the dead trunks, suggest C3'presses. The Cipo 
matador, or murderer Uiana, is om* old friend the " Scotchman 
strangling the Creole " on the Isthmus of Panama, and the 
" Parricide tree " of Cuba. Often thick as its victim, this vege- 
table vanq^ire sometimes rises from the neck-compressing coil 
and stands up like a lightning conductor, t "Bii'ds of the 
gaudiest plume vie with the splendid efflorescence of the forests 
which they inhabit;" especially tlie large-beaked black and 
orange-throated Ivhamphastus (discolorus), of the exclusively 
American family. From the densest brake we hear his Tucano ! 
Tucano ! but we cannot, like the travellers of 1821, convert him 
into a stew. Being eagerly hunted, these beauties are very timid, 
and perch on the tallest rocks and trees ; for two j-ears I have 
vainly attempted to rob their nests in order to observe whether 
the colossal bill is or is not found witliin the egg. They are 
easily tamed, they make excellent pets, and with their *' Lord 
Hood's noses," they are comical as com't fools. 

Presently our old friend the Piabanha sweeps away to the right 
and we part for ever. It falls into the Parahyba do Sul+ river at 

* Locally called Taquiira, or Tacoara, and supply of sweet water, often useful to 

in the dictionary, Tacuara (Bambusa To- travellers. The siliceous exterior recom- 

goara, Mart.). Another Indian name is mended the bamboo for arrow tips, and 

Taboca. The Taquanissu is sometimes foily the savages, we are told, made of it their 

feet high, and thick as a man's arm ; the razors. 

branches are armed with short, thick thorns, f St. Hil. III. i. 30. Bates, i. 50, well 

and the Botocudos, like the Hindus of Mala- describes this parasitic fig, which he calls 

bar, made vessels of it ,the joint-sept form- the ' ' Sipo matador, or the murderer liana. " 

ing the bottom. I have seen Brazilians J Parahyba, called do Sul, to distinguish 

candying long segments by way of canteen. it from the stream that waters the northern 

"When young, this large reed contains a province of that ilk, is usually explained to 


Tres Barras, the three sister waters remindmg us of " Nore, and 
Siiir, and Barrow ; " the Parahybuna, with which we are to make 
acquaintance, is the northernmost of the trio. Running along 
the flat valley we sight the Parahyba without fearing its register 
or custom-house ; * this place Avas terrible to strangers smugglmg 
diamonds and gold dust, and it has consigned many an un- 
fortunate to life-long imprisonment or to Angolan exile. The 
river which I have seen so small near Sao Paulo, is here broad as 
the Thames at Battersea, and so stately a king of the valley that 
I can hardly claim acquaintance -with him. " Engineer's art " 
is rarely artistic, but the Birmingham-built bridge, with 320 tons 
of iron and latticed girders painted red, i)ut together by Mr. 
O'Kell, is an effective adjunct to the scenery ; its vermilion sets 
off the deep luxuriant verdure, as the fisherman's cap becomes 
the glaucous waves. This fine bridge, and another at Parahyba 
do Sul, the city, which cost 800 contos, will be thrown out of 
emplo}Tiient, and three others have been built for the use of the 
D. Pedro II. liailway. Thus it is the money goes ; and thus 
one river has three bridges, whilst half-a-dozen others have not 

At 11*30 A.M., after four hours of actual travelling, we 
reached Entre Bios, " Betwixt the Rivers,"t the half-way house. 
Here a breakfast — and a bad breakfast too — awaited the pas- 
sengers. AVhilst the "feijiio" was being served uji, I inspected 
the foundations of a railway station which will jmt to shame 
the hovels answering to that name on the majority of the Anglo- 
Brazilian railways : these remind me of the venerable remnants 
of Stephenson's line, the "Liverpool and Manchester," which 
still linger for instance at Newton Bridge. A few months after 
our visit, the railway was opened to Entre Rios, thus cutting 
across the fine macadamized road. And worse still, the I). 

mean opposed to — "Catii," good ; hence now forgotten, belong to tlie province of SDio 

Southey's "Ygviatu, or tlie good water," Paulo. 

should be Yeatu, the bad river (Para, river, Generally it is supposed in the Tupy or 

and Aj^ba, bad). Others make it a cor- Lingoa Geral that Para means a river— 

ruption of Pirahyba, which would be ' ' Bad Parana, the sea. If there be any distinc- 

fish river." Others deduce it from Pira and tion between the words, the reverse is the 

ayba, the fishy or scaly disease — leprosy. case. 

The "bad river" would be an excellent * Properly a post where, in former times, 

descriptive name. It is one of the most passports were visited and duties were 

dangerous streams in the Brazil. Many of taken. 

those working on the railway lost their + The name is equivalent to our Delta, 

lives in it. A description of its course and to the Doab of India, and to the Rineon of 

of its colonization by the English in days Spanish America. 


Pedro II. proposes to run down the Paraliyba River some thirt}'- 
eiglit niiles to Porto Novo da Cimha. A glance at the map will 
prove to the veriest tyro that the railway should be (U-iven 
du-ectly northwards to the head waters of the gi'eat Rio de Sao 
Francisco. But as usual the line is a party and a political 
question. Why not then trim — make the main trunk go north, 
and the branch eastward ? 

Entre Rios* declmes to 610 feet above the sea-level ; the air is 
bad, hot and damp, breeding fevers like grubs ; the water is worse. 
A hotel, therefore, will kill as well as keep the keeper. Here- 
abouts the once luxuriant valley is " cleaned out" for coffee, and 
must be treated with cotton and the plough. The sluice-like 
rains following the annual fires have swept away the carboni- 
ferous humus from the cleared round hill-tops into the narrow 
swampv bottoms, which are too cold for cultivation ; every stream 
is a sewer of liquid manure, coursing to the Atlantic, and the 
superficial soil is that of a brickfield. Here too the land suffers 
from two especial curses, — the large j^roprietor, and from the 
agricultural system bequeathed by the aborigines, or from Inner 
Africa, and perpetuated by the slovenly methods of culture ever}'- 
where necessar}' when slave labour is employed. In the Brazil 
as in Russia and in the Southern States of the Union, where vast 
plantations must be merely skimmed, virgin soil forms a con- 
siderable item in the real value of landed proiiert}' ; the want 
of manure and the necessity of fallows admit only half of the whole 
estate — sometimes hardly even a tenth — to annual cultivation. 
This evil must be mitigated before the country can be colonized 
or greatly improved, but it is not easy to suggest a measure 
without the evils of " disapi:>ropriation."t 

" Serraria," our next station, begins the ascent, and the road 
wdsely as usual hugs the margin of the Parahybuna River. I This 

* Below Eiitre Rios, and sixteen miles pation to take the place of law-ful titles, 

above the Porto Novo da Cuuha, are rapids Thus the best lands were worked out and 

which fall about 120 feet in two miles. ruined." 

Where they end the Sapucaia streamlet JLuccock (p. 407) says, "it may pro- 
enters the left bank, and opposite it is an bably be from the dark colour of the stones 
islet rising some live feet above low watei'. that the river derives its name, if it be 
Here agates and bloodstones have been written Parab<ina ; or if Parahybuna be the 
found exactly resembling the formations j^roper mode, from the deep tinge of the 
which will be described in the Sao Francisco water." Caldcleugh (ii. 200) translates it 
River. Para, river, and ibuna, black. Scholars 

+ A Brazilian friend writes tome — "The make it a corruption of Parayuna, a river 

iniquitous law of 1823, which put a stop to rolling black waves — at once a picturesque 

land concessions, caused substituous occu- and remarkably correct description. 


eastern drain of the Mantiqueira, or Trans-maritime Range, is 
a broad shallow stream of flavous hue, much resembling the 
Piabanha when we last saw it. The "Sawerj^" is important to 
the Company, as it taps the coffee districts of Uba and Mar de 

The ''Union and Industry," white and glaring, sweeps along 
the tumbling riyer, which has cut deep ii-regular channels in 
the dark sunburnt rock. On both sides are layers of deep red 
clay, with imbedded boulders and masses of imdecomposed feld- 
spar, covered with a dense wood of eyergreens, that winter when, 
and only when, they please. AVe now pass through the Serra 
das Aboboras, or " Pumkin Range," and our attention is drawn 
to a local lion, the Pedra da Fortaleza.* This " Montague 
Pelee," a giant amongst its colossal race, is a block, apparently 
single, of chocolate-coloured gneiss, springing 500 feet from the 
riyer gulley, where the stream makes an elbow; we run under 
a vertical wall, 100 yards high, which gathers up the sunbeams, 
and which radiates them like a furnace. Its grim brown but- 
tress, thinly bristhng, where touched by weathering, with large 
Bromelias, which looked like bits of grass, suggested to my wife 
the idea of a church, and mere specks upon the airy summit 
denoted its capping of tall forest. As we wind panting round 
the base, with the canoe-less river on our right, we detect a 
russet-coated capyvara or water-hog, basking in the sun, and 
calmly prospecting the unclean stream.! Hawks and vultures 

*Castelnau gives the total lieiglit 150 -whence "Capinar," to "cut grass," and 

metres, with a vertical wall of 100 metres. " Gr-u-^ra," " an eater," composed of "g," 

He adds, "aucime plante ne poiissait siir relative "u," "uu," or "^ii," "to eat," 

cette vaste surface," whereas the steepest and "S,ra," the verbal desinence which 

walls are tufted over with air-plants. curiously resembles the Hindostani " wala." 

It would be interesting to examine these Hence the Argentine name " Capiguai-a " 

rocks, which may belong to the ancient sedi- (Southey, i. 137) is more correct than the 

mentary strata, metamorphosed by heat to Ijrazilian : the Spanish-Americans gene- 

highly ciystalline substances, known as the rally name it Capincho or Carpincho, and 

Laurentian, and the most ancient known on travellers corrupt it to Cabiais and Chi- 

the North American continent. The ' ' dawTi- guire. I do not know why St. Hil. HI. i. 

animal of Canada" has not yet been dis- 181, ^vi-ites "Capimvara," it is certainly 

covered in the Brazil ; on the other hand, it not so pronounced. M. H. A. Weddell (Cas- 

has not yet been sought for. telnan, vol. vi. 318) informs us, " Le vi-ai 

'I' The Hydrochffirus Capybara, or Cavia nom de cet animal en Gruarani est Capu- 

Capyv-ara (Linn.). The " Indian " name is qiia, mot qui signifie ' habitant des pres.' " 

as usual pretty and picturesque. ' ' Capi- In the interior, as will appear, the people 

uara," or " Capivara," means the "grass confound it with the Caitetii, or Tagassu, 

eater," not as the T. D. says, "quivive the peccari (Dicotylos labiatiis, not the tor- 

entre ocapim. " The origin is "Caapiim," quatus). The wild men used to wear its 

or " Capyi," corrupted to "Capim," the teeth as ornaments. 

common Brazilian word for "green meat," This rodent equals in size a half-gro-mi 


sought cooltli in the upper fether, the kingfisher flitted over 
the water, ducks and dahchicks sported in the smooth reaches, 
wikl pigeons whirred past us, small ground-doves ran along the 
road, and thrushes, hlack and brown, balanced themselves uj^on 
the spray, silent all, doubtless thinkmg *' il fait trop chaud.'" 
The "bush" looked a likely place for game; we were told, 
however, that the ounce remains, whilst the deer has been 
kiUed off. 

The Parahybuna now ignores gold working ; its once eminently 
auriferous sands were dredged for the precious metal and for the 
white, pink, and Avine-j^ellow topazes, once a branch of provincial 
industry and now completely abandoned. The red ferruginous 
soil and the rusty quartz probably still contain gold ; but the 
surface deposits have been exhausted. In Colonial days the 
Government, m'lrahile dictu ! interdicted mming uj^on this 
streamlet lest the market value of the ore might be greatly 
reduced through the habitable world, I heard the same expres- 
sions used in London when California proved to be the El 
Dorado. Yet, as the old searcher said, " the night has no ej^es," 
and the gold disappeared despite orders, and without affecting the 
globe's exchange. 

The large Parahybuna Station shows us the Register Bridge, 
where duties are still taken upon im2)orts into the Province of 
Minas Geraes. In 1825 the tax was 3 $640, or a little more than 
17s. per cart; in 1867 it had risen to 20$ 000, then about 2Z. 
Thus the Provmce pays a compound impost, on the seaboard and 

porker : it is an iigly lialf -finished brute, water. The Brazilians use its leather, 

somewhat like an overgrown Guinea-pig rarely its meat. Humboldt (Voyage aux 

(called "Guinea," because it is Brazilian). Ilegious equatoriales du Nouveau Continent, 

The muzzle is bluff', and the jaw very deep, vol. ii. 217), found troops of CO to 100, 

like that of a fatted hog ; it swims with and believes that these graminivors eat fish. 

the square head carried high, like the The Capivara ajjpears in Brazilian j)oetry : 

hippopotamus, and it is said to bear its thus writes in his "Parabolas," Sr. Jose 

young on its back, as that animal does. Joaquim Corrca de Almeida (Parabolas, 

The grunt, not " bray," is a kind of \igh ! 114) — 

ugh ! It is gregarious, living in packs of 

10 to 60, and in old legends the chief Assim procede o politico 

was mounted by a pigmy demon, called Caa- Que os principios nao extrema ; 

p6ra, or " foi-est dweller. " When rendered Calculadameute segue 

shy by hunting, the Capyvara never quits Da Capivara o .systema. 

the water except to bask in the sun ; in 

captivity it thrives, but its habits are filthy Thus proceeds the politician, 

and ultra-i:)orcine. In Spanish America it Where princii:)les go not too far ; 

is eaten, and M. Isabelle declares, with He right studiously jtursues the 

many others, that the flesh is not bad, after System of the Capivar. 

being placed for eighteen hours in running 


at its frontier ; and the evil is little lessened by double loading 
each wheeled vehicle at the Pdo de Janeiro side, and by a re-dis- 
tribution of weight after settling the dues uj^on Minas ground. 
Every political economist must condemn this outlandish system 
of inland douanes. It keeps up the old Colonial habit of placing 
barriers between provinces, and it interferes Avith commerce by 
holding out premiums to bribery and contraband traffic. Many 
years ago it has been proposed to abate this nuisance.* But it 
is easier to advocate the suppression of the tolls than to show 
whence the equivalent in coin is to come. 

This bridge has ever been an eye-sore. In 1842, when Minas 
and her parent, Sao Paulo, were " up," or " out," the officer in 
charge burned it down to prevent the advance of loyalist 
troops, and in 1843 Castelnau found it unrepaired. It is now 
composed of new timbers supported by old stone piers and abut- 
ments, and no longer roofed over. A little beyond it, a tattered hut 
marks the scene of another revolutionary affair : this Rocinhaf da 
Negra, or " Little Clearing of the Negress," belongs, at 
present, to the ConseUieiro Pedro de Alcantara de Cirqueira 
Leite. On the left is the Barra, or mouth of the Rio Preto,! 
the southern frontier-limit of Minas. Across this western in- 

* St. Hil. III. i. 47. the ground and the buildings. The pro- 

+ Rossinho da Negra (Mr. Walsh). Here prietor is entitled /'Fazendeiro," and the 

I must trouble the reader with a few neces- class here represents one of the landed 

sary explanations. county families of England, or the planters 

The Ro^a, or Rogado, in the Brazil, is a of the West Indies. In the Northern 

defricM, a clearing for agricultural pur- Provinces of the Empire, the Fazenda is 

poses ; generally, as in Africa, at a little called Engenho (Southey's Ingenio is 

distance from the farm house, or village : Spanish), especially when it is a sugar 

sometimes it has, often it has not, a plantation, and the owner is Senhor de 

thatched shed to shelter the day-labourers. Engenho, one of the local aristocracy, and 

In i^laces " Rocinha " may be translated not to be confounded, unless you want 

"country house in the suburbs." The .shooting, with the lavi-ador or farmer. 

Sitio is a bona fide farm with messuages. The Engenhoca is a small Engenho. 
The chacara, or chacra, is a word borrowed X Caldcleugh (ii. 200) confounds the Para- 

from the Tupy : the indigenes applied it to hybuna with the Rio Preto, which he says 

their wretched huts, and in Peru ' ' cha- is a " mere translation of the Indian word 

crayoc " means " Lord of the Field:" the Paraibuna. " It is the Portuguese equiva- 

South Americans ti-ansfen-ed it to their lent of Una (anciently Huna), " Blackwater 

pretty villas and country houses. Mr. Wil- River," properly Yg-una, softened to Y'- 

liam Bollaert (Ant. of Peru, &c. , p. 67), una. The Y, or Yg, meaning water, is 

defines it to mean in the Quichua tongue omitted and supplied by Rio Una. These 

"estates, fai-ms, plantations." Mr. Cle- black, or rather deep brown, coffee-co- 

ments Markham (Quichua Gram. & Diet. loured streams, are always universal on the 

sub voce), translates it by " Quinta " (a seaboard, but comiJaratively rare in the 

house and grounds), so called because the interior : the tinge is evidently due to 

tenant paid one-fifth to the proprietor. The decomposed vegetation, and often under the 

Fazenda is the Hacienda, the plan- black sediment we find the snowy sand of 

tation of o\ir tropical colonics, including the bed. 


fluent lay the old road from Eio de Janeiro via Rodeio, Vas- 
souras and Valonca, into Southern Minas. 

Further on, to the right, is " Eancheria," a village hardly ten 
years old. The normal church is at the head of the square, the 
normal big house is at the bottom, and the normal fountain is in 
the centre : whence the saying — 

" The chafari/i 
John Anthony and the matriz." * 

which described the constituents of these settlements. Ai'ound 
the gmncle place dive Clmcm-RS and dwelling houses, used by the 
rich i)lanters on Smidays and fetes : during the rest of the year 
they are shut up. There are half-a-dozen Vendas — onde nao 
vendem nada. t As usual in the Brazil, the Cemetery occupies a 
conspicuous upland, and the dwellings of the dead are far better 
situated than those of the living. Also certain offices which 
with us mostly conceal themselves in a shame-faced way, here 
stand out solitary and eye-catching. 

iVbout " Rancharia"+ the land is modified by its distance from 
the Serra. The opulent water supply of the maritime heights 
disappears, the streams shrink, the ascents are longer and less 
abrupt, the rich red clayey soil of the Rio de Janeii'o Province 
further south, now alternates with light-colom-ed loams, far di-ier, 
dustier, and, as in INIinas generally, much more porous and 
friable. The " Matas Negras," those luxuriant dark jungles, 
have made way for a yellow-green grass, and near the stream 
for bamboo-tufts, less magnificent than before. Travellers have 
found garnets imbedded in the underlying gneiss ; the stone is 
common as worthless. 

* Chafai'iz is corniptcd Mauro-Araliic and makes it syuonymous — wliicli it is not 

— with Akl6a, or Akleia. The lattci- is 

(^ , \5v-l Shakarij) and the word is riili- , . ,, *i a i • t lU /-oi i- .^ 
^^/^ ■' derived from the Arabic A jj^i (El-dawat); 

culed by the Spaniards, who prefer the in Portugal and in Portugiiese Hindostan it 

Latin "fueute." The Matriz is the parish means any village. St. Hil. HI. i. 5, tells 

church, with filial chapels under it. us that in the Brazil it is applied exclu- 

+ " A vending-place without vent." The sively to a settlement of catechized natives, 

word Venda will be exijlained in a future who are said to be "Mansos," tame; or 

page. Aldeados, "villaged." This might have 

X The old Brazilians used to apply the been the case in his days, the word is not 

word Rancharia, " Ranchei^," or collection so exclusively iised now. Thus it was 

of sheds, to the huts and wigwams of the similar to the "Reduction" of Spanish 

aboriginal heathen %'illages. Prince Max South America, especially when it conld 

(iii. 151), has by misprint Eanchario (ran- boast of a missionary, 
chaiios ou villages de Camacans, iii. 31), 


The Capella de Mattliias Barbosa, a liill chapel on the right, 
announces jNIathias Station, umquwhile Eegistro Yelho. It "was 
in Colonial days the principal " contagem " where toll was taken, 
and even in 1801 the dues were called Quintos, (Royal) Fifths (of 
gold). Smuggling Avas then to the '' miner " Avliat robbery was 
to the ingenuous youth of Sparta. The Superintendent and his 
guard, with spies all over the country, kept a sharp look out 
for those who had not before theii' eyes the fear of jail or mari- 
time Africa. The contrabandist stored his valuables in horse- 
whips and gun-stocks, in his provision of beans, and in the 
stuffing of his pack-saddles. Foreigners dreaded the ordeal. 
Luc cock called the Superintendent "his Lordsliip," and Cald- 
cleugh (ii. 202) tells the sad tale of what happened to a femi- 
nine votary of impromptu free trade. Here, for some time, 

lived my friend Dr. G , whose successful practice in treating 

psora deserves notice. The patient, when a slave, Avas rolled in 
mud, and solemnly sundried into the necessity of bathing : to 
the "lady of fashion " the same receipt was applied with Quixotic 
gravity in the shape of viscid oil, Avhich had the same effect. 

Then came heavy inclines and a steep hill, sparkHng with Avild 
fuchsia and bright with lilies, parasitic plants, and a profusion 
of unplanted Maracujas, or Passion-flowers,* one of the gifts 
of tiie NeAV to the Old AVorld. Far beloAv us the Parahybuna 
brawled down its apology for a bed.. Houses and fields became 
more frequent, and the curse of great j)roprietors is no longer 
upon the land.t We changed mules for the last time at the Ponte 
do Americano, a bridge Avith solid tmiber gii'ders, and we ran at a 
hand gallop up the river valley, which now bulges out into sites 
for settlements. A mortuary chapel in a neAv AA'all-less cemetery 
on the left, was for once a grateful spectacle, and ere the sun set, 
Ave rounded a corner, and sighted Juiz de Fora. 

The station is at the northern or further end, distant some 
tAvo kilometres of Avild bush, Avhich clusters thickly round the 
city. "SVe all stared, even Avhen blazes by tAvelve hours of kalei- 
doscopic travel, to see a Avell-gravelled footway, AA'itli posts and 
wheeltii'es for rails, in front of a carefully trimmed quickset hedge 

* Passiflora (inoamata ? ) witlioiit per- of the Union, and which iis in Great Britain, 

fume. The System enumerates ten wild AVhen will the political economist duly ap- 

species. jireciate the benefit derived from the suh- 

+ Their effect is that which has been in division of land .' 
France, -which was in the Southern States 


that protected, not a neat park, but an undrained swamp. 
Behind it, on a dwarf rise, with pretty ground below, was a villa 
with a squat sqiiare tower, which looked as if brought bodily 
from Hammersmith. At last, dismounting with stiffened knees, 
we were led by Mr. Morritt to the " chalet," a cottage built in 
curious proportions of brick and wood, uncompromising mate- 
rials. In due time every comfort appeared, and with tobacco 
and chat, assisted by Messrs. Swan and Audemar, C.C. E.E., 
we much enjoyed our first evening in Minas Geraes. And the 
sound sleep in the light, cool, pure air was the properest end of 
a coaching day. 



And do-w'n thy slopes, romantic Ashbum, glides 
The Derby dilly carrying six insides. 


The proper style and title of Juiz de Fora is *' Cidade de Santo 
Antonio de Paralivbuna," but a colonial justice of the peace in 
foreign parts, an official now obsolete,* having been sent there in 
forgotten j-ears, it will ever be known to the people by its trivial 
name. Mawe (1809) speaks of it as a Fazenda, calling it "Juiz 
de Fuera." Luccock (1817) makes it contain a " small chapel 
and a few poor houses." In 1825 it was still a " Povoacao," a 
mere institution. In 1850 it was promoted to the rank of " Fre- 
guezia" and "Villa," ijarish and township. In 1856 it advanced 
to citysliip, and in 1864 its municipality numbered 23,916 souls, 
including 1993 voters and 33 electors. Such is progress in the 
Brazil, where the situation is favourable and — nota bene — where 
communications are opened. 

The settlement consists of three distinct parts, " Santo 
Antonio," the city proper; the station of the Company "Union and 
Industry; " and the German colony, " D. Pedro Segundo." The 
situation is good, 2000 feet above sea-level. On the east is the 
windmg river-plain. AVestward towers a forested height, com- 
manding a view of the "Fortaleza" Rock, and the mountains of 
Petropolis. It is called Alto do Imperador, after the Imperial 
visit, and a fail* path winds up it. From the lower levels of this 
block a white thread of cascade, like the crj'-stal waterfall in an old 
Geneva clock of ormulu, hideous mixture ! trends towards the 
main drain. The German colony contained about 1000 souls in 

* The Juiz de Fora, according to Koster from his decisions was made to the 

(i. chap. 4), was named by the Supreme Ouvidor or Auditor Judge, another digni- 

Govemment for three years, and appeal tary now obsolete, 

VOT,. t, K 


whitewashed huts, and the inmates appeared poor and discontented. 
In June, 1867, the Practical Agricultural School* seemed in no 
hurry to he finished. I have since that time been informed that 
the establishment has been completed, that stock has been im- 
ported, and that all is in the finest working order. 

The station where we lodged prides itself on having nothing to 
do with the " old toAm." It contains, besides the chateau on the 
hill and the chalet, a chapel, two or three tolerable houses, a 
smaU inn and stables, negro quarters, and huge stores where the 
salt and coffee are lodged. 

The city is the usual mixture of misery and splendour. Minas, 
it must be remembered, is one of the three provinces not directly 
colonized from Portugal : Sao Paulo is her progenitor, and the 
son cannot yet boast of being better than the sii-e. Juiz de Fora 
is a single dusty or muddy street, or rather road, across which 
palms are planted in pairs. Its sole merit is its breadth, and 
when tramways shaU be introduced by some Brazilian *' Train," 
this good disposition will be recognised. The trottoii* is a jumpery, 
and the stranger hoppmg over the pavement seems to be prac- 
tising "bog-trotting." The dwellings are low and poor, mostly 
" door and window " i" as the phrase is. Amongst them, however, 
are large and roomy town houses, with gilt pineapples on the roof, 
glass balls on the French balconies, fantastic water-spouts, pig- 
tailed corners, birds of tile and mortar disposed along the ridges, 
and aU the architectural freaks of Rio de Janeiro. Here the wealthy 
planters gather together ; during the Saturday evenmg we saw 
large parties of friends and famihes, men, women, and children ; 
negroes, negresses, and negrets, coming in to church. Not a little 
play is done on these occasions : there are men who gamble like 
Poles and Russians — Rooshuns, as they were called at the Old 
Cocoa Tree — and the year's profits from coffee and cotton are not 
unfrequently ckopped at Monte or Yoltarete. In Paris Baccarat 
does it. 

Very mean are the public buildings. The prison would not 

* Paragi-apli 4, condition 2 of the con- out npou tlie world a Iningry swarm of 

tract dated Oct. 29, 1864, insisted upon young " Doctoi-s, " LL. Ds. Tliey will be fol- 

the establishment of this " Escola pratica lowed, and it is to be hoped soon, by Schools 

de Agricultura," by the " Union and In- of Mines ; at present the sons of the Gold 

dustry Company. " These sensible institu- and Diamond Empire must go to Europe 

tions are gradually extending along Eastern for study. 

Brazil, and one of them will do more good f "Porta e janella," meaning a ground 

than all the colleges which anniially turn floor with a single door and mndow. 


hold a London housebreaker for a quarter of an hour. The Col- 
lectoria, mto which the provincial revenue is paid, looks small. The 
Matriz of Santo Antonio, at the bottom of a dwarf square, is in 
tolerable order, but the chapel on the hill is towerless and in 
tumble-down condition. Here we see for the first time the tall 
black cross of Minas, introduced probably by the Italian mission- 
aries, and recalKng to mind Norman France ; it is garnished with 
all the instruments of the Passion — ladder, spear, sponge, crown 
of thorns, hammer, nails, pincers, and a peculiarly wooden cock. 

The day after our arrival, Sunday, was one of absolute rest. 
The station boasts of a neat chapel, unusually clean and free 
from tawdry ornament. The inside has a plam altar and benches 
of polished wood, a pictm-e of the Assumption, and three candles 
on each side of a silver crucifix. There is no squatting on the 
floor, which is, moreover, closed to dogs, and does not require 
spittoons. Expectoration, I may observe, is a popular habit in 
the Brazil as m the United States. Most men do it instinctively : 
some, as they whistle, for want of thought ; others, because they 
consider it sanitary, think thereby to preserve a spare habit of 
body, or hold it to promote appetite or drinketite. My conclusion 
is that spittmg is natural, so to speak, and refraining from it 
is artificial, a habit bred by waxed parquets and pretty carpets. 

The most agreeable part of the day was spent in the chateau 
garden and grounds. I had before met the owner, Commendador 
Mariano Procopio Ferreira Lage; during my second visit he was 
once more in Europe. In 1853 he organised the Uniao and In- 
dustria Company, of which he is still the hard-workmg chairman ; 
he made Juiz de Fora a city, the chapel was arranged by him, 
the chalet was his property, and he had laid out an arboretum 
and orchard upon what was twelve years ago a bog on the right 
bank of the Parahybuna. 

Our fastidious English taste could find no fault in house or 
grounds, except that tliej' were a Httle fantastic, the contrast with 
Nature was somewhat too violent — an Italian villa-garden in a 
vu-gin forest is starthng. The chateau, which cost 30,000L or 
40,000Z., has too much colour and too many medallions ; behind 
it, too, there is an ugly bridge leading to a prim summer-house, 
both of cast iron, and the former pamfully like a viaduct. The 
little lake, with bamboo-tufted islets, dwarf Chinese bridges, and 
paddled boat, worked by negroes instead of steam; the "Grotto 

E 2 


of the Princesses," the grotesque seats and arhours, and the rustic 
figures of wood, are a trifle too artificial, and the Ema* and stags, 
not pacing over the park, hut caged along with monkeys and silver 
pheasants, suggesting a menagerie. The European and tropical 
plants, however, were magnificent, and we measured an arum-leaf 
5 feet 4 inches long. What a contrast to its English representa- 
tive, the httle Arum maculatum, or cuckoo plant, whose berries 
poison small children ! 

We wandered about the orangery, which was innocent of glass, 
and found out the favourite trees;! we lay for hours upon the grass 
eating the Tangerines, enjojing the perfumed shade of the myrtles, 
and admiring the young AVellingtonias and screwpines. Mr. Swan 
related to us the grand reception given by the Commendador to 
Professor Agassiz, the man of whom prophetic Spenser surely 
wrote : — 

wliat an endless task has he in hand, 
WTio'd count the sea's abundant progeny, 
Whose fruitful seed far passeth that on land. 

Wlien surfeited with the view of the waterfiill and the " Em- 
peror's Height," we ch-ove to the city, passing en route the Hotel 
Gratidao, by which probably no guest Avas ever rendered *' truly 
thankful." Juiz de Fora was in gorgeous array, this being the 
festival of its Padroeiro or patron saint, Santo Antonio, known 
to Europe cluefly m connection with pigs. Here it is his duty to 
find husbands for young women, and if he does not he is slapped 

* The South American or three-toed Brazilian. The tree, however, i.s very 

Ostrich (Rhea americana). It weighs from uncertain, and the same shoots planted in 

fifty to sixty pounds, and is thus about one- the same soil produce a very different fruit, 

third smaller than the two-toed African, Each Province has its own, as, to quote no 

that largest of known birds, and it wears others, the Selectas of Rio de Janeiro and 

a dull grey, half-mourning dress, which the Bahian Embigudas, which ladies call the 

has been till lately neglected by the trade. " Naval " orange. The most common is the 

lu the province of Rio Grande the word Laranja da China, which extends nearly 

" Avestrus, " properly the African ostrich, along the coast and far into the interior. 

is used. "Ema" is a con-uption of the We shall pass through places on the Rio de 

.,.„,,,,, ^ ^, Sao Francisco where it will not thrive. 

Arabic Neamah (^U), yet even the pj^^^^ mentions two sub-varieties of this 

accurate Southey (vol. i. , chap. 5, p. 1 29) Chinese orange, one of redder tinge, outside 

and Gardner, to say nothing of the vidgar and inside, than the other. Sao Paulo is 

herd, have corrupted it to "Emu." The remarkable for its " Tangeriiias, " a name 

aborigines of the Brazil called it " Nhandu " popularly derived from Tangiers ; they 

<'r"Nhundu. " According to Prince Max. resemble the small mandarins of China, 

(iii. 12), the Brazilians also know it as but they are not so delicate. There are 

louyou," and Southey adds, " Churi " two varieties, the pequenas and the grandes, 

(i. , 8, 25.3). I have not heard either and Pizarro distinguishes three sub- 

of these words, which are pure Guarani. varieties, which he calls, "da China, da 

+ I know no oranges better than the India, and da Terra, orBoceta." 


and clucked in the well, and made to sleep in the chill night air. 
The peal of ^^hells was well-nigh worn out by hard hammering. 
The Matriz was a Black Hole of worshippers, the flower of the 
flock being in the tribunes and j^rodigal of smiles to the couthless 
strangers. " The son of the quarter," sa3's the Arabic proverb, 
" filleth not the eye." 

At Juiz de Fora I met the Commendador Henrique Guilherme 
Fernando Halfeld, of whom more in the next volume. He gave 
me some information about the Rio de Sao Francisco, and told 
me when takmg leave of us that he, aged seventy- two, was about 
to marry a young person of sixteen. May the result be satis- 
factory ! 



" A partir de Juiz de Fora on ne trouve pliis qu'un cliemin inegal, aux pentes 
inadmissibles, dans lequel, pendant la saison des pluies, on pent h peine circuler 
h cheval, et avec la condition de mettre bientdt son animal hors de service." 

jif, Liais. 

The next cla,y (Monda}', June 17, 1867) witnessed the break-up 
of a pleasant party, and our farewell to " comforts " for a season. 
Mr. L'pool determined to accompany us northwards, Major and 
Mr. Newdigate Avith Mr. Morritt tend to the south. At noon 
we shall be sei)arated b}' a centmy of miles, something of a con- 
sideration in the Brazil, where men move slowly. We are also to 
lose Sr. Francisco Alves Mah'ero, the cashier of the " Union and 
Industry Company," who, on his sole responsibility and with true 
New- World go-a-head liberality, had franked us to Barbacena. 

At 6 A.M. on a raw, dark morning, the two coaches, duly 
packed, stood side by side fronting ojDposite ways, and ready to 
start at the same moment. Presently Godfrey, a stout young 
German, ex-sailor, from the then jeoj^ardied Duch}^ of Luxem- 
burg, handled the ribbons, and with a blast of the horn and 
waved hats we dashed at the Ava}'. Our light, strong mail, 
*' O Barbacenense," was full. The insides were a Brazilian lady 
with two black gu-ls, the normal two black babies, plus an 
Austrian ex-lieutenant, married and settled in the interior ; the 

* The stages are approximately : — miles. h. m. 

1 . Juiz de Fora to Saudade .... 6 035 

2. Saudade to Estiva 10 55 

3. Estiva to Chapeo d'Uvas .... 4 45 

4. Chapeo d'Uvas to Pedro Alves . . . 10 1 25 

5. Pedro Alves to Joao Gomes ... 4 30 

6. Joao Gomes to Jose Roberto . . . 9 115 

7. Jose Roberto to Nascimeuto Novo . . 8 2 15 

8. Nascimento Novo to Registro ... 8 50 

9. Registro to Barbacena .... 4 35 

Total, 63 miles in 9 hoiu-s and 5 minutes ; the regulation speed is twelve miles per 
hour upon the good parts of the road, which are few and far between. 


outsides behind were our two negro servants and a large collec- 
tion of small baggage. We sat in the rear of the driver and the 
guard, with my Avife packed between us in case of a " spill." 

The first lot was poor land, and the line lay up the riverine 
plain, at times cuttmg across a high liill-sj)ur that projected into 
the valley. The early world looked pale white with hoar frost ; 
the effect arose from the velvety down of the well-known gramen, 
Capini Gordura,* the "grass of fatness," so called because the 
blades feel greasy and viscous. It Avas x^urple with flower and 
seed, and at once suggested stock breeding, but it will dry up in 
a few weeks and become poor forage ; then the troop mules will 
suffer, and devour all manner of trash. Botanists rank it amongst 
the plants which follow the footsteps of man ; it covers deserted 
roads, it occupies the ground when freshly cleared of vu'gin 
forest, and it takes possession of fields allowed to lie fallow 
for the five years that usually follow two successive harvests. 
According to St. Hilaire the " ambitieuse graminee " is not 
indigenous, and the people told him that it was a present from the 
Spanish colonies. They have now forgotten its foreign origin. 

The land is rising rapidly, the receding woods become less 
dense, and the delicate " cabbage palms " t, with other growths 
of the Maritime Range, disappear. Air and soil are too 
cold for coffee and sugar, except a trifle raised for home con- 
sumption in the Quintal or sheltered and often manured court- 
yard. Eice and maize, however, are good ; vegetables and 
tobacco flourish ; every hut has its floor for drying beans ; buck- 
wheat, rye, and hops would doubtless everywhere be at home 
except upon the bald polls of the disforested hills ; and, in the 
bottom lands, cotton might be grown to advantage. So rich is 
the Brazilian soil, even in its poorer phases. 

* Tristegis glutiuosa, or Melinis minuti- Capi-Catinga is one of the Cyperaceas, the 

folia (Palis.)- It is also called Capiiu sedges. Some Brazilians hold Capim 

Catinga or of fetor, its peculiar odour Catinga to be the youug Capim Gordura. 

being sxipposed to resemble that of the Gardner (475-7) observed that north of 

negro. I did not find it unpleasant. St. south latitude 17° it grows near houses 

Hilaire, who has given an ample account of onlj'. I see no reason why this gi-ass 

the grass (I. i. 195 ; III. i. 223 — should not make excellent hay. 

5, and in III. ii. 29, 31, 5-4, and + Euterpe edulis, in Tupy Assahi or 

175), makes Capim Catinguero the same as Assa'i. The cylindrical spike or footstalk, 

Capim Gordura and the Capim Melado long, green, and succulent, which contains 

("honied gi-ass ") of Rio de Janeiro and S. the rudiments of future leaves, is the 

Paulo. He found it called Capim de Frei cabljage. Many palms yield this edible 

Luiz, the religious who introduced it with embryo ; in the Brazil the Euterj)e is the 

a view of benefiting the country ; his name best. 
is now forgotten. According to Martins, 


We miss the neat Swiss Gothic stations with their fancj'' gahles 
and iron roofs painted red. At Saudade (why call it " Deside- 
rium?") we find an old tiled ranch, or shed, with nothing to 
recommend it but a semicii'cle of fine coqueiros.* Presently we 
crossed for the last time the Parahybmia River, whose valley ran 
uj) to the left. Though the soil did not improve, the %iews did : 
there were pretty bits of "home scenery," grassy hills Avith 
graceful rounded curves, and theii* gi'oves of pahn and other trees. 

Animal life now became more conspicuous. The Urubii vulture 
spreads its wings to the rising sun; the Caracara buzzard (Falco 
crotophagus or F. degener or F. brasiliensis, the Chima-chima of 
Azara) perched lilie the Indian Maina upon the backs of gi'azing 
kine, or trotted after them, pecking at the ticks ; this singular 
bh-d of prej', revered by the Guaycuru Indians, was evidently 
rendering an interested service. " Maria preta " — ^black Maria — a 
kind of widow finch, in sable and snow, flashed across the i^ath 
from holt to holt. The Jape, or hang-nest, and the brilliant violet 
oriole (Oriolus violaceus) trotted about, whilst the merlo or black- 
bird (Turdus brasiliensis) and the Sabiii thrush (Turdus rufiventris), 
that Brazilian nightingale of the flute}' song, chanted their matins 
with a will. Troops of the glancing purple-green, black, and grey- 
white " anum," f chattering lilve starlings, shunned the trees as is 
their wont, balancing themselves on the elastic shrub tops. 

The Cui)im-nests, t or termitaria, are lumpy pillars and pyramids 
of clay, 3'^ellow or drab coloured, as may be the subsoil, and some- 
times 5 or 6 feet high. They are scattered lilve tombstones, 
occasionall}' in pairs or trios, as if a succursale had been added, 
often shaped suggestively to a pious Hindu : nowhere in the 
Brazil, however, do they constitute so conspicuous a feature, or 
cumber the land as in the Somali countr}'. The mounds near the 
road appear to be deserted, and some suppose that the ''white 
ants" abandon their homes when made, Avhich is absm'd. Opened 

* Not "Cocoeiro," as Professor Agassiz it is the Pirigua of Azara, and is said to 

lias it. The Cocos biityracea, one of the have reached the coast from the Highlands, 

finest palms in the Brazil, was seen through- The large variety is the Crotophaga major 

out the interior when I visited it, till the (Linn.). 

Camauba palm (Copemicia cerifera) took its + Properly Co-pim, from co, a nest, cave, 

place. hole, and pim, to sting, a sting, dart, iron 

+ In the plural anuns. The word has point. Hence the error of M. de Suzannet, 

been much abused, tui-ned into anuh, annu, whose bird " Coupy " is the termite: in 

and so forth. The black anum is the Croto- places it builds round the tree trunks and 

phaga ani (Prince Max). The white is the Ijranches clay nests which look like gigantic 

Cuculus Guira (Linn.), or spotted cuckoo ; wens. Azara also writes Cupiy. 

(H.vr. v.] FROM .lUlZ 1)E FOKA TO BARBACENA. 57 

they suggest a mammoth hotel as Asmodeus would see it, and a few 
stiff blows with a pick upon the hard crust of those which seem 
to be in ruins, brings from their burrows a frantic SAvarm as the 
said hotel would show at the cr}' of fu'e. The Cupim does little 
injury to the farmer, and has foes innumerable, especially the 
Myothera, the prairie wood-i)ecker (Picus campestris), the toad, the 
lizard famil}^ the M3'rmecophaga, and the armadillo. Some tra- 
vellers make the ant-house a menage a trois, and the same tale is 
told- of the prairie dog villages. It is not, however, a happy family 
if it be true that the toad, after eating up the ants, is eaten by 
a serpent, and the serpent is devoured by a Siriema,* a bird whose 
tastes correspond with the African " Secretary" (Gypogeranus 
africanus), but it wants the pens behind the ears, which made the 
Dutch give the latter so literary a name. Others believe that the 
young of the Cupim are carried off and enslaved, like West Africans, 
by the fierce plantation ant,f which thus represents the wicked 
and merciless white man. But the same tale is told of the " Quem- 
Quem " ant, and possibly the superstition may have arisen from the 
different sizes of the workers major and the workers minor. 

The road, tolerably good for the Brazil, is execrable compared 
with the first day's line. In many places it is double or treble. 
These " deviations " X denote muds worse than those of a Cheshire 
lane. The surface is now hard and caky ; about December it 
will be cut up by the regular tramping of the " boiadas " or 
droves of market cattle, into a '' corduroy," a gridiron of ruts and 
ridges, locally called caldeiras or " caldeiroes." § These " chaul- 
drons," horrible to Brazilian travellers, consist of raised lines, 
narrow, hard and slippery, divided by parallel hollows of soppy, 
treacly clay ; in the latter mules sink to the knee or to the 
shoulder, their tall-heeled shoes are often lost, and at times a 
hoof remains behind. Old and wary beasts tread in the mud, 
not on the ridges, which cause dangerous falls. The cure would 
be deei>trenching to drain the " chauldrons," bush clearing to 

* The Siriema (Dicolophus cristatus, a kind of owl (Strix cunicularia, or Campos 

Illiger ; Palamedea cristata, Gmelin) will be owl), which is known to lay eggs in deserted 

repeatedly mentioned in the second volume. armadillo holes. 

It is about the size of a small turkey, for f Alta cephalotis. The Brazilians call it 

which it is often mistaken ; it runs like a Sauba, a corruption of the Tupy "Y9auba. " 
young ostrich ; it goes generally in pairs, + Desvios. 

and it builds in low trees. Its "bell-note" § The holes made by the waves in the 

is not unpleasant, and it is easily tamed. coast rocks also have this name. 
Others suppose the Termitarium liird to be 


admit the great engiiieers Sun and Wind, and in extreme cases 
laying down logs across the mud. At present the forest presses 
upon the roads because travellers prefer riding in the shade. It 
is easy for them to choose the cool of the day ; moreover, I never 
felt the least inconvenience, even from a " chimney -xjot," in the 
heat of noon ; and, finally, the Brazil, lilce Western Africa — 
probably for the same reason — is remarkably free from sunstroke. 
But in this stage of societ}^, to "work for others"* stultifies a 
man exceedingly, and the real Portuguese of the old school would 
rather want than do anything incidentally lilcely to supply the 
wants of his neighbours. 

We are upon the highway between the metropolis of the 
Empire and the Capital of the Gold and Diamond Province. In 
the rainy season, from November to April, the sloughs take oif 
the coach. The annual cost of repair is 300^^000 per league. 
The zelador or cantonnier, however, expects everywhere in the 
Brazil to draw pay and to do nothing, save perchance to vote. 
He is equal to an}^ amount of " drawing," but do he will not. 
Upon this whole line, where there is not a single rood that does 
not m-gently requii-e a large gang, we found a single negro lad 
scratching his head, and sometimes tickhng the ground with a hoe. 

Throughout the Empii-e these lines of communications are 
divided into Imperial, Provincial, Municipal, and between three 
such stools accidents are ever happening. When a route is to be 
made the concession is granted sometimes in payment for poli- 
tical services to the applicant, who lays it out well or ill, as the 
case may be. It is then thrown open to the public, and is left to 
be sj)oiled. When worn down to the bone, and converted into 
rock-ladders, rut-systems, and quagmire-holes, where beasts are 
bogged and die — then, possibly, may be built alongside of the old 
road a new luie, whose fate, in com*se of time, shall inevitably be 
the same. Often my Brazilian friends have remarked that men 
who travel by such weary ways need no future process of punish- 

Of com'se, after living three years in the Brazil, I know the 
difficulties of road-making. The pasty red clay Avhich here as in 
Africa clothes Earth's skeleton demands metalHng if the line is to 

Trabalhar para os oiitros. Every school and borrow a few Gaelic maxims, "One and 

in the Empire should pnt up the motto of all," "Union is strength," "I care for 

the Free Cantons — everybody, and I hope everybody cares for 

" Each for all, and all for each ;" me." 

riixv. v.] FllUM JUIZ })K FulLl TO BAKBACEXA. 59 

last, and macadamizing is an expensive process, requiring con- 
stant repair's. The rivers and brooks are not those of a " well- 
regulated country " like England : they shrink to nothing, they 
swell into immense torrents, and the cost of bridging and con- 
trolling them is no trifle. Popular opinion, by no means thoroughly 
awake to the importance of highways and byways, is another 
obstacle ; many think that a good road is that which enables you 
to ride your mule comfortably. Their fathers have done without 
mending their* ways, and straightening then- paths — ergo, so can 
they, et cetera. 

These pages, however, will show that in this Empii-e, about to 
be so mighty and magnificent, commmiication signifies civiliza- 
tion, prosperity, progress — everything. It is more important to 
national welfare even than the school or the newspaper, for these 
will follow where that precedes. And travellers who wish well to 
the land must ever harp, even to surfeit, upon this one string. 

After Saudade the country waxes lone. Besides a few road- 
side shop-sheds, wliicli sell wet and dry goods, beans, flour, and 
the baldest necessaries of life, we find only two manor-houses 
belonging to a landowner known as " O Mirandiio " and his son- 
in-law. The monotonous thud and creak of the "Monjolo,"* the 
only labour-savmg machme bequeathed by Portugal to her big 
daughter, proclaims the rudeness of agriculture.! A heavy hill of 
the sHppery cla}^, with its cuttings of purple, marbled or mauve- 
coloured ochreish earth, called in Sao Paulo " Tagua," delays the 
pace ; and Godfrey must often " skid " and employ the x^atent 
break as we descend. 

The next station, " Chapeo d'Uvas," is so called from some 
generous old vmeyarder who allowed the thirsty to fill their 
hats with his grapes. A certain modern traveller related that 
somewhere between this place and Curral Novo, as well as in 
other wooded parts of the Brazil, there is a pigmy race about 
three feet high, white as Europeans, and with hairless bodies. 
Tliis suggests the Wabilikimo or " Two-cubit Men," gravely 

* Or Monjdllo. Mawe terms it Pre- " Deputado %dl comparsa 

gui^a (the sloth), and gives a drawing of Representou de Monjolo." 

this rough water-mill, which is described ' ' The Deputy, a vile compare, 

by every traveller. Caldcleugh calls it Like the Monjolo beat the air. " 

Jogo, a game. St. Hil. (III. i. 121, &c.) f ^o ^^ 1633, the first saw-mill built on 

erroneously writes the word " Manjola. " It the Thames, opposite Durham Yard, was 

appearsinBrazilian poetry, c.^r. the Parabolas taken down, "lest our labouring people 

(No. 113, Wolf) of Jose Joaquim Correa de should want employment." 
Almeida — 


located by the " Monibas Mission Map," within the seaboard of 
Zanzibar ; and the reader will at once recall to mind the detailed 
notices of the " Obengo " dwarfs, lately brought home from 
Ashango-land by m}^ mdefatigable and adventurous friend, Paul 
du Chaillu. 

Here the Caminho do Mato, the " Forest-road" from the 
north-east, falls into the Caminho do Campo, the " Prairie high- 
Avay," which trends to the north-west. The settlement is the 
normal post-town," a single straggling street Avith a pauper 
chapel : it can no longer claim to be " one of the prettiest and 
most civilized spots seen since leaving Rio de Janeiro." It 
could hardly supply grain to our five beasts ; the people raise 
enough for domestic consumption only, and travellers carry their 
own slender stores. The waggons were standing in the thorough- 
fare, and the fii'st glance showed Avayfarers from the United 
States. They had done what they Avould have done in Illinois — 
they had brought traps and teams, and they were lumbering on 
towards the setting sun. 

The next stage showed us " Retiro,"* a bunch of huts tenanted 
by negroes, who had hoisted a black saint upon the " Tree of St. 
John." Here we first sighted the Mantiqueira Range, Avith 
Avhich I had made acquaintance in Siio Paulo. I have something 
to say about this most interesting formation. It is not one line, 
but a collection of systems, crystalline, volcanic and sedimentary. 
Its southernmost Avail is within sight of Sao Paulo, the city, 
forming the Serra da Cantareu-a, a septentrional buttress to the 
valle}" of the Tiete RiA^er. Thence it runs to the east with 
northing, increases greatly in importance, and presently forms 
the culminating point of the Brazilian Highlands. A little beyond 
this point — in W. long. (Rio) 1° 20' — it obeys the great law of 
South America, and indeed of the NeAv World generally ; and, 
cmwing at an angle of 115°-1'20°, it becomes a meridional range, 
not an east to Avest chain, as are mostly those of the so-called Old 
Hemisphere. It bisects the Province of Minas upon the line of 
Barbacena, Ouro Preto, and Diamantina, and it divides the 
Atlantic watershed, the riverine basins of the Rio Doce, the 
Mucury, the Jequitinhonha, and the mmor systems from the 

* St. Hil. (III. i. 2.33) translates "Re- the Rio do Sao Francisco it will bear an- 
tiro " by Chalet. In this part of the counti-y other meaning, 
it confounds with our "shooting box :" on 


Western versant, draining the Parana, Paraguay, Plata, and the 
Bio de Sao Francisco. It affects the surface ahnost as much as 
do the Andes further to the Occident ; it arrests the rains which 
flood the lands on its seaward flank ; it breaks up the ground, and 
covers earth with the densest forests. The inland . slopes are 
more regular, prairies abound, and the vegetation is cliiefly 
gTamineous, and the low woods known in the Brazil as Caatingas 
and Carrascos.* North of Diamantina it becomes the Serra do 
Grao Mogor ; it then forms in Bahia the Serra das Almas 
and the Chapada Diamantina, or Diamantine Plateau, after 
Avhich it sillies into the broken plain on the southern bank of the 
Bio de Sao Francisco. Then it extends some 860 geographical 
miles between S. lat. 10° and 24° 20'. The southern portion 
runs almost parallel with and distant 30 to 50 miles from the 
Serra do Mar or Maritime Baiige. About Barbacena it has already 
greatly diverged, and its maximum distance from the shores of 
the Atlantic may amount to 200 direct miles. 

The culminating point of Mantiqueh-a and of the Brazil 
generally is the Itatiaiossu, a highly picturesque word, interpreted 
to mean the " great flamboj'ant rock," from the flame-like out- 
lines of its three loftiest crests. The chief peak is placed in 
S. lat. 22° 38' 45", and W. long. (Bio) 1° 30'. The "Bevista 
Trimensal" (1861), of the Bistituto Historico e Geographico 
Brasileii-o, adopts the mean altitude of 3140 metres, or 10,300 
feet. Dr. Franklin da Silva Massena has reduced the estimate 
to 2994 metres, and Pere Germain, of the Episcopal Seminary 
of Sao Paulo, who visited it in May, 1868, increases it to 2995. t 
The formation is essentially volcanic, two craters and more than 
200 caves have been found in it, and the explorers met with 
sulphur springs and large deposits of sulphm- and iron pyrites. 

* " Caatiuga " must not be confouude^l more scattered, stunted, ami ragged than 

with. "Catiuga" before mentioned. The the Caatinga, ranging between 3 to 6 feet, 

former is derived from the Tnpy "Ctk," and often rich in the Mimosa dumetorum, 

forest, bush, leaf, grass; and "tinga," a trae " Carrasquente " shrub. Both allow 

white. It admirably describes the scat- the sun to penetrate through their thin 

tered growth of diy clay or sandy plains, coats, and with the assistance of dew a 

gnarled trees averaging 10 — 20 feet in little grass good for pastiire gi-ows about 

height, or one-tenth of the forest-gro^\-th, their roots. 

and looking pale and sickly by the side of f The number 2994 has been adopted by 

the dark virgin leafage. " Carrasco " in that excellent Brazilian geographer, Sr. 

Portugal is a low stiif gro'wiih, and the word Candido Jlendes de Almeida. Pere Ger- 

is supposed to be derived from Quercus and main found the altitude of the highest 

rusceus, "Carvalho picante," prickly oak. habitation to be 1560 metres. 
The Mineiros mostly apply it to a vegetation 


The summits are amiiially covered with snow, which sometimes 
lies for a fortnight, and the phiins are fields of wild strawberries. 
I shall have more to say upon this subject when describing the 
Province of Sao Paulo. Suffice it now to remark that this part 
of the Mantiqueira is a Sanitarium, lying at the easy distance of 
three days' trip from Eio de Janeiro, \ia the D. Pedi-o Segundo 
Railway and the Valley of the Southern Parahyba. 

The Abbe Cazal calls the central and symmetrical range 
" SerradoMantiqueiro." Dr. Couto very properly terms it "Serra 
Grande ;" its peaks, the Itabira, the Itambe, and the Itacolumi, 
not to mention the Itatiaiossii, exceed in height all others in the 
Empire, except those visited by Gardner in the Serra do Mar near 
Eio de Janeiro. The popular name which appears upon om* maps, 
and which is being adopted by the Brazilians, is Serra do Espin- 
haco* or Range of the Spine-bone. This generalization is, I 
believe, the work of the Baron von Eschwege, who in the last 
generation commanded the Corps of Imperial Engineers at Ouro 
Preto, and who has written extensively upon the geography and 
mineralogy of the country. But the so-called EspinhaQo is not 
the spine of the Brazil generally, although it may be that of 
Minas Geraes. A nearer approach to a true Charpente dorsale 
would be the Ranges da Mantiqueira, dos Vertentes, and da 
Canastra ; the Mata da Corda and the great ridge to the west of 
the Rio de Sao Francisco, known to maps as the Serra da Tiririca 
and da Tauatinga.f North of S. lat. 11° it forks into the so- 
called Serra da Borborema, trending to the north-east and the 
Serra dos Ceroados, diverging to the north-west. 

The word " Mantiqueii-a," also written and pronounced 
" Mantiguira," is still unjudged. Usually it is translated 
" ladi'oeii-a," robbery, and is supposed to be local patois. Some 
derive it from " Manta," a (woollen) "cloak," and figuratively a 
"trick" or "treachery." In the early half of the present 

* Not "Sien-a Espenlia90 " (Herscliel, Init more often pure, the degradation of 

Physical Geography, 292). felspar, and it has been mistaken by 

+ Often and eiToneously written ' ' Taba- foreigners for chalk : when limestone is 

tinga," which would signify literally the deficient, it is still used as whitewash. The 

white wigv\'am, and which the Dictionaries older writers define it to be the "wunder 

render by "smoke." The Tupy "taud" erde " of Saxony, a hardened, argillaceous 

seems to be the same word as " tagua " or lithomarge. In 1800, a certain Joao Manso 

" tagoa, " which Figueira translates " ban-o Pereira made, we are told, works of art 

Termelho " — red argil ; whilst "tinga" is from the material found at the Lagoa de 

white. It is a pure \Ahite, or slightly yel- Sentinella, near Eio de Janeiro, 
low kaolin, sometimes mi.xed -ndth sand ; 


centuiy it was a name of fear, as Apennines and Abruzzi are 
even yet. Old travellers are full of legends about its banditti, 
and mule-troopers still shudder at the tales told around their 
camp-fires. The Thugs used to lasso their victims and cast the 
corpses, duly plundered of diamonds and gold dust, into the 
deepest " canons " and ravines : there is a tradition that one of 
these Golgothas was discovered by a fast-growing tree Avhich bore 
a saddle by way of fruit. The guard assured me that when the 
last road was made, treasm-e was found in several places. The 
most noted bands in late years were headed by a certain Schin- 
derhans, " Chefe Guimaraes," a "highly respectable" Portu- 
guese of Barbacena : about 1825 he and his familiar friend, the 
gipsy Pedro Hespanhol, died in jail. Another actor in the 
tragedy was the Padre Joaquim Arruda, a rich man and well 
connected in this part of the Province. The fidus Achates, who 
everj-where stood by his Fra Diavolo, was one Joaquim Alves 
Saiiio Beiju, properly called Cigano Beiju, or Gipsy Manioc 
Cake.* The Eeverend *' Rue " (Ruta graveolens ?) came in 
1831 to a bad end after some seven years of successful villany ; 
aided by his gipsy, he escaped from prison, hid himself in a cave 
near S. Jose de Parahyba, and was shot down by the detachment 
that pursued him. 

But " Mantiqueii'a " is now shorn of its terrors, and very 
beautiful are the slate-blue summits which meet our sight. At 
its base we fuid the Half-way House, " Pedro Alves," where 
the normal breakfast, not, alas ! '' blessed pullets and fiit hams " 
awaited us. I will at once observe that neither gourmand nor 
gourmet should visit the South American interior, especially the 
Highlands of the Brazil. 

Refreshed with the " quantum interpellat," such as it was, we 
dashed dovsai a steep, wmding hill, where Godfrey remembered a 
broken arm and the guard two fractured ribs. Every hollow in 
the road made our vehicle buck-jump like taking a brook, and 
the swmg and sway and the heaving to and fro as we rounded the 
corners equalled any Brighton coach in the early days of railways. 
The high wind prostrates bamboos near the road, and the wicked 

* Tlie gipsies of t'ae Brazil, wlio are still of Egj^i^ciano ; in fact, sjnionymous witli 

nnmerous in Minas, take their names from "Gitano. " Many English residents of 

food, birds and beasts, trees and flowers. long standing ignoi'e the existence of gipsies 

Koster explains " Cigano " as a coiTuption in the Brazil. 


little mules gave us tlie worst taste of their quality. We crossed 
the Rio do Pinho, one of the headwaters of the Rio das Merces 
da Pomha, which feeds the Lower Parahyha, and drains the 
Eastern Mantiqueira. At the foot of the latter is the little 
countrified town " Joiio Gomes," Avith palra-groAm square, cross- 
fronted clnu'ch, and Hotel da Ponte. 

As we near the ascent water hecomes again plentiful ; here it is 
said to rain or to drizzle every second day. This Brazilian 
Westmoreland sucks dry the sea-born clouds, and does its best to 
make the Far West an arid Avaste. After sundiy preliminaries 
of subrange and outlying buttress, we breast the slope that 
measures about four miles and occupies an horn*. M. Liais 
prematurely wrote, " les ingenieurs de la Compagnie Union et 
Industrie ont trouve un bon passage dans la Serra da Manti- 
queira," but he confesses to not having seen it.' The facing is 
easterly, fronting the weather, and exposed to the full force of the 
north-eastern and south-eastern Trades, Avater-logged from the 
Atlantic. HoAvever, the Commission lately sent under command 
of the late Mr. John Whittaker, C.E., has found a pass of easy 
gradients and Avithout the main fault of the present seaAvard- 
fronting line. 

Gneiss and granite, thickly banded with veins of clear and 
smoky quartz, composed the under strata. The sm-face was the 
usual rich red clay, ferruginous with degraded mica and felspar ; 
the cuttings showed boulders and "hard heads," peeling hke the 
coats of an onion. Greenstone blocks api)eared, especially upon 
rising gi'ound, but not in situ. When the sun shone, minute 
fragments of silvery mica sparkled Avitli a wonderful glitter. 
Caldcleugh found near the summit the old red sandstone, 
betAveen Avhich aiul the new red, the carboniferous formations of 
the Brazil are, I believe, mostly found. This Avould argue that 
we are noAv west of the great coal formation, Avhicli has been 
traced Avitli intervals betAveen Bage of Rio Grande do Sul (S. lat. 
31° 30') and the Province of Pernambuco (S. lat. 8° 10).* If 
this be the case, the country betAveen the Mantiqueira Range and 
the coast line must be explored for carbonic deposits. 

The deep mud, stick}- as coal tar, and engulfing our AA'heels to 

* I do not pretend to fix the limits, the Colonization an Breisil. Bruxelles, 1843, 
23° in the text have already supplied chap. 10) has well described the coal mines 
specimens. M. Charles Van Lede (De la of Santa Catharina. 


the hub, dismounted all the men, who tried some short cuts and 
suffered accordingly. As we ascended, two crystal streams gushed 
out of the clay scarps on our right, and had been converted into 
fountains by some charitable soul who probably knew what thirst 
is, and who pitied thirsty man and beast. At the summit we 
waded through a pool of slush, and the team — all the kick was 
now taken out of it — halted with quivering flanks, streaming 
skins and prone muzzles. An ojiportune rock slab invited us to 
rest and be thankful for the panorama. 

We are now at the eastern culminating plateau-point of the 
Brazilian Highlands, and from this radiate the headwater valleys 
of the Parahyba do Sul, the Rio Doce, and the Parana, which 
becomes the mighty Plata. Below us lay the land mapped out 
into an infinity of feature that ranged through the quadrant from 
south-east to south-west. There was the usual beautiful Brazilian 
perspective, tier after tier of mountain, hill, hillock, rise, and 
wavy horizon, whose arc was dotted with the forms familiar to 
Rio de Janeiro — sugar loaves, hunchbacks, topsails, and parrots'- 
beaks. The clothing of the earth was " Capoeira," or second- 
growth forest*, so old that in parts it appeared almost virginal ; 
the colours were black-green, light-green, brown-green, blue- 
green, blue and azure in regular succession, whilst the cloud- 
patches gathering before the sim mottled the landscape with a 
marbling of shade — travellers from the temperates prefer this 
mixture of grey to the perfect glory of the day-god. On the 

* As in Intertropical Africa so in the I have no opinion to oifer upon the subject. 
Brazil, when the virgin forest is filled, a The word "Capoeira" is derived from 
different gi'owth, more shrubby and of " Capao " (pilural, " Capoes "), a corruj)ted 
lighter colour, rather herbaceous than Tujoy word. In Portugal it means a cajjon ; 
ligneous, takes its jjlace. The eye soon in the Brazil it is derived fi'om Caa-poam, 
learns to distinguish between the two, and a bush island, either on hill or plain ; 
no Brazilian farmer ever confounds them. "Ca^," a bush, and "po^m" or "puam," 
The virgin is darker, and more gloomy; from "apoam," subs, and adj. a globe, a 
there is less imdergrowth, the ground is ball, an island, also round, swelling. It is 
cleaner, and the llianas are lai-ger, more admirably descriptive of the feature which 
numerous and more iiseful. The wood that in classical Lusitanian is termed ilha de 
has its ■s'irginity is far richer in flowers mato, mouta or moita ; in French, bouquet 
and fruits, in Orchids and Bromelias. Some de bois ; and in Canadian English " motte. " 
botanists believed that the germs were Thus "Capoeira" is opposed to mata, 
hidden for countless centui-ies in the soil ; matagal, mata virgem, mato virgem, and 
others that the seeds are transported by in Tupy to Caa-ete. This would be lite- 
wind and the animal creation, which ap- rally the " very " or "the virgin forest, " 
pears more probable. This second growth ' ' ete ' ' being a particle which augments 
is called "Capoeira," and when old " Ca- and prolongs the signification of its sub- 
poeirao," an incrementative form ; Capo- stantive, as Aba, a man, Aba-ete a true or 
eirinho means that it is young. It is said great man. Caa-ete undergoing slight alte- 
that after ' many years the characteristic rations, as Caethe, Caith^, and so forth, is 
vegetation of the virgin forest re-appears ; the name of many Brazilian settlements. 
VOL. I. F 


south-west a long high wall of light plum-colour, streaked with 
purple and capped with a blue-j^ellow sheet, which might be grass 
or stone, fixed the glance. This is the Serra da Ibitipoca*, a 
counterfort of great " Mantiqueira," trending from north-north- 
east to south-south-west. On its summit there is, the}' sa}', 
a lakelet, and m the lakelet fish. The mountain tarns are very 
common in the Highlands of the Brazil ; they nia}^ be met with 
even on the blocks that rise from the Maritime lowlands, t 

I pushed on, determined to spare the mules, and reached a 
dwarf basin, where dark mica slate and tufaceous formations 
announced a change of country. Obiter, it may be remarked 
that the Brazil is rich in turbaries, which have never yet been 
used for fuel. As the turf is mostly modern, it must go through 
a certain process, especially of compression ; and the late Mr. 
Ginty, C.E., of Eio de Janeu-o, took out a patent for working 
the beds. At this place, 4000 feet above sea level, a ragged 
hut protected a few roadside squatters I from the burning sun and 
the biting wind. A short slope led to the gi'eat descent. The 
soil was still deep black earth, decayed vegetable matter, the dust of 
extinct forests forming peat. In the rains it becomes a tenacious 
mire, in the dries a stift' cakey clay, which severely tries our 
trusty EngHsh coach-springs. Half-way down hill I found what 
suggested the wooden cart of Northumberland in the middle of 
the last century. It had ten j'oke of oxen, and the men, armed 
with the usual goads, huge sj^m'-rowels at the end of perches ten 
feet long, had spent the day in pricking, cursing, and lashmg the 
laggers over the one league up the Serra. 

At " Jose Roberto " the road became dry ; we are now in 
a lea-land. The new mules kept up a hand gallop to " Nasci- 
mento," a pretty "venda" in a dwarf plain or hollow, bright 
with the greenest gTass, tall waving Coqueiro pahns, and the 
glorious mauve-pink bracts of the Bougainvillea§ (B. brasiliensis) 
which in Mmas becomes a tree. 

* My informant explains this to mean which will be mentioned. We remember 

"here" (iby) ; " it ends " (tipoca). The the Witch's Well that never dries on the 

derivation appears fanciful. "Iby" as a gi-anitic Brocken or Blocksberg, the highest 

rule means "earth," Iby-tira a serra or point of the North German Hartz. 

mountain range, and Iby-tira cua, a valley. t "Moradores," literally dwellers. 

Poo means to burst. ' § The Prince Max. wi-ites Bugainvillea 

t For instance, Itabaiana in Sirgipe, and Buginvilla;a (i. 58). The accurate 

the Monserrate hills behind Santos, Sao Gardner Bugenvillea, which mutilates not 

Paulo, and in various mountains of Minas a little the name of the great circum- 


After running eight miles from the Mantiqueira crest, and at 
the twelfth from our destination, we make the Borda do Campo or 
" Edge of the Prairie (ground)." A similar name and nature is 
found near Sao Paulo, the city ; there, however, the Campo begins 
close to the Maritime Range, while here the Mantiqueira inter- 
venes. I curiousty compared fii'st impressions : in Minas the 
land is more broken into deep hollows, glens, and ravines ; and 
the " capoes " or patches of forest are of superior importance. 
The minor characteristics I must reserve for another Chapter. 

The dry season was now at its height, and the country looked 
faint and torpid with drowth. We caught a far sight of Barba- 
cena, with its church-towers fretting the summit of a high dark 
ridge to the north, ah'eady piu'pliiig in the slanted rays of the 
sun. The situation at once suggested Sao Paulo, and we again 
breathed the cool, clear, light air of the Plateau, a tonic after the 
humid heat of the Mantiqueii'an ascent. Large Fazendas lay 
scattered about : we were struck by the appearance of those 
caUed Campo Yerde and Nascimento Novo. 

Our eighth team, fine white mules for the run in, awaited us at 
Eegistro YeUio. It is the fii'st of the trio which, in colonial 
times, awaited the hapless wayfarer from Minas Geraes to the 
seaboard. The building is a large white affair of a rude wooden 
style ; its ancient occupation is now gone, and it has found new 
industries. The " Gold troops " from the Anglo-Minas mines 
always night here, avoiding the city streets, where they lose their 
shoes and spend their money ; the pasture, however, is execrable. 
The proprietor, "Capitao"* Jose Rodriguez da Costa, lodges 
travellers in his own independent way, turning them out if they 
grumble at high charges. Before visiting the several Companies, 
one marvels that the}' cannot combine to set up an estabhshment 
of their ovm. The captain, however, is trustworthy, or rather, 
being a wealth}- man, he is much trusted. 

navigator. French colonists unaccoiintably officers, witli 595,454 rank and file, distri- 

call the beauty (E'd de Judas, and the Bra- buted into artillery, cavalry, infantry, and 

zilians Porca Kota. infantiy of reserve. It formed, as in North 

* Military rank is a.s common in the America, a curious contrast ^sdth the regular 

Brazil as in the Far West of the Union army, which, till Paraguay rendered an 

before the War, or in Great Britain since increase necessary, numbered 1550 officers 

the last days of the Volunteers. Rarely it and 16,000 men, whilst the police in 18 

refers to the Line ; almost always to the i^rovinces did not exceed 4467. These 

National Guard. The latter, organised in figures sjieak volumes in favour of the 

Dec. 31, 1863, consisted in 1864 of 212 orderly and law-fearing character of the 

superior commands, and a vast cadi-e of Brazilian people. 

F 2 


Here is a manufactory of cigarros,* celebrated from Minas to 
Eio de Janeiro. Two rooms contain the workpeople, men and 
women, and there is one cutter to each half-a-dozen rollers. The 
maize leaf is used instead of paper, a custom directly derived 
from the aborigines. " Apres qu'ils ont cueilli le petem" 
(tobacco-leaf), f says De Lery of the Tupinambas (p. 200), " et, 
par petite poignee, pendu et fait secher en leurs maisons, ils en 
prennent quatre ou cinq feuilles qu'ils envelbppent dans une 
autre grande feuille d'arbre en facon de cornet d'epices ; mettant 
alors le feu par le petit bout et le mettant ainsi allume dans leur 
bouche, ils en tirent de cette fagon la fumee." The tobacco is 
strong, and the "pinch of snuff rolled up in a leaf" soon cakes 
and must be unrolled and rerolled before it will di'aw. A large 
bundle may be bought for a shilling, and yet the profits of the 
establishment are about 160Z. per mensem. Roll-tobacco, as a 
rule, in the Brazil is good, and this is remai'kably good. 

The next stage crosses the Rio do Registro Vellio, a feeder of 
the Rio das Mortes — the River of the Murder-Deaths, t We are 
now, therefore, in the South Brazilian basin of the Parana, 
Paraguay, and Plata rivers. Turning from the main road to 
the right we jiass the wretched little colonj'- "Jose Ribeiro." 
A landowner of that name sold the ground to the " Union and 
Industry," and the latter established a settlement of Germans. 
The only decent house was that of the Director. And now 
appeared the beginning of the end in a bittock of fine smooth 
macadam laid down by the Compan3\ It was like rolling over 
a billiard table, and we galloped up it with a will, the breath of 
the mid- winter evening biting our faces and feet. 

It was almost dark when we entered the city of Barbacena, 
which looked as livel}' as a mighty catacomb, and we deposited 

* The Portuguese cigaiTO is a cigarette, Kentucky and Virginia averages from 5 to 6 

the cigar (a Singhalese word) being called per cent., and the produce of Lot-et-Ga- 

" Charuto," whence our cheroot. ronne, &c. , 7 per cent. As yet experiments- 

"t" The tobacco plant and leaf, in the have been made, I believe, only -with that 

Tupy tongue, is called petum, petume, or grown about Bahia. Both in Sao Paulo and 

pety. Hence the corrupted popular Bra- Minas there are local varieties of the "holy 

zilian word "Pi tar," to smoke. It is herb, " whose headiness suggests a far larger 

ciu-ious that the Portuguese should apply proportion. 

the word which Europe has derived from + The origin of the ill-omened name will 

the Tobago-pipe to snuif only, and reduce presently be exjilained. Mr. Walsh (ii. 

tobacco to the vague generic word "fumo." 235) calls the Rio do Registro Velho, " Rio 

It is usually asserted that Brazilian to- das Mortes," which it is not, the lower 

bacco contains, like that of the Havannah, course only being thus known. Here it 

only 2 per cent, of nicotine, a little more was that the well-hoaxed traveller suffered 

than Turkish and Syrian ; whilst that of his terrible comical fright about nothing. 

CHAP, v.] 



the old lady and her innumerable parcels, with the slave girls and 
their moutards, before we could stretch our cramped legs at •the 
Barbacenense Inn. Sr. Herculano Ferreira Paes, the owner, had 
unfortunately seen better days ; he evinced it by giving us in 
perfect courtesy, sadly misplaced, not dinner but a damnable 
iteration of excuses. " The house was not worthy of us — we were 
such great personages — the town was so wretchedly poor — the 
people were such perfect barbarians." His sons M^ere palpably 
above their work, they received every order under tacit protest, 
and they prospected us as their grandsires might have prospected 
John Mawe, who, in 1809, visited " Barbasinas." * But food 
came at last, and we found even the odious Spanish wine good. 
The sleeping rooms were small, the beds were grabats, the air 
was nipping, and the street dogs barked perniciously. Yet we 
slept the sleep of the just. It was a weight off one's shoulders 
that day of stage coaching, which had been uncommonly heavy 
upon the nervous collar. 

* This error is unfortunately followed by that excellent geographer, M. Balbi. 




The cloiidf?, 
The mists, the shadows, light of golden suns, 
Motions of moonlight, all come hither, touch 
And have an answer— hither come and shape 
In language not unwelcome to sick hearts 
And idle spirits. Wordsn'orth. 

The word Campo* — camjius — is fitly translated Prairie. The 
formation, however, is not an elevated plain, like the " grass 
seas " of the Orinoco, the irksome steppes of Tartary, or the 
great flats of Russia and Poland, dead levels of lakes and mo- 
rasses ; nor in this parallel does it resemble the rolling uplands 
of Kansas and the trans-Mississippian territories. In the Oriental 
Brazil it is a surface of rounded summits between 300 and 600 
feet high, generally of ungentle grade, and disposed without regu- 
larity, not in gigantic sweej^s and billows like the broad swells of 
Cape seas. Each eminence is sej^arated from its neigiibour by a 
rift or valley, deep or shallow hollows wliich may often have been 
lakes, generally forested, and during the rains bottomed with 
swamp or stream. In the Province of Sao Paulo the surface of 
monticles has a lower profile and sometimes falls into the sem- 
blance of a plain, whereas Minas has rarely, excej)t in her riverine 
lines, sufficient level ground for the site of a city. Tliis sinking 
of the heights and shallowdng of the depths continue progres- 
sively and uninterruptedl}^ through the Province of Parana, and 

' In the Far West these features are called In Vol. II. Chap, 8, I have distinguished 
Campos Geiaes or General Plains, often between the Taboleii-o coberto and tbe 
abbreviated to "Geraes." The word is Taboleiro descoberto. The " Campina " is 
supposed to express their fitness for agri- a little formation in the Taboleiro, gene- 
culture and stock-breeding in genei-al. rally a slope towards water, where the 
Another modification of the Campo is the soil is better and the grass afi'ords supe- 
Taboleiro (table-ground), which when vex^ rior forage, 
large becomes a "Chapada" or plateau. 


reaches its raaximum iii the Pampas and Llanos, the naked or 
thistle-clad landes of the south. 

The Campos form the tliii-d region of tliis portion of the Brazil, 
lying westward of the Maritune Serra and the Beii'a-mar or coast 
country. It is a sedimentary and stratified plateau 2000 to 2500 
feet high, subtended to the east or seaward by the great unstrati- 
fied and plutonic ranges, which average in height from 3000 to 
4000 feet. In one place Gardner foimd the Organ Mountains 
7800 feet above summit level, and thus in tliis section of the 
Brazil, as in Zanzibarian Africa, the summit line is not in the 
interior but near the coast.* Moreover, the mountains do not 
attain the altitude of those in Greece (8250 feet). Here we enter 
upon the vast Itacolumite and Itaberite formations which charac- 
terize the mountain chains of the interior, and which stretch, 
with mtervals, to the Andes. The floor is of hypogeneous crys- 
taUine rocks, granite, and syenites, which in rare places protrude, 
and which are mostly seen where the beds of great rivers have 
cut away the upper deposits. Thus, to quote no other instance, 
in the Nile Valley, 400 miles long by 12 of breadth, granite forces 
its way at the Cataracts tlu'ough the limestones and sandstones ; 
in Unyamwezi I found enormous outcrops of Plutonic breaking 
tln-ough the Neptunian rocks. M. du Chaillu (2nd Exp. chap. xv. 
p. 292,) describes the same at " Mokenga " in Ishogo-land, about 
150 direct miles from the West African Coast. 

Resting, here conformably there unconformably upon this un- 
dulating basis, crystalline and stratified, both m the interior and 
on the coast, are, as natural gashes and artificial cuttings prove, 
layers of pebbles, cliiefly quartz, now water-rounded, then sharp 
and angular, Ijing in level or wavy bands and seams, as if depo- 
sited by stiU waters and by ice action.! Superjacent, again, is 
the deep, rich clay which makes the Brazil, like Africa, an Ophir, 

* The Itatiaiossu is, a« I have shown, sea-shore, 

considerably higher ; but at that point May not the glacial theoiy explain the 

the i\lantiqiieira is also near the coast. " freddo e caldo polo" of Monti? We 

+ The glacialists -nill recognise in this are, I believe, free to think that our 

one of the many forms of drift phenomena. solar system, a subordinate portion of 

Probably the same mil be found in the the great stellar universe, may have 

great basin of Central Intertropical traversed in its vast orbit spaces where 

Africa, with a tendency of glacial action the temperature was higher and lower 

towards the Equator, and the usual re- than it is at present. The variations 

markable continuity. In the Brazil the of the ecliptic, assumed to be one cause 

clays and marls are sometimes based upon of the change of climate, require 25,000 

sand, which seems to be fi'esh from the years for their completion. 


a red land, ochraceous, liiglily ferruginous, homogeneous, and 
almost unstratified, once a paste of sand and argile with pebbles 
and boulders scattered indiscriminately through the deposit. 
The surface is siliceous and argillaceous, poor and yellow, scanty 
in humus, and thinly spread with quartz and sandstones mostly 
containing iron. This formation happily secures them from the 
terrible dust-storms of Asia and Africa. 

The first sight of these Campos reminded me strongly of Ugogo 
in Eastern Africa, the arid lea region robbed of its rain by the 
mountains of dripping Usagara. Then the analogy of the ele- 
vated trough formation of Inner Africa * with the Brazilian 
plateau suggested itself. The main point of difference is — a 
glance at any map will show it — that the vast lacustrine region 
of the parallel continent is here imperfectly represented, the 
drainage slope of South America is more regular, its " continental 
basins " have no great rock fissures like the Tanganyika bed, no 
vast hollows lilve those of the Victoria Nyanza. Thus the main 
arteries find in this sera of the world uninterrupted way to the 
ocean, and thus in South America, whose mountains and rivers 
equal or rather excel those of all other continents, there are 
no lakes, while North America and Africa, with theii' sweet-water 
inland seas and Nj'anzas, have comparatively stunted Cordilleras. 
The lake in this country becomes the Pantanal or flooded Savannah, 
grounds watered by inundations, and often, like Xarayis and Ube- 
raba, mere enlargements of great rivers, tranquil and shallow sheets 
where submerged bush and drowned forests form bouquets of 
verdure, where the dry tracts, like the little praii'ies in the dark 
seas of the African jungle, show charming fields sprinkled with 
flowers, bearing the palm and the magnolia ; and Avhere floating 
islands are bound together in impassable tangle with aquatic and 
semi-aquatic plants, Pontiderias and Poh'gonias, Malvaceae, Con- 
volvulacese, Portularias, tall Sacchara, and the rice known as Arroz 
de Pantanal (Oryza paraguayensis) . f These swamps sujipoi-t a con- 
siderable population of canoe-men, and have been sung by the 

* M. du Chaillu found in Ashango-land, gara. I also observed their continuation on 

on the West African coast, a range running the course of the Congo River, 

from the north-west-by-west to south-east- f Those wiiters are in error who derive 

by-east, upwards of 3000 feet in height, rice from Asia. A species grows wild 

and dividing the waters that flow to the in Central Africa as in Central South Ame- 

ocean from those trending to the interior, rica. 
and thus exactly corresponding with Usa- 


poets of the Brazil. They form a characteristic feature of the 
central regions in Southern America. 

A typical featm-e in these Prairie lands is that which Minas 
calls " esbarrancado," and Sao Paulo " vossoroca." * At first 
sight it appears as if a gigantic mine had been sprung. It is 
either natural or artificial, and an unpractised eye can hardly 
distinguish between Nature and Art. The former is generally, if 
not always, the effect of rain-water percolating through the 
surface into a stratum of subjacent sand or other material that 
forms a reservoir above the ground rock in situ. Presently the 
drought creates a vacuum ; heavy rains then choke the enlarged 
cavity, and at last the hill side, undermined to the foundation, is 
suddenly shot forward by the water pressm-e with the irresistible 
force of an eruption, leaving a huge irregular hollow cone, some- 
times shallow, sometimes deep, like the crater of an extinct 
volcano. Fatal accidents have happened from these earthen 
avalanches, which are not unknown to the British islands ; t and 
in 1866 several houses near Petropolis were bm-ied by huge 
fragments measurmg several thousand cubic feet. After the tail 
a perennial stream generally issues from the water breach, 
causing a long fracture of the lower level, and creating a valley 
where before there was nothing but a mountain. The weather 
transforms the irregular gash into a quarry with a cii'cular head, 
and thus in time a considerable portion of the high ground is 
swept down into the hollows, which centmies will convert to 
levels. Some of these landslips are " alive," that is to say in 
process of enlargement ; they are known by their watery bottoms : 
their " death " is caused by grass, shrubs, and trees, whose roots 
and rain- dispersing heads arrest the growth. 

These vast fissures, opening into highly irregular glens and 
ra"STiies, have in some places made the Province of Minas a 
succession of impasses which time only can bridge. Nothing can 
be more interesting to the traveller than the puckerings and the 

* Esbarrancado, "broken into a pre- hole." 
cipice," from Ban-anco, a precipice, a f I liave heard of them in Ireland, where 
river bank. " Vossoroca " is a local term the vacuiua or cavity is formed between 
for these hollows : hence the name of the the peat surface and the gi-avelly sub- 
city "Sorocaba," once celebrated for its stratum. The late accident at Santa 
mule fail". Caba or -aba terminal denotes Liicia (Naples) was also partly due to the 
place, time, mode or iustrament. The pressure of the sandy soil swollen by fre- 
common Tupy word for hole is coara quent rains and rocked by continual earth- 
(quara), as araraquara, the " Macaw's quakes. 


spine-lLl^;e i^rocesses, the vast aretes, the fantastic sjiii-es, and the 
florid ornamentation of a Gothic cathech-al sprmging from the 
vertical or sloping sides of these water-breaches, whose angles are 
determined by the nature of the subsoil. They are best seen 
from below, and they reminded me of a section of a Deseret 
" Kanj'on." The hues too are vivid as the forms are varied ; all 
the colom-s of the rainbow are there, flashing with quailz and 
mica, the detritus of ancient rocks. The walls ai*e banded with 
colours resulting fi-om decomj)osed metals : dark puiijle, from 
chromes and ochres ; a rich red with jjulverized sesquioxide of 
iron, gi'een with copper and pyrites, yellow with hydrate of iron, 
snowy white with decomposed felsj^ar, silver-coloured with talcose 
schist, blue and violet with oxides of manganese, dark brown 
with carbonized turfy deposits, charged with ulmic and humic 
acids, and vai-iegated with kaohns hard and soft.* We soon learn 
to distinguish the artificial featm'e.t The soil of the latter is the 
amiferous dark red limonite ; rubbish heaps and spoil banks of 
pebbles and conglomerate show that the miner has been at work, 
and frequently there are ruins of houses within easy distance. 

The vegetation of these high grassy lands off'ers a wonderful 
contrast to the dense forests of the seaboard and the Serra, where 
the visible horizon may often be touched by the hand. This 
singular fecundity of vegetable matter, this " plica of growth, " is 
aj^t to deceive the stranger by suggesting an excessive fertility 
and depth of soil. I If he will j^enetrate into the " lush," he will 
find the true roots running along the sm-face so as to feed upon 
every possible inch of shallow humus, and the shallow radical disks 
of the prostrated giants show that no tap-root has been able to 
strike down into the ferruginous argile of the huge red clay heaps 
and mounds, whose core of blue gneiss often lies within a few 
feet of the gi'ound. And when these trees, perhaps the produce 
of a centiuy, and forced by a hot-house atmosphere, with rain and 
sun ad libitum, are once felled, they are followed, as has been said, 

* "Tlie red clay" pjairo vermelhoHn Tauatinga. The granite-clays, moreover, 

the presence of organic matters, principally may be Urely red, yellow, white, blue, or 

decomposed plants, becomes black or blue, black, and by their mixture russet or 

by the partial de-oxydation of the red brown." " Decomposigao dos Penedos no 

peroxide of iron that passes into dai-k Brasil." PorG. S. de Capanema. Rio, 1866. 

peroxide. If the red clay be in contact f Esbarrancado de lavras. 

with water, the peroxide changes to the + This refers especially to the provinces 

yellow hydrate, and thus under the in- of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, 
fluence of carbonic, pronounces the white 


by a second growth of paler, yellower verdure, which at once 
betrays the poverty of the soil. 

On the other hand, the Campo, apparently a heap of stone and 
stunted grass, inhabited prmcipally by armadillos and termites, 
is apt to suggest the idea of stubborn steriht3', "which is far from 
being the case. I have not jet seen m the Brazil what Mr. 
Bayard Taylor calls the " spontaneous production of forests from 
prairie land." Botanists and travellers, moreover, do not agree 
about the original clothing of the country : some believe that it 
was always barren of timber ; others that it was in old days a 
primaeval forest. The truth lies probably between the two 
extremes. Doubtless, as about the Upper Congo and the Prau'ies 
on the Missouri, much of this Campo-land has been forested ; but 
the trees, especially near the towns, have been fired or felled. 
Thus the rainfall, partly arrested by the weatherward Serras, has 
still further diminished ; the streams, so abundant to the eastward, 
have shrunk and dried up ; whilst the gales, finding no blocks or 
screens to oppose them, have increased in violence. The annual 
bm*nings, here about August, intended to act as manure to pro- 
duce a succedaneum for salt, and to promote the growth of 
young pasture, destroy the soil, and leave nothing alive but the 
Cerrados,* stunted and gnarled trees, with coriaceous foliage and 
suberous bark, which after a course of ages have learned to 
resist the flames, the sun, the rain, the cold, the dew, the frost, 
the hail, the di-ought. In Piauhy and the northern provinces the 
Campo is either " Mimoso " or " Agreste" — comely or couthless; 
the former has annual grasses, tender, juicy, and pliant ; the 
latter, which is probably a natural feature, is known by its coarse, 
wiry produce. The soil greatly affects the vegetation. Often, 
travelHng over the Brazilian Campo, we cross a short divide, and 
find on the farther side that the growth assumes almost a new 
facies, without difference of frontage or other apparent cause. 
But everj-where in the Campos, however barren, there are rich 
bottoms admii-ably fitted for the cultivation of corn and cotton. 

* Tlie Portugaese Cerrado is a garden or tion of the ground as well as to the growth. 

an enclosure ; the Brazilian Cerrado (when Sr. Luiz D'Alincourt (in p. 129, " Sobre 

important called Cerradao) is defined to be a Viagem do Porto de Santos a Cidade de 

" campos cobertos d'arvoi-edo curto e Cuyabii, " Rio de Janeii'o, 1830) writes the 

denso ;" the Spanish Chapparal, which word Serradao. The two forms of the 

Humboldt derives from a tree called Cha- same sibilant sound (c and s) are often used 

parro ; and both are applied to the fonna- indifferently by Portuguese. 


and in most of tliem Capoes* or tree clumps flourish upon the 
slopes, where they are sheltered from the ^Yind and extend along 
the margins of the streams. Wood, after water the settler's prime 
want, will still last here for many generations. 

Let us now casi a glance at the vegetation as it appears upon 
the Borda do Campo. The first remark is that the Campo is not 
so poorly clad as the Llano, the Pampa, and especially the 
Stei^pe : it will be sufticient here to mention the most prominent 

The Cerrados or scrub, 10 or 20 feet high, and not unlike our 
hazels and crab-apple trees and the olives of southern Em'ope, 
are often Acacias and Leguminosae. Such for instance is the 
Jacaranda do Campo, a Mimosa, whose wood is little valued ; such 
is the " Sicupira"t (Bowdichea major), a straight hard wood used 
for axles; the Angico (Acacia Angico), which produces catechu; and 
the small-foliaged Barbatimao or Barba de Timao (Acacia adstrin- 
gens, Vellozo), whose bark is styptic and rich in tannic acid, and 
whose leaves are valuable for feeding the cantharides fly. That 
" antediluvian " growth, the noble and valuable Ai'aucaria (A. 
imbricata or brasihensis) I, the S. American pine, is seen only 
near settlements, and is probably an immigrant from Parana, 
where it forms primajval forests. The distorted Piqui§ (Caryocar 
brasihensis) gives an oily mucilaginous fruit, contaming a chestnut 
eaten in times of fanime. The Tingui || (Magonia glabrata, 
St. Hil.) is a useless growth, with a shapeless pendent fruit like a 
huge fungus. The Pau Terra and the large-seeded Patari supply 
good charcoal : the bark, leaf, and flower of the latter are used 
for dyeing black. The Cedro do Campo (?) and various species of 

* The evil done by tliese Locages or John Mawe and Prince Max. do not seem 

bouquets de bois is the generation of ticlis to have heard that this i^ine belongs to 

and flies that injure cattle : but this bears more southerly latitudes than Minas Gferaes. 

no proportion to the advantages which they Southey says (i. 119), that the native 

offer. name is Curiyeh, with the last syllable as- 

f The name is variously pronounced : ac- pirated. It is properly " curj' " or "cory," 

cording to the Syst. it is rich in stryph- and enters into the word Coritiba in Pa- 

num (astringent principle), and much used ran^. Also the "pine nuts" are not as 

in household medicine (JMedicina Caseira). large as acorns, but about three times 

+ This Araucaria must not be confounded larger, 
with the Araucaria excelsa of Norfolk § St. Hil. (III. ii. 27) writes Pequi, but 

Island and the Chile pine. Evei-y part of prefers Piqui, as it is so pronounced. In 

it is useful, the fruit, the timber, the tur- Tupy, Pequi means a small duck, a can- 

pentine which has been used as incense, neton. Gardner has Piki, an inadmissible 

and the fibre which will be used as grass form. 

cloth. I reserve a detailed notice of it for || Gardner ^vrites Tingi, which in Portu- 

my description of the Sao Paulo Province. giiese would be pronounced Tinji. 


wild Psidium are also common. There are several SolanacesB : 
the Jua or Joa, vulgarly called Mata-cavallo and Rejbenta-cavallo 
(burst-horse), whose yellow apple resembles the " wild bengan " 
of Africa ; the Matafome,* an edible variety with red fruit; and tlie 
pleasant-scented Fruta do Lobo (Solanum imdatum, S. lycocarpum, 
St.Hil.), said to be eaten by wolves and to poison cattle. The 
light gTeeu fruit, large as a foot-ball, is used as a detergent, and 
as one of the ingredients of soap. The most valuable tree and 
the king of the Cerrados is the Aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius, 
or Schinus molle) : the timber is of excessive hardness, resists 
weather admii'ably, and takes a fine polish. The leaves are used 
as epispastics, the decoction serves to alleviate rheumatic and 
other pains, and the gum rubbed on ropes preserves them from 
decay. The appearance of the tree when hung with its bunches 
of red currants is pleasing, but the people of the country avoid it. 
Tumours in the joints are, they say, produced by sleeping under 
it, and the highly sensitive who pass beneath it suffer from 
swellings in the face — this happened to the wife of one of my 
friends at Sao Paulo. t Unlike the true forest lands, the Serra 
and the Mato Dentro, the trees are mostly deciduous, and when 
they are bare the aspect is that of unpleasant nudity. 

The clothing of earth near the road is the clumpy tussicky 
grass, kno^vn as Barba de bode (buckgoat's beard, Chsetaria 
pallens). When young and green, this Stipeais eaten by cattle ; it 
is, however, a sign of poor soil that has been much trampled upon. 
Capim redondo and superior grasses grow in the offing, and at 
Bertioga, to the south-west of Barbacena, there are, I was told, 
wild oats as in California, which ripen dm-ing the rains, and 
which suggest cattle breeding on a large scale.:}: The hardy 
lucerne of the United States, the Alfafa of the Argentine Re- 
public and of Parana, will some day be tried, and may succeed in 
maldng first-rate ha}'. In the hollows we find the tall grass of 

* Jua or Matafome — " kill hunger " — + The Indians used the green juice of 

is what Caldfleugh (ii. 208) calls Juan Ma- the yoimg branches for diseases of the 

tafome, and compares with a yellow goose- eyes. 

berry. In p. 210 he speaks of Mata + Mr. Walsh (ii. 76) found that what 
Cavallos (kill-horse) as "a small bush he supposed to be an immense flock of 
covered with berries . . . like a Solanum," sheep, "was nothing more than the wiry 
which it is. I am not sure that this plant tufts of a species of wild oats, whose bend- 
is poisonous ; a cultivated variety of it is a ing heads at a distance much more resem- 
favourite in the Province of Sao Paulo, and bled a feeding slieep than the barometz of 
I am told that children — who here eat Tartary resembled a lamb. " He also found 
what men will not — have eaten the Jua. an Avena sterilis near S. Jose. 


several species, called bv the people Sape (Saccharum Sape, 
St. Hil.). It appears in richer soils when overworked, or where 
the ground has been often fired. The Samambaia fern also, 
which covers a large proportion of the prairies, grows under the 
same conditions. Most of the shrubs and smaller plants are 
medicinal, and the people* are well acquainted with their use. 
Besides the true and false Chinchonaceee, there is the Carapia,t 
valuable in chest complaints ; it perfumes the air, as does the heath- 
like Alecrim do Campo (Lantana microi)hvlla Mart.), a Labiad, 
which entered into *' Hungarj'^-water.''^ The Vassom*a or broom 
plant (Sida lanceolata), which supplies alkali and resembles rag- 
wort, is used as an emollient in infusion and decoction. The 
Assa-peixe branco,§ one of the Composites, acts like chamomile. 
The aromatic Yelame do Campo, "veiling of the prairie," (Croton 
fulvus or campestris) is a powerful diaphoretic and resolvent 
known to all. In the bushes there are many species of wild 
Ipecacuanha called Poaya (Cephaelis ipecacuanha). The Labiad 
known fi'om its shape as Cordao de Trade, " Friar's Waist-cord " 
(Leonotis nepetifolia. Mart.), is a powerful narcotic. The Composite 
Carqueja (Baccharis, Nardum rusticum, INIart.), with triangular 
elongated leaves and wliitish buds at the angles, is a bitter tonic, 
ai'omatic and antifebrile, much used in German-Brazilian beer. 

I need hardly say that nothing can be purer than the per- 
fumed air of these Campos ; its exhilaration combats even the 
monotony of a mule journey, and the European traveller in the 
Tropics recovers in it all his energies, mental and physical. The 
mornings and evenings are the j)erfection of chmate ; the nights 
are cool, clear, and serene, as in the Arabian Desert without its 
sand. Nor are the praii'ies deficient in the highest beauties of 
form and tint. There is grandem* in the vast continuous ex- 

* It is the fashion to deride the " Ciiran- aussi prfes qii'elle piit au-dessns de 

dciro " or simple doctor of the Brazil ; yet I'eudroit echauffe, ne tarda pas a transpircr 

from the days of Pison's IMarcgiaf he has fortement par I'effet de la Taxiem- qu'elle 

taught the scientific botanist what know- recevait, et recouvra la sant^. " 

ledge he learned fi-om the forest people. + Corrupted from Caa-pia, or pyS, (heart, 

As Prince Max. shows, the latter could liver), a Doretenia, one of the Urticacese. 

cure hernia, knew how to cup and bleed, J Alecrim is derived from the Arabic 

dressed the most dangerous wounds, and J^^| J.Jk^a'Ml El-iklil el-jabal, the 

practised the vapour bath, which like the rfZ,' o ,, ^r j. ■ .. 

Wood and Stone Ages is almost universal ; 2'V^-f^}'lT^'''^ly.v ,'• ■ 

the latter was effected in the usual savag^ ^ ^J^l " roa«t-fish ; theEupatorium is 

way by heating a large stone and by poi^- «° f^^^' ^ .f ^^^™^' ^^^'^^^ '^^^'^''' '''^'^ 

ing water uj^on it. "La malade so pla^a 

made from it. 


pause fading into the for distance. The eye can rest upon the 
scene for hours, especially when viewdng from an eminence, 
whilst it is chequered b}' the afternoon cloud, whose eclipse seems 
to come and go, and this gives mobility to the aspect, as it walks 
over the ridged surface of the light green or pale golden earth- 
waves, upheaved in the intensely blue atmosphere of morning, or 
in the lovel}^ pink tints of the " afterglow," from the shadowy 
hollows and the tree-clumps glooming below. If we analyse the 
charm, its essence seems to be the instabilit}^ of the ocean when 
we know that there is the solidity of earth. 



Eespirando os Ares limpidos, 

A vira§ao mais amena 

Da liberal Barbacena * * • 

Fad re Correa, Poesias, vol. iii. 11. 

A HAPPY inspiration induced me to call upon Dr. Pierre 
Victor Renault of Sierck, Yice-Consul of France, Homoeopathic 
Phj'^sician, Professor of Mathematics, Geography' and Historj'^ at 
Barbacena. He has spent thirty-four years in the Brazil, he 
knows by heart the bj-eways of Minas Geraes, especiall}' about the 
Rivers Paracatu and Doce, and he has lived amongst and learned 
the languages of the wildest savagery. He once acted cashier to 
the INIorro Yellio Mine, and between 1842 — 6 he assisted M. 
Halfeld in opening the coach-road. He has married a Brazilian 
wife, and all the notables in the place are his " gossips."* What 
more could be desii-ed in a guide ? Although somewhat inva- 
lided by the bivouac and the field, he kindly and cordially- 
placed himself at om- disposal, took his stick, and led us out to 
look at the city. 

Barbacena da Rainha lies m S. lat. 21° 13' 9"*1, and W. long. 
0°49' 44''-3 (Rio) in the cuhninating point of the Plateau, 3800 
feet in "round numbers" above sea level.f The climate is 
essentiall}' temperate ; the annual maximum being 80° (F.) in the 

* " Comjiadre " and " comadi-e, " so called come after death a peculiar demon whose 

in relation to the afilhado or afiJhada, the sole object in life seems to consist in 

god-child, still fonn in the Brazil a religious frightening muleteei-s. Foreigners resident 

relationship as in the days when our gossip in the Brazil are compelled to faU into the 

was a Grod-sibb, or "akin in God." I have cu.stom, which has its bad as well as its 

heard brothers address each other as Com- good side. In small country places, for 

padre, and the same term applied by wives to in.stance, all the inhaljitants are connected 

their husbands. These brother and sister by baptism if not by blood, and thus the 

sponsors may legally marry, but public opi- ends of justice are admirably canned out 

nion is as strongly pronounced against the the clean contrary way. 
union as the 'ndse of England regard ' ' con- t M. Liais, the latest and the best au- 

farreation" with the deceased wife's sister. thority, makes the height of Barbacena 

If you intrigue with your comadre, you be- 1137 metres = 3730 feet above sea level. 


shade. The Highland city began life as the Arraial da Igreja 
Nova do Bordo do Campo, a lialting-place for mule troops 
between Ouro Preto (22 leagues) and Petropolis (40 leagues) ; 
its chief trade was in cakes and refreshments sold by old women.* 
The site is unusually good for a settlement of such origin. In 
the Brazil, cities founded by ecclesiastics occup}'' the best situa- 
tions, hills and rises commanding fine views ; the laity preferred 
the bottom lands, near gold and water. It was made a municipal 
town in 1791 by the famous or infamous Visconde de Barbacena, 
Captain General of Minas, who baptised it after himself. Mawe 
(1809) describes it as a village of 200 houses, governed by an 
ouvidor or auditor judge. It was made a city by provincial law 
of March 9, 1849. f Its municipal population in 1864 was 
23,448 souls, with 1954 votes, and 39 electors, covering 1400 
alqueiras of ground, each alqueira being 10,000 Brazilian 
fathoms. The city numbered 5000 souls in 1849 ; it was then 
a kind of central oasis in the desert, formed by the southern 
Mato or forest region which we have traversed, and by the 
northern prairies over which we are to pass. Travellers to and 
from Minas loved to linger here ; now they put themselves into 
the Union and Industry coach. In 1867 the rude census gave 
about 3600 souls within " Toque de Sino " — sound of the church 
bell. This retrogrades half a century ; in 1825 the population 
was estimated at 3600, of whom 300 were whites, the rest beinj? 
blacks, mulattos, and quarteroons. Such, however, was the first 
effect of the rail iii Europe, and such will be the temporary con- 
sequences of improved communication in the Brazil. The white 
element now greatly preponderates, and the slaves, it is said, 
do not number 200 head. 

In the last generation the Barao de Pitanguy made by com- 
merce 400,000?. : no such fortunes are now open to industry. A 
house which cost 2000/. in days when labour was cheap willingly 
sells for 500Z., and this is a general rule in Minas. In 1864 
more than 60,000 bags]: of salt passed through the city; in 1867 
tliis fell to 50,000. 

The "Nobre e Muito Leal Cidade " began in 1842 a kind of 
" Secesh " movement, which took the name of " The Eevolu- 

* Sr. A. D. dePascual calls it the "Fre- % The bag of .'talt weighs from 2 aiTobas 

guezia dos Carrijos " in 1792. This is, I (64 ll)f5.) to 2 avrobas 61bs. I found the 

believe, an error. average of 6 to weigh 2 arrobas 2 lbs. 

t Castelnau (i. 198) says in ISil. 

vol.. I. G 


tion of Barbacena." Miiias, and her stalwart parent Sao 
Paulo, were especially aggrieved by the law of judiciary and 
electoral reform (Dec. 3, 18-il), wliicli, establishing cliiefs of 
police, delegates, sub-delegates, and inspectors of quarters, over- 
spread the country with a cloud of preventive agents. They 
cried out that these measures were in the interest of an oligarchy, 
and that thus, the citizens were placed at the mercy of the 
Government. Yet they repudiated repubhcanism, and professed 
the greatest loyalty to the head of the State. Minas was also 
fmious with the Conservative Ministry of 1841, and even more 
so vdth her provincial President, Bernardo Jacmto da Veiega. 
The movement was precipitated at Sorocaba in Siio Paulo. Upon 
tliis, the Municipal Chamber of Barbacena met (June 10, 1842) 
and proclaimed Lieut. -Col. Jose Fihciauno Pinto Coellio de Cunha 
acting President of Minas, with Sr. Jose Pedro Dias de 
Carvaliio as Secretary. Pomba and Queluz at once rose, but the 
acting or " intrusive President " instead of marching at once 
upon Ouro Preto, the capital, wasted time upon a mihtary prome- 
nade to Sao Joao d'El-Kei and elsewhere. The next two mouths 
saw various j9cnj36^/fes ; the " Massena " of the contest being the 
present senator Theophilo B. Ottoni, who was proposed as Vice- 
President. In early August the then Barao de Caxias, after 
reducing Siio Paulo to order, appeared before Barbacena, and 
the city bowed before its " manifest destiny." 

Barbacena, the white town on the hill-top, has straggled into 
the shape of a cross or T, with a random sprinkle around it ; 
the main street, Eua do Eosario, is the perpendicular, running 
nearly north and south, whilst the eastern ann is truncated. The 
two main thoroughfares are unpaved in the middle ; lines of 
stones rib their breadth, and at the sides are trottoks of terrible 
roughness. The chief squares, mere widenings of the streets, are 
the Largo da Camara, where the palace of the municipality is ; 
the Pra^a da AUegria, behind the Matriz ; and the Prac^a da 
Concordia to the east. In one of them a piece of machinery, 
intended for the Morro Vellio mine, cumbers the ground ; the 
article is in a " fix ; " the clay roads cannot convey it, and the 
town-hall threatens to fine it for remaining there. The houses 
are mostly " porta e janella ; " the best belongs to the General- 
Deputy the Barao de Prados, who, at the time of our visit, was 
on duty at Eio de JaneLro. 


We walked painfully up the main street, named after the mean 
chapel, Nossa Senhora do Rosario, an invocation much affected 
throughout the Brazil by slaves and negroes. It is generally 
known by a plaster crown on the fticade, and beneath the crown, 
either detached or adjoined, is a rosary * ending in a simple cross. 
Beyond it was an Ermida or private place of worship, with a gilt 
bell ; these little sacraria characterize all the older towns of 
Minas. Embryo inns still swarm ; we counted half-a-dozen. The 
destructive and lucrative " Art of Healing " numbers many 
votaries : six allopaths, five apothecaries (and general practi- 
tioners), four midwives, known by the wooden cross nailed to the 
wall, and one homceopath. A square of white paper stuck inside 
the window shows " house to let," here apparently the normal 
condition of such property. The favourite building material is 
the well-known " adobe " — the sun-dried brick of Mexico and Salt 
Lake City : in Minas it is a mass of cla}', often weighing 30 — 
32 lbs. A few of the tenements have stone foundations to prevent 
the damp and rains crumbling and washing away these unbaked 
masses of mud; the houses' eaves are made to project abnormally. 

We inspected the Matriz N'' S' da Piedade, which fronts 
to the north-north east, and commands a good view down the 
main street, and into the open beyond. The sloping ground 
required for it a raised and stone-revetted '* Adro " — platform or 
terrace. Here, as with us, was the earliest burial-ground, the 
churchyard under whose flags repose, i)i pace Domini^ the 
ancient vicars and rude grandees. Thus Padre Correa 
(" Cavaco," p. 157, Woolf ), sings :— 

'■ Dos cemiterios e do adro, 
Resuscita vaos espectros." f 

The Adro is adorned at the entrance and the corners with well- 
cut little pyramids, and "promiscuously " with seedy willows, all 
athirst, and the "scrimpy," stiff, and worse than useless " Ca- 
suarina." The stranger wonders to see this Australasian savage 
— ugly as a Scotch fir — natviralised amongst the glorious vege- 
table beauties of the Brazil and Hindostan ; its roots o^^erspread 
and impoverish the soil ; where the neighbours gracefully 
droop their branches, it turns them up with impudent preten- 

* The beads seem to awakcu the negro's course liere I speak of the " Popd Bead." 
sense of home ; in Africa they compose his f "li'rora the graveyard and the platform, 
iinest finery and his richest riches. Of Praises he tlie empty ghosts." 

G -2. 


sion, and its main purpose in Creation seems to be that of hous- 
ing destitute crickets — 

" A iuiportiuia monotona sigarra," 

jolly beggars, ^vllose ceaseless chirping and hoarse whirring 
drown the sound of the voice. The facade of whitewashed 
adobe and stone has four windows ; in the older Province of 
Sao Paulo the number is a sine qua non, five, the Trinity 
occupying the front, as they did the three Gothic steeples, 
Joseph and ]\Iary the wings. A suspicious crack and a danger- 
ous bulge ajipear about the entrance ; they are attributed to the 
sinkmg of the font-water. There are two square campaniles, 
short and squat, after the fashion of the older Brazil, a cross, 
and a broken statue. The profile shows tlie usual big nave and 
broken chiincel, a small barn backing a large barn, as in the 
countrified parts of England. 'J'hc material of the decorations is 
the blue steatite * here abundant ; it is often painted blue to 
make it bluer, " and thus," exclaims a talented Brazilian author, 
" thus they assassinate Nature ! " Like the lapis ollaris it may 
be cut with a knife, and exposure to the air soon hardens it by 
absorbmg the " quariy water." Thus it is well fitted for carv- 
ings and coarse statuary. Some of the monolithic jambs are 1-4 
feet long. 

The entrance is guarded by the usual screen f of plain wood 
and glass peepholes. The choir-balcony is over the door ; under 
it are two frescoes by a native hand, representing the Saviour's 
Passion, two holy-water stoups, and in its own chapel, to 
the left, a baptismal font of green-daubed granite. + Seven small 
Avindows placed high up admit a dim light, and there are two 
tribunes to accommodate the local magnificos. I'he wooden 
flooring, a parquet of moveable parallelograms, six feet by three, 
shows that it has been a cemetery, a custom which still lingers 
in Southern Europe ; here it lasted till a sensible law, one of 
the benefits of yellow fever, i^ut an end to the pious malpractice. 
The Avails are pasted Avitli election papers and other public 
documents, and on each side is a Avhite and gilt pulpit in the 
normal style, which may l)e called the " swallow-nest." The six 
minor chapels § have altars of Avhite, green, and gold ; the 

• Pedra azulada. <lc granit teuclre, blanchitre, dont on fait 

t Tapa-vento. des uieules." 

X Mawe, c. 10, says tliat there is in the § My wife took down the patrons, as 

neighbourhood of Barbacena, "unecavriere follows: Right side — 


pillars? of stone and wood rest upon consoles, but these have 
basal pedestals, and are not founded upon nothing, as in most 
Brazilian churches. 

The chancel arch leading to tlie high altar shows a massive 
silver candelabrum, worth 120/., and presented b^'the pious Bariio 
de Pitanguy. The curtain guarding the throne has a black cross 
on a white mortuary cloth of silk and wool, costing 100/., and 
given b}' the Barao's son. The altar cloths are worked by the 
Barao's sisters. And there is a good statue of Italian marble 
representing a guardian angel at liis devotions, and placed at 
an expense of 360/. by the Barao in honour of his father. 

The high altar is of white and gold, with a " Dead Christ and 
Our Lady " on painted wood, and somewhat above life-size. The 
effect is not bad. There is a large tabernacle ; four massive 
candlesticks of ormolu assist the tapers, and four tolerable 
modern oil-paintings represent the " Flagellation," " Our Lad};- 
at the Cross," the "Agony in the Garden," and the " Eesurrec- 
tion from the Tomb." I have lingered over this description; it 
will serve for all the churches in the "well-to-do" country 
towns of the Brazil, within the civilizing influence of the 

We next visited the church of (N^ S'* da) Boa Morte — of happy 
dispatch ; it is a conspicuous pile on the western ridge, best seen 
from afar. The exterior of granite and steatite is grotesque, the 
towers have two clocks, apparently dummies, leaving work to the 
neighbouring sun-dial, and an ugly new sacristy of strange style 
has been stuck on to the original building, which bears date 
1815. Thus Castelnau erred in supposing that the unfinished 
pile had been abandoned, Hke the Hyde Park Achilles. These 
places in the Brazil belong to Sodalities or brotherhoods, who 
proceed with them as fast or as slowh' as funds i:)ermit ; 
foreigners readily prophesy that progress has ceased, and moralize, 
when such process is uncalled for by the occasion, upon the 
decay of zeal in this our modern day. And yet they do move. 

The interior is the normal barn — wliite and blue. N** S^ da 

No. 1. Saints Micliael, Cecilia, and No. 2. K' S» das Dores and S'« 

Liizia. Earbara. 

No. 2. N» S» do Carmo and N» S» do No. 3. Saints Sebastian and Joseph, 

Rosario. with the " Menino Deiis " — infant Christ. 

No. 3. N" S"" dos Passos. Also there is a little separate chapel for 

Left side — the Blessed Sacrament, with a crucifix, 

No. 1. Saints Antonio and Kita. kc, S. Vincent de Paul. 


Assumpgao occupies the caput, and below her is a recumbent 
Virgin. There are two stone pulpits painted azure, an organless 
organ-loft, and three votive tablets on the wall. To the west is 
the cemetery, with its mortuary chapel, which owe their exist- 
ence to our excellent guide. This " colon}' of the dead," though 
only three years old, is filling fast ; catarrh and pneumonia, with 
their numberless varieties, being the principal cansce causantes. 
At the entrance we met a dead negro carried upon a stretcher 
b}' four black brethi'en, who, laughing and chatting, tossed and 
jolted the clay into a semblance of life. 

Struck by the savageness of a white man beating a dog — a rare 
sight in Brazil, where humanity to animals is the rule — I asked 
who he was, and was told " an Italian." There are many 
of these emigTants in Sao Paulo — more in Minas — in fact, they 
extend from Para to Buenos Ayres. The}' do not bear a good 
report, and my friends often warned me against being suspected of 
coming from the land which produced Cfesar and Napoleon, Dante 
and MacchiaveUi. The perfervidum lugcninm, the claiiToyant sub- 
tlety of the Ausonian, is a plague to him in these countries : he is too 
clever by half, or rather by tlu'ee quarters. He returns to the Italian 
of the sixteenth century ; he is dark, wily, and unscrupulous as 
Rizzio. Some answer to the old saying, " fur atque sacerdos." 
A certain Fr. Bernardo is reported to have sold for the Virgin's 
milk, " mosquito's eggs," as homoeopathic globules are here 
called. The reader may think this a draft upon his credulity ; 
but official documents prove * that these ecclesiastics have sold 
"veritable tears of Our Lady in rosaries," have passed off 
rubbish as saints' relics, and have sold "passports for heaven" 
at the rate of a sovereign a head. The Mineiro t^ may sing with 
Beranger : — 

AATiat imperceptibles we have ! 

Small Jesuits of the bilious hue. 
Hundreds of other clergy grave, 

Who little relics hold to view. 

■* Appendix to Presidential Relatorio of del Mina " on the Guinea Coast. Vam- 

Minas for 1865, p. 39. IMoreover most hagen (History, ii. 281) warns us that 

large churches in these lands have a bit of at first the Mineiro was a term applied 

the True Cross duly supplied to them by solely to the gold miner. A native of 

Italian speculators. Rio Grande is Rio Grandense ; of Sao Paulo, 

t Mmeiro (from Mineira) is an inhabi- Paulista (substantive), or Panlistano (adjec- 

tant of Minas Geraes, the Province, and tive), (not Paulense, as in the excellent 

must not be confounded by the .stranger handbook, "Brazil: its Provinces and 

with the African " Minas " of " 8t. George Chief Cities," by William Scullv. London : 


From the Boa Morte we deseeiuled the vile Ladeira da Cadea, 
Prison Ramp, and looked at the jail : the barred windows showed 
three women. In almost all cases of premeditated mm-der 
throughout the Brazil, two of the active actors are a woman and 
a negro. The last of the public buildings to be visited is the 
Misericordia Hospital, in a cold hollow to the north of the city. 
The entrance bears inscribed — 

Pauperis iufirmi sit in ore Antonius Armond, 
Et pius, et magnus vir, pater egregiiis. 

Queer Latm, but well intentioned ! All honour to Sr. Antonio 
Jose Ferreira Armond (nat. March 11, 1798, ob. 1852), who 
in five 3'ears built the httle chapel of Santo Antonio, and the 
charitable establishment to which he left 12,000/., an estate and 
fourteen slaves. In the absence of the priestly Curator the civil 
apothecary showed us about the building and allowed us to gather 
violets in the neat " Patio " or central garden-court.* The rooms 
were clean, and had six inmates : freemen pay about four florins 
per diem, and ser^-iles half. The place has not a good name; 
patients are said to die for want of care, and Brazilians deride a 
" Misericordia" which charges for board and lodging. It is also 
far from good water, always a scarce commodity at Barbacena. 
The best is supplied by a fountain to the east of the city ; the 
fa9ade wall is inscribed with the name of the Camara Mmiicipal 
for 1864. 

We then inspected Dr. Renault's little garden behind the house, 
which vegetation spoke of a temperate climate ; it is full of pinks, 
roses, violets, and verbena,! gladeoli, and heliotropes. The oranges 
were excellent, and from them our host made his " Tokay ; " it 
cost about fom'pence a bottle, and drunk with the Pinhao or 
Ai-aucaria nut it suggested the best liqueur. At Morro Vellio I 
obtained an excellent recipe ; it is worth knowing in a country 
where millions of oranges and pine-apples, jnstif3ing Elia's rave, 

MiuTay & Co., Paternoster Row, 1S66.) the Brazil the Patio is nsnally called Quin- 

There is a peculiarity in the use of the tal ; the latter, however, also means a small 

word Paulista ; for instance, f azendeiro garden attached to a messuage. 
Paulista is correct, Paulistano would not be t An indigenous gi-owth, the Verbena 

idiomatic. virgata of M. Sellow. It is a powerful 

* Patio is, derived from the sudoriiic, and in the treatment of "chills' 

Arabic AaiJaj (bathah), even a.s Saguaio, a '* e^li^ials lemon-grass, 
vestibule, comes from ^^ » ^t O (Sahn\. In 



[rTI\?. VTT. 

are left to decay upon the ground.* "We were also shown good 
spechnens of the heav}'' hand-made pots of steatite or pierre 
oUau'e, for which Barhacena is celehrated. The best oUar}^ talc 
comes fi"om the Mello village six leagues distant, and from the 
Merces do Pomba, t a town ten leagues to the east upon the sea- 
v/ard slope of the Mantiqueira Range. The formation is found in 
tlie talcose and micaceous schists : the iii'st quality is tolerably 
free from the crystallized bits of hydrate of iron, which induce 
decomposition. It is easily quarried, it hardens rapidly, and 
lasting long it is in general use throughout the country. The 
price ranges according to size from fourpence to twelve shillings, 
some being large enough to accommodate a round of beef. The 
smaller pots (panellas) rival the "\\'cst Indian pepper pot for 
stewing. Some day this soapstone will be worked with great 
profit, and pipe bowls, for which I inquired in vain, ought espe- 
ciallv to " take." 

* Tlie Count Hogeuclorf, cx-aide-dc- 
camp to the Firet Napoleon, who took re- 
fuge in Brazil, made this wine, which M. 
de Freycinet (Voyage de I'Uranie, i. 231) 
compares with jMalaga. St. Hilaire also 
described the process of making, but very 
imjjerfectly (III. ii. 347). The following is 
the M.ori-o Velho recipe for making nine gal- 
lons of orange wine : — Take two hundred 
sweet oranges, pare off the thin outer rind of 
fifty, and put them to soak in four quarts 
of water. Squeeze out all the juice, strain 
it well, and put it into the Imrrel with 
thirty-two jjoimds of white sugar. Fill the 
barrel with water, and stir and shake it 
well, add a quart basin of ferment, and as 
it works off replenish it with the water of 
the soaked peels, so that it may be always 

full. As soon as the hissing ceases, put in 
a quart of old sugar brandy, restilo, bung 
up the, and let it stand for seven 
months before liottling it. It sometimes 
takes as much as three days to begin to 
work, and has continued working from 
thirty to forty days. To give the wine a 
colour, you may burn a teacup of sugar in 
restilo, before the barrel is bunged up. 

+ Some write Merces da Pomba. The 
exjiression, however, contains one of those 
ellipses so common in Portuguese and so 
diificidt to the stranger ; the full phrase 
Avould be (N» S" das) Mercfe do (Eio da) 
Pomba. The Pomba River is an import- 
ant northern feeder of the Parahyba do 
Sul, and the lands about it are known as 
the ".Mata,"— the bush. 



Jardins, vergeis, umbrosas alamedaa, 
Frescas grutas entao, piscosos lagos, 
E pingues campos, sempre verdes pradop, 
Um novo Eden fariam. 

Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Slha. 

Amongst the c-uiios, the " biic-a-brac," shown to us by Dr. 
Renault, none was more interestmg than the gold bar, the lingot 
d'or, formerly current in the Brazil. In the year of royalty 1808, 
according to Mr. Henderson, the cu-culation of gold dust,* then 
the medium of commerce, was j)roliibited — of course the use 
lingered lono- in the interior — and coins of the three usual metals 
were introduced. The bar kept up its circulation till 1832. The 
weight varied according to the ciuantity of gold brought by the 
miner to the Intendencia of Ouro Preto or elsewhere. The spe- 
cimen which we saw was about three inches long, and valued at 
151. : sometimes it Aveiglied several niarcos, each marco — eight 
ounces. The ore was duly assayed, the Quinto or royal fifth was 
taken, and it was stamped with the number, date, royal arms, and 
standard (toque), 24 quilate or carat-gold being the pm-est. 
Finally it bore its value in ounces, octaves, and grains. It was 
accompanied by the usual paper, the " guia " or "guide," a 
kind of manifest given to du-ect the carrier ; without this it 
could not leave the Province. 

After the bars came the age of gold oitavas (eighth of the 
Portuguese ounce) and their subdivisions. In 1816 — 1822 the 
oitava was worth 1$ 500, but taxes reduced it to a current value 

* "Canjica," the diminutive form of p-anular gold and nuggets (pepitas) which 

canja, a word in which the Anglo-Indian «t. Hil. says (HL i. 70) are called Ma(;a- 

would hardly recognise the old familiar niorras in the Uraguay or Banda Oriental ; 

"congee" or rice-water. In the Brazil it and, thirdly, to the diamantiferoua gravel, 

is applied to a " " soup, to a.s will nfterwanls appear. 
husked and lioileil Imlian corn, to tlic 


of 1$200 ( = 7 francs 50 centimes), for which men now pay 3$ 500. 
The other coins were vintens d'ouro 0$037"5 = 23-j^ centimes, 
half-patacas and patacas ( = OS300), crusadas d'ouro ( = 0^750*), 
half-oitavas and oitavas. Some of these coins were mere spangles, 
like the Egyptian piastres, and the people complained that they 
were easily lost. 

The golden age expu'ed in 1864. During the last quarter of 
that year the many ruinous bankruptcies at Eio de Janeiro called 
for an exceptional measure. The Government permitted, and not 
for the first time, the Imperial Bank, a private establishment like 
that of England, to issue instead of specie payments a forced 
circulation of paper money in a treble proportion to the bullion 
at its command. The privilege has been renewed, and, as figures 
show, it has not yet been excessively abused, f But times were 
bad, the Paraguayan war was absorbing bullion and returning 
nothing, all the gold currency was withdrawn and substituted by 
Treasury notes. Brazilians soon remembered that there had been 
such things as assignats. In the short space of three years gold 
has completel}' disappeared from the Gold and Diamond Empire, 
and excei^t in the Museums I have not seen a gold coin. Silver 
is rare, but not so rare, and of late there has been a new issue of 
somewhat debased small change. The principal bullion is copper, 
a metal introduced by the celebrated Vasconcellos, "great archi- 
tect of ruins and scourge of Ministries:" the "dump," thus 
elegantly termed by the English, is a piece of 40 reis, the local 
penny. It is uglier and more barbarous than its British repre- 
sentative, but it is on the point of making way for a neat bronze 
piece, with 95 parts of copper, 4 of tin, and 1 of zinc. 

The place of gold and silver is thus taken by "flimsies," which 
begin at the minimum of 1$000, and the maximum of 500 $000, 
the latter but lately issued. Every bullionist, in the United 
States sense of the word, will understand the result of this 

* St. Hil. III. i. Sfifi. pa^^scd empowering the issue of forty-five 

+ In Api-i] 1, 1867, the whole issue of millions (mil-reis) in notes, 
paper money in the Brazil was as follows : The paper money does not present to the 

National notes . . 42,560 : 444$ 000 traveller as many difficulties in the Brazil 

Bank of Brazil . . 73,476 : 710 $ 000 as in the United States. His only cliance 

Other banks . . 2,461 : 700 $ 000 of loss — if at least he wisely prefer impe- 

rial paper — will be that incurred when old 

Total . . . 118,498 : 854 $000 notes are called in. Private bank-paper 

This sum had increased on March 31st, will cost him 2 to 5 per cent, everywhere, ex- 

1868, to_124,686 : 209 $ 000. f-ept at the place where it is issued. 

In this session, however, a bill was 

CHAP, viii.] C; UP. -THE HOTEL.— THE MULES. 91 

unsound paper currency. It is fatal to econoni}', it doubles small 
expenses, and its effect is that whilst the Brazil exports to Europe 
gold and diamonds, coftee and cocoa, cotton, tobacco, and sugar, 
she receives in return nothing but "trash," the refuse of the 
markets delivered at the highest possible prices.* 

More disastrous still, on account of the national fears and sus- 
picions, has been tlie effect of this paper upon the mil-reis. Tra- 
vellers assure us that in 1801 this, the practical unit of value, was 
worth 5 shilhngs Tj pence. In 1815 it represented 6 francs 25 
centimes. In 1835 — 36 it was 30 — 32 pence. When I landed at 
Pernambuco, June 1865, it was at par = 27 pence. It has in 1867 
fallen to 13f pence, and under actual circumstances there is ap- 
parently nothing to prevent it sinldng, like the dollar of the South 
American Republics, to twopence. 

But the Brazil is a young country, eminently rich in resources 
still unexploited. A debt of 60 millions of pounds sterling, the 
"ballast of the ship," is to her literall}' a flea-bite, considering 
her enormous excess of exports over imports, that is to say, 
of mcome over expenditure. If she ever become bankrupt, it 
will be because, with enough to pay off a score of such debts, she 
has not kept ready money enough in hand for household expenses. 
She has clerical property to be secularized, public lands to be 
sold, a system of du-ect taxation to be introduced, import dues to 
be taken m gold when such process ^\ill not discredit her own 
credit, and mines of precious metals waiting to be worked. All 
bullionists will agree ■\\'itli me that the sooner her paper is re- 
placed by gold the better. As early as 1801 Dr. Couto proposed 
to raise the value of the metal by making the oitava represent 
1$500 instead of 1$ 200, a far-sighted policy. We have all wit- 
nessed wliat a small premium upon gold has done in France, 
where it was treated as an article of commerce, not as an in- 
flexible standard — the old English view. This measure would 
save the discount upon paper, and the heavy expenses incurred 
by the Caixa de Amortizacao, tliat peculiar South American form 
of sinldng fund. 

* The least being doii'ile the market I am perfectly aware that the "absurdity 

value in Europe. Again the mil-reis of discoui'aging the exportation of precious 

(Anglice milrea) is a financial error like metals " was disclosed some two centuries 

the rouble of Russia and tlie rupee of Hin- and a half ago. But it is contended that 

dcstan ; everything costs a mil-reis. Thus new countries mostly present exceptions to 

in Europe we find that the carUno and the the economic law, or rather to its operations, 

paolo do the duty of franc ami shilling. and that of these lands the Brazil is one. 


The monetary system of the Brazil, arithmetically considered, 
is good, hecause it has rendered decimals familiar to the people. 
Strangers forget this when they complain of the long array of 
confusing figures. The true unit of value is the real (plural 
reis) written 0$001 ;* a "conto," or million of reis, is Avritten 
1:000 $000, or without the tlii-ee dextral ciphers, 1:000$, and as 
in Brazilian arithmetic generally, a colon is placed to the right 
of the thousands. 

The old Portuguese suhdivisions of the mil-reis are mostly con- 
ventional, like our guinea. Thev are, 1, the testao (testoon) = 
100 reis, or the tenth of the mil-rei ; 2, the pataca = 8 " dumps " 
= 320 reis (what a tax upon memory !) ; 3, the crusado, once 
half-a-crown, now = 10 dumps = 400 reis ; 4, the sello (rare) = 
1| pataca = 480 reis ; 5, the half mil-reis = 500 reis ; 6, the 
patacao = 3 patacas = 960 reis. The hideous copper coinage is 1 
vintem (a score of reis, plm*. vintens) = 0$020, and the dois vintens, 
or " dump,"= 0$040. The older travellers were obliged to have 
a mule for the carriage of this Spartan coinage. 

We dined together at the Uihlc (Vhote, a motley group, the 
Austrian ex-lieutenant, the driver, and sundry citizens of Bar- 
bacena. All harmonized Avell, and in the evening our good 
guide gave me the following items of information. I must 
premise, however, that the Doctor is an enthusiast for his adopted 

The Campos of Barbacena, the broken plains be3'ond the Man- 
tiqueira Ilange, raised 3000 to 3500 feet above sea-level, are 
evidently well fitted for stock breeding. The principal use of 
black cattle is at present to i>roduce the cheese, which is exported 
to the capital of the P^mjiire. About six square acres are allowed 
for each cow ; thirty-two bottles of milk yield 2 lbs. ; the Avomen 
and children of a fiimily easily muke half a dozen loaves per diem, 
and colporteurs sometimes collect 200 from a single establish- 

* The monogram of dollar ( $ ) precedes the Spanish pillar dollar, which the Arabs 

in the United States, and in the Brazil liken to a M-indow or to cannon. Another 

follows the figure. In the older Brazil it minutia is prefixing Rs. (reis not rupees) 

is sometimes written U. This favours the to large sums, e. g. Rs. 100 : 000 $000. 
idea that the mark is a contraction of N. B. Since the above was written, on Sept. 

U. S. Others believe it to stand for .5, 1868 a decree authorized the Minister of 

a "piece of eight" (reals), the Spanish Fazenda to issue 40, 000, 000 $000 of further 

dollar which gave birth to the American paper money. An act of Sept. 28,' 67, autho- 

doUar, and that the parallels were dra\vn rized an issue of 50, 000, 000 $000. Of this, 

across the 8 to distinguish it. Others again all has been emitted but 3, 61 4, 000 $000. 
derive it from the columns and .scroll of 




meiit. St. Hilaire's account of the rude process is not obsolete ; 
the cheese material is hard and Avhite, equal jierhaps to the 
Dutch "cannon-ball," but not to be mentioned with Stilton or 
Roquefort ; like Parmesan, it is good for grating. It awaits im- 
provement in the dairy and even in the churn, which John Mawe 
tells us was not known before 1809. 

The cereals flourish in the richer soils : wheat,* the maize or 
"corn," which in the Brazil takes the place of oats; rje and 
buckwheat, also called black-wheat : the two latter are hardy, and 
require little care. Tubers abound. The American potato, here 
kno\ra as "English" or "Irish," gives two crops per annum; 
and the batata or sweet potato (Tuber Parmantier), four. There 
is also the Inhanu (Caladium esculentum) ; the Mangaritof or Man- 
gareto (Caladium sagittifolium) and the well-known and excellent 
Cara (Dioscorea alata, St. Hil.). I saw, for the first time, the Jacu- 
tupe t and the "Topinambour," "Tupinambur," or "Taratouf."§ 
Of the fruits, pears, ajiples ; jilums, white and black; cherries, H 
chesnuts, damsons, and peaches, grow well, and are worth im- 
proving. The grape, especially that called the Manga,^ or Ame- 
rican, bears twice ; the vintage is poor in July, but in December 
the bunches are marvellousl}^ large and numerous. The unrijje 
crop makes good vinegar ; the ripe yields a thin, rough Bur- 

* Wlieat will gi-ow at tLese altitudes in 
the sub-tropical regions, but it is always 
liable to rust (feiTT.igem). 

f PriuceMax. (ii. 76) calls the plant " le 
luangaranito (x\rum esculentum)." St. 
Hil. (I. i. 402), speaks of the " Manga - 
reto branco," and a variety of a violet 
colour known as " Mangareto Roxo. " 

+ According to Dr. Renault, Martins has 
not yet named the Jacutuiie. It is evidently 
a legunien with papilionaceous flowers, 
creeping on the ground \\dtli a root 4 — 5 
decimetres long, by 1 — 2 in diameter. 
The flower of Idue- violet is followed by 
siliqure, each containing 4 — 5 beans, re- 
sembling the " feve de marais " (Windsor 
beans ?). These are very poisonous, killing 
animals in a short time. The toxic sub- 
stance may be a new and especial alkaloid, 
or a.s it seems by analogy, perhaps Brucinc. 
Its tonic properties are sujiposed to be the 
result of a great disengagement of carbonic 
acid. The beans are plantetl in Septemlier, 
and the roots are edible after six months ; 
when taken ujj they cannot lie kept long. 
The well-rasped fecula makes excellent 
starch, and is used hy the Brazilian house- 

wife for thickening soups and for making 
sweetmeats, which much resemble con- 
serves of the cocoa-nut. The Jacutupe 
flourishes most in light lands where there 
is shade. 

§ Dr. Renault tells me that this Helian- 
thus tuberosxis is also called ' ' Artichant de 
Canada " and Poire de terre ; it belongs to 
the gi-eat family of Synantherea;, order Radi- 
acere, genus Helianthus. It has been often 
confounded with the sweet potato (Con- 
volvulus Batatas), as in both plants the 
tuberosities of the roots are mere swellings. 
Some derive it from Chili, others make it a 
native of the Brazil, where however it is 
little cultivated, and only in gardens. It 
is a hardy plant, which would thrive in 
Europe. Dr. Renault says that the root 
would ])e a blessing to the poor, and opines 
with the philosopher that a new dish is of 
more general importance to humanity than 
the discovery of a new star or planet. 

II I have not yet seen a cheny in the 

^ The well-known fruit wliich v.'c call 


gundy ; aiul the raisins give excellent brandy, like the Eaki of 

Mulberry trees thrive ; they do not lose the leaf in the cold 
season, but continually renew it ; after the second year tliey can 
be utilized. I am told that ]\I. Abricht, now at the colony of 
Joinville, has found five indigenous si)ecies of silk-Avorm. Cas- 
telnau (146) declares that the true Bonib^'x mori is nowhere to 
be met with in the Brazil ; he observed, however, many large 
species of the " Saturnia," known to the Chinese and to the Hindus. 
The Urumbeba (Cactus spinosus), also called Figueii-a do Inferno, 
grows wild; and the cochineal insect* appears spontaneously, show- 
ing that the fine Mexican or Tenerife Nopal might be natm-iilized. 
Both soil and climate are proi)itious for the hop, which is now 
imported at a heavy price from Europe. The hardy and almost 
indestructible tea-plant gave crops of fair- market value ; this 
industry was destroyed by the fall of price at Ilio de Janeii'o. 
Cotton, both the herbaceous and the so-called arboreous, has been 
groMU on the '' Capao "-lands, and, intelligently cultivated, it will 
be wealth to the Province. The tobacco of the Bio do Pomba, 
15 leagues fi-om Bai-bacena and the Eio Novo, won the medal at 
the Industrial Exhibition of Bio de Janeiro ; that of Baependy, 
especially the " Fumo crespo," is a dark strong leaf, well 
fitted for making "Cavendish" or " honey- dew;" and the "weed " 
flourishes throughout Minns Geraes. The soil Avill be much 
improved by compost : and the produce by being treated in A'ir- 
ginian style, delicately dried in closed barns Avitli fires. Indigo 
grows everyAvhere wild, and gives that fine purple gloss which 
rivals the jDroduce of Hindostan.f Dr. Benault declares that 
every hive of the Em'opean bee "gives from twelve to fifteen 

" In many parts of J[ina.s Geraes the liut adulteration witk flour soon criLshed the 
"prickly pear" Cactus gi-ows ^ntliout attempt. Prince Max. (" Voyage au Bresil, " 
prickles; it is eaten by children, not a.s at vol. i. chap. 3) found that at "Sagoa- 
Malta by all classes and ages, who hold it rema " it had been cultivated and fetched 
dui-ing the hot season to be a wholesome 6 $ 400 then = 31 francs. I shall have 
cooling fniit eminently fitted for breakfast. more to s;iy about cochineal when descend- 
As regards coehineal, the dye which has ii;g the Kio de Siio Francisco, 
made obsolete the Tyrian j^urple, i)r. f In 1764 a law was jjassed exempting 
Couto, -^^Titing in old times, says, "ACochi- from duty the indigo of Para and Maran- 
nilla, planta em que se cria esta tinta igual ham. Under the Marquez de La\Tadio, third 
i'.o oiu-o no valor, e da qual temos tanta Viceroy of Rio de Janeiro (17t>D — 1778) 
abundancia, crescc inutiimente enti-c nos.'' the exportation was attempted from the 
"Cochineal, a plant upon which is laised Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro ; the article was 
the dye that equals gold in value, and of excellent, but as was the case ^^^th cochi- 
\\hich we have such au abundance, gro-svs )iea], the excessive adulteration disgusted 
useless on our lands." A small expoi-tation the trade. The plant was mostly Ihe Sola- 
of cochineal was tried Letv.xeu 1800—1815, num indigiferum (St. Uil.). 

cuAP. viii.] GUP.— THE HOTEL.— THE MULES. 95 

swarms (enxames) per six months ; 1|^ lb. of wax with 20 litres of 
hoiie_Y ; whilst each litre of the latter produces four litres of 
excellent aqua vitfe." Nothing, I ma}^ remark, is more wanted 
in the Brazil than la petite culture, bees, silk-worms, cochineal, 
seed-picking, which will w^ork the hands of women and children. 

The Barbacenense Hotel, pronounce ' Otel, even as Uncle 
R will say " an /iotel," is the usual guest house of the coun- 
trified Brazil. As it is frequented by strangers there is salt upon 
the table, here not the general usage, and a huge jomt of beef 
appears, if possible, by the side of the grilled and boiled-with- 
rice foAvls, the hunches of pork, the sausages, the chopped cab- 
bage-cum-lard (Couve picado), and the inevitable haricots of the 
national cuisine. The worst part of it is the " addition," 
which has all the "beauties of dearness;" unless there be a 
special agreement the multiplication of items would read a lesson 
to a "Family Hotel" in Dover Street, Piccadilly, or any other 
place where that obsolete institution, an ancient EngUsh inn, 
lingers out its dishonest old age. Brazilians, like Bussiaus, take 
pride in a generosit}^ verging upon recklessness and profusion ; 
moreover, the exceeding courteousness of manner that charac- 
terizes the people prevents the Cavalheiro observing openlj- that 
he has been plundered. He therefore pays with apparent cheer- 
fulness, departs, and grumbles. 

The " Maje," as our host would be called in the Far West, 
further north, sent us in an unconscionable bill ; possibly he v/as 
excited by the abnormal appearance of Mr. L'pool. The cos- 
tume of our fellow-traveller consisted of (firstly), a tall broad- 
brimmed cone of felt, brigand-lilie, adorned with a cockade of 
rare feathers ; of (secundo), the threadbare shooting jacket and 
frayed Avaistcoat and termmations, worn only by the wealthy 
Britisher ; of (thii'dly), a broad silk sash, splendid as a marigold, 
over which was buckled (foui-thly) the " Guayaca," a belt of un- 
tanned leather, in which the wild Guaeho of the Pampas carries 
his coin when he has any. In this case it was furnished with 
(fifthly) a loaded Colt's six-shooter : and (sixthly), with a bowie 
knife of Brummagem sih^er, very "low" in Brazilian eyes; 
(seventhly), there was a pair of " tamancas," wooden pattens, used 
only in the house, and these had been provided with leather 
thongs like the sandal ribbons worn by our venerable feminine 
pnrents in the days wlien Ch;u'les Dix was yet Roi. Add to 


this a " capaiiga,"* or pouclilet of coarse canvas, in which the 
muleteer stoAvs awaA' tobacco, flint and steel, pack-thread, and as 
much miscellaneous cargo as is contained b}^ the schoolboy's 
pocket. Thus equipped, the wearer was the model of an English 
travelling gentleman. 

The Brazil may be improvident, profuse, reckless, but not so 
North Britain. Mr. L'pool scrutinized, ynth underwriter eyes, 
the " little bill," and at once detected charged to us 32 bottles 
of beer, which the "Maje" had drunk to drown his sorrows. 
Poor little old man, his famih- allows him no " trink-gelt ! " 
When remonstrated with, he oftered seriously, but in bitter irony, 
to reduce his account to nothing — to one quarter — to half. ]3ut 
the fine satire being utterly tin-own away upon the son of that 
city where men seem to be born with brown pnpcr parcels under 
their arms, he took off 14 shillings from as many pounds sterling, 
and thus ended the Battle of the Bottles. 

Good news awaited us at Barbacena. jMr. J. X. Gordon, 
Superintendent-in-chief of the great English mine at Morro Yelho, 
had kmdly offered to send mules for us to Juiz de Fora ; our 
delay had caused the troop to march northwards, and we Avere in 
no small fear of missing it. Hired animate are here paid 5$ 000 
per diem each, including a mounted guide. But they are seldom 
good, never safe, esx:)ecially where a riding-habit is in the case ; 
and the first comfort of travel in the Brazil dejiends upon your 
beast and your saddle. It was therefore with no small satisfaction 
that we found ten good beasts under the charge of Mr. I'ltzjiatrick, 
whose sole dut}' it was to look after them and their furniture. In 
Persia we should call this INIaster of the Morro Yelho Horse a 
Mirakhor, Chief of stables, here he is an Escoteiro or Ecuyer — 
all I shall say of him is that he kept his men sober, and that he 
made us thoroughly comfortable. 

Every traveller comjilains of the testy and petulant mule ; 
every traveller lides mules, a necessary evil, as horses cannot 
stand long marches in tliis part of the Brazil. The beast may be 
learned b}' studying the mulatto and the eunuch : like those 
amiable monsters, it appears to eye all creation with a general 
and undistinguishable liate. It will not become attached to the 

* This bag is taken from tlie Indians, of cotton cords knotted and plaited and 
who -when hunting slung it over the dyed alternately yellow or red brown, ■Rith 
shoulder like a kind of camassiere ; it was the " catoua" liark. 

iiiAi'. viir.] <!UP.— THE HOTEL.— THE MULB^S. 97 

master, treat he it never so kindly ; the rider can never be sure of 
it, and of all animals it is the most violently agitated by fear. 
Its tricks are legion, and it seems to feel a consciousness that 
its treachery can always get the. better of a struggle : elderly men, 
therefore, jn-efer horses to mules. It is a mistake to believe in 
the brute's hardiness : here at least I find that the sun soon tires 
it, and that it requires much grain, plentiful di'mk, and frequent 
rest. During" my travels in the Brazil one fell with me through a 
bridge, despite the vaunted muline sagacity ; another dropped on 
its side ; * a third, a vicious little mule (macho), gave me as I was 
sitting loosely in the saddle a hoist which made me ask the day 
o' week for an hour afterwards ; and briefly, I never rode a hun- 
dred miles without my monture kissing the ground once, twice, 
or thrice. In one point, however, the quadruped mule surpasses 
the biped. The former looks up to the nobler side of the house, 
and wiU follow the lead of a horse rather than the wake of a 
brother bastard. The latter learns — curiously enough the father's 
family teaches him the lesson — not to do so. 

Our little caravan consisted of two " tropeiros " or muleteers, 
the almocreves of Portugal, and arreii'os of Spain. Miguel was 
the driver (tocador), whilst Antonio acted guide. There were 
three baggage mules, including " Falloux," the scapegoat, and 
Estrella, the " star-faced," an incarnation of vice, ready to kick 
the hand that fed her. They had the old Brazilian packsaddle, 
described in detail by Mr. Luccock and Prince Max., girt on by 
skilful hands over masses of heterogeneous packages, stuck as if 
plastered. They will value the comfort of good loading who, by 
engaging some dunderhead European, have lost all patience and 
alternate half-hours. The riding beasts were " lioao " the ches- 
nut, "Machinho," a small grey mule, "Estrella No. 2," a good 
sun beast, and Camandongo the "male mouse," stout and willing, 
old, and therefore tolerably safe. Thus each had a single remount : 
nothing lilve the change after a few hours in a hottish sun. 
There were three horses, " Castanha " the bay, "Alazao" the 
roan, and an old white guide (madrinha) named "Prodigio," the 
sole prodigy being its age. All were in good condition, with sound 
eA'es and teeth, frotliing their bits to show their spirit ; there 
are no "jjarrot mouths," and there are few shiny places upon 
their backs. "Lombo limpo," says the proverb, " bom arreiro." t 

* Prancliear-se is tlic Enizirum tonn. + " Clean back (!<ho\v,s) good luuleteer." 

VOL. I, It 


A word before leaving Barbacena. The observations of 
M. Liais found no difficulty in running a line of railway via this 
city to Santo Antonio de Rio Acima and Sabara on the Pdo das 
Velhas ; indeed he declares this to be the shortest and readiest 
road. If so, the dull old town has a future. Juiz de Fora maj^ 
be called gay, because it has a daily arrival and departm-e of the 
mail. Barbacena is galvanized by a bi-weekl}- coach, which keeps 
up a theatre for amateurs and a billiard-room. We are now 
about to see the outer darkness of places to which mules are the 
onl}' transport. 


Length . 

. 88 millimetres. 

Breadth . 

. . G 


• -ii 



" S'il existe un pays qui jamais puisse se passer du reste du moude, ce sera 
certainement la Province des Mines." — St. Hllaire, i. 4. 

We now digress from the most populous part of Minas, which 
lies almost due north between Barbacena and Diamantina. The 
direct, or north-west road, about 150 miles, between us and the 
Morro Velho Mine has been trodden to uninterestingness.f I 
therefore took a liberty -with the mules, and resolved upon making 
a right angle to the west, with a base of thirty and a leg of ninety 
miles as the crow flies. 

The good Dr. Renaidt supplied us with letters, not forgetting 
one for Sr. Francisco Jose de Meii'elles, innkeeper of Barroso, 
the "muddy" where we intended to night. In this country 
"recommendations," as introductions are called, may often prove 
more valuable than bank-notes. He accompanied us on horse- 
back for a few miles,! and I felt sad when taking leave of him. 
A man living upon conversation and exchange of opinion, and to 
whom talk is bhss, he must Snd Barbacena as it now is, a penance, 
a pm-gator}'. 

■■■ Time and approximate lengtli of stages from Barbacena via S. Joao and Sao Jos6 to 
Mtirro Yelho : — 

1. Barbacena to Ban-oso . . . hours 5° 30' statute miles 24. 

2. BaiToso to S. Joao . . . . 

3. S. Joao to S. Jos^ 

4. S. Jose to Alagoa Dourada 

5. Alagoa Dourada to Camapuan 

6. Camapuan to Congonhas do Campo 

7. Congonhas to Teixeira 

8. Teixeira to Coche de Agoa 

9. Coche de Agoa to Morro Velho . 
Thus the total time was fifty hours expended in covering 163 statute miles : the rate ■was, 
therefore, 3i miles per hour. When I travel alone my men are always mounted, and thus 
we easily get over six to seven miles an hour. 

t In 1825 Caldcleugh (ii. chaps. 17—18). Mr. Walsh (1829) travelled via S. Jose. 
Castelnau was the last in 1843. 

X This complimentary escort is known as the " despedida,'" and as in the nearer 
east is general tlu-oughout the interior of the Brazil. 

H 2 

7° 10' 


1= 30' 


6° 10' 


5° 15' 


8" 0' 


5° 0' 


8° 25' 


3° 0' 


100 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [ciiai'. ix. 

To-day's march will be about five leagues,* and occupy the 
usual time, as maii}^ hours. Had the road run along the Valley 
of the Eio das Mortes, the distance between Barbacena and Sao 
Joao woidd have been shortened, it is said, from forty-eight 
to thirty-six miles. But the ancients adopted the custom of the 
savages — a custom with which the African traveller is painfully 
familiar. They made the ascents and descents as short as pos- 
sible by taking a bee line, and by disdaining a zigzag. The 
object, of course, was to stiike the plateau as soon as they could, 
and to keep it as long as possible. The Paulista saying is, 
" Ride slowly up the hill for the sake of yom* beast, jirick fast 
over the level for the jom-ney's sake, and ride gently down hill 
for your own sake." Accordingly, om- bridle-path cut over hills 
and dales covered with thin gi*ass, glowing with light, but lacking 
the glare of Ai'abia and Sindh. The horizon was evidently of the 
same contour, but flattened by distance into knobs and knuckles. 
The surface glittered painfully at times with debris of mica and 
crystallised quartz ; there were ugly descents of white earth, with 
rolling pebbles, and the water breaches (esbarrancados) Avere of 
monstrous size. 

Antonio, the guide, having declared that he knew the yvny, lost 
no time in losing it. At one of many critical turns he broke 
to the south, and led us to the " Fazenda de Canyagora."t 
Through a woody bottom, over a bed of carbonate of lime, flowed 
the little Rio Caieii'o, " Limestone Creek," an affluent of the 
Rio das Mortes. This dolomite, covering sixteen square leagues, 
sells for 0$280 to 0$320 per bushel at Barroso. It is good for 
building purposes, and the burnt Hme fetches 2 $000 to 3 $000 at 
Juiz de Fora. 

We found two " Campeiro" + lads, herders of black cattle, and 
offered them coppers in vain. They were going in theii' rags to 
the Campo — a juvenile taradiddle — they had not time to guide us, 
but they condescended to show us how to guide ourselves. We 

* When si^eaking of iulaud leagues, I j-ards over the four miles (7040 yards), 

refer, unless it is otherwise s2Jecilied, to Concerning the leagues and other measures 

the old Brazilian, a little more than four of length, I have given all necessary infor- 

English statute miles. Popularly it means mation in the AiJpendix of Vol. II. 
an hour's ride. Assuming the animals + My friend Mr. Copsey informs me 

stride at one yard, and two strides per that the Fazenda in question is generally 

second — less uphill and more doAvn, or known as "do Mello," or " dos Caieiros." 
vice versd according to the beast — we have J Prince Max. (iii. 89 and elsewhere) calls 

3600 seconds = 7200 strides or yards, 160 them Campistos^an en-or. 


passed a large lime-kiln, and shortl}' before sunset we made a long 
descent from the barren highland into a prett}' picturesque basin. 
A bird's-e^^e view showed an oasis (of Fiction) in the desert. All 
was bright with Capim Angola (Panicum altissimum), and with 
roses and the Poinsettia, whose brilliant red bracts, always the 
highest light in the picture, give it a centre, as it were, and illu- 
minate up like lamps the tints of tamer flowers. The vegetation 
of the basin ranges between England and India, from the weeping 
willow, the SiciUan cactus, the orange, and the palm, to the plan- 
tain, the coffee-shrub, and the sugar-cane. Nor was the "utile" 
forgotten ; the gardens smiled with yams and various greens. The 
little village boasts of a church, Nosso Senlior do Bom Jesus de 
Matosinhos (of thickets) do Barroso ; of a chapel that accommo- 
dates N" S* do Rosario, and of a half-finished square, with the 
normal two shops of seccos and molhados — dry and wet goods. 
The brightly whitewashed tenements are disposed as usual in 
single lines and scatters. Each has its quintal, or " compound " 
of flowers, fruit-trees, and vegetables, with a few coffee-plants and 
a patch of sugar. Such was Barroso when we visited it. Once 
the Fazenda do Barroso, whose last possessor was the Capitao 
Jose Francisco Pires, it has now become a district in the Munici- 
pality of Barbacena.* 

A curious contrast there was in the beauty and elegance — 
excuse the word — of this Brazilian village, and the homely, 
unlovely auburas of modern England and France and of " New 

We presented our letter to Sr. Meirelles, who condescend- 
ingly bade us alight,! otherwise we had remained in the saddle. 
A " dirty-picturesque" mob of muleteers pressed to the door and 
ej-ed us as if we had come from one of the " foreign parts" which 
Yii'gil described. The establishment was the common compound 
of the third and fourth phases assumed by venal hospitality in a 
land where every second gentleman keeps open house. 

No. 1 is the Pouso, a mere camping-ground, whose proprietor 

* In 1S20, when Mr. Walsli passed + " Apear : " it would be "indecent 

throiigh "RaiToza," as he calls it, the place ha.ste " to dismount without such invita- 

wa.s still a Fazenda. Curious to say, in the tion, especially at a private house. And 

map of M. Gerbcr (1862), it is placed upon here all the honours and ceremonies of the 

the north or right hank of the Rio das jirivate, are expected by the public, house, 

Mortes, in this case the wrong bank. In whilst the host is at least as exigeant a.=! 

the eliart of M. Burmeister (18aO) it does his dwelling, 
not appear. 


does not object to let troopers water their mules and tether them 
to stakes. In the first quarter of the jiresent centmy travellers 
were often condennied to nights a la belle cto'ile in these germs 
of accommodation, which have now become populous villages and 

No. 2, the Eancho, represents the " Traveller's Bungalow," 
lacking, however, cot, chair, and table. Thugs and Dacoits. 
Essentially it is a long, tiled shed, sometimes fronted by a 
verandah on wooden posts or brick pillars ; at other times with 
outer walls, and even with inner compartments, formed by taipa* 
adobes, or clay and wattle. Here the muleteers miload ; the 
beasts wander undiiven to the pasture, whilst the masters build a 
fire, hang their kettle, gipsy fashion, from a tripod of sticks, 
strew on the ground by way of beddmg the hide covers of the 
cargoes, and make a snuggery with parallel partitions of neatl}'- 
piled panniers! and pack-saddles. The Brazilian poet describes 
the Rancho — 

E por g^nipos apiiihoados, 

Em seu ceutro estiio arreios, 

Sacos, couros e broacas.f 

It requires the skin of a " tropeiro" to sleep in such places : all 
swarm with strange, outlandish vennin, which bmTow into your 
flesh, and which make their homes under your nails. 

No. 3 is the Venda, or shop, a decided advance, but not 
" thoroughly respectable." I was once reproved for owning to 
having enjoyed the opposite extremes of Fazenda and Venda. 
It is the "pulperia" of the Hispano- American colonies, the 
village emp(nium of England, combined with the grocery and the 
public-house ; it sells " a' thuigs," from garlic and praver-books 
to gin and rum, cake and candles ; sometimes it is double, with 

* The i>is6 of Brittjuiy and puddle of split and plaited : it is a flat ijarallelogi-am 

England, found from Devonshire vid Da- containing the sack of salt or coffee, and 

home and Sindh, &c. , to Australia. The fitting close to the cangalha or pack-saddle, 

way of making it is alrao.«t everj'where the The " broaca " is a buUock'.s hide softene<I 

same ; I ■will not, therefore, describe the in water, shaped and se\\Ti into a rude box 

process. When the clay is stiff and con- with cover, and allowed to dry, when it 

tains small quartz pebbles, it forms a gooil becomes hard as wood. The word is 

wall. It alwiiys requires, however, to be, ^^Titten by old writers Boroacas, by the 

a.s the is, well hatted and booted — modems Bruaca-s and Broaca.s. Prince 

supplied with wide eaves to save it fmm JIax. (ii. 305^ prcfei-s "boroacas, sacs de 

the rain, and a stone or brick foundation jicau de Ixtuf durcic. " 
to prevent the moLsture of the ground eat- % "And in the middle, heaped and 

ing away the base. grouped, are mule trappings, bags, hides, 

t The .Taea is ni:tflc of the Kimboo bark and skin-boxes." (Racharel, Teixeira^. 

(HAr. IX.] FlIOM BARBACEXA TO BARll<.)80. lo;{ 

one side for wet, and the other for tUy goods. A counter,* 
over which swings the rude balance, bisects the length. Be- 
tween it and the door are stools, boxes, or inverted tubs. The 
customer touches hat to the proprietor, and is hereupon told to 
sit down. Behind the '* balcao" is sacred ground, admitting to 
the gynecoeum. The shelves of untrimmed wood are laden with 
mugs, cans, and other pottery, and on both sides with full and 
empty bottles, upright and couchant. On the floor are salt-bins 
and open kegs of coarse sugar and beans, a box or two of maize, 
piles of lard and salted meat — the popular " carne seca," a rope 
of black tobacco curled round a stick, and tms and demijohns of 
the local rum. The items are umbrellas, horseshoes, hats, 
mirrors, belts, knives, long pistols (garruchas), cheap guns, am- 
munition, and sewing gear — in fact, everything that can be 
wanted by rustic man or Avoman. The Venda has usually a room 
where strangers are accommodated with a large platterf for ablu- 
tions, a wooden bunk, a long-legged table, and a low bench. 

No. 4 is the Estalagem, or Hospedaria, the inn where we shall 
lodge at Marianna ; and No. 5, and last, is the more pretentious 
hotel, or 'otel, with which the reader has made acquaintance at 

We had omitted the advisable precaution of sending forwards 
to order dinner, and two hours' delay converted it to a supper. 
The menu was the usual thing. The flesh is represented by a 
hunch of roast pork, which no stranger in the Brazil wall touch 
after he has seen the behaviour of St. George's pet animal. The 
bazar pig of India is a better specimen of education. There is 
usually a tough stewed fowl, an riz,l with head and neck, giblets 
and four shanks, but wanting probably a wing and a thigh. Qilufs 
au plat§ are common as pigeons and omelettes in Itaty. The 
Brazil, lilce England, is a land of one sauce, red and yellow 
peppers II gathered from the garden, and bruised in broth and 

* Balcao. § Ovos estrcllados ; tlu-owu upon a hot 
+ (Tamella, a hollowed bowl of some plate, copiously larded, and often swim- 
soft tree, geuei-ally the Gamelleira (Ficus ming in brown liquid, 
doliaria), at times six or seven feet in cir- || Molho de pimenta (capsicum). Of 
cumference. See Chap. 21. sect. 2, for these there are many varieties kno^mi to, 
a further notice of this popular article. In and cultivated by, the aborigines ; the 
the house it is of various shapes, round, "System" mentions ten species. The best is 
square, and oblong, deep and shallow, and i)robably the yellow-skinned rounded Pi- 
it much reminded me of the platters wjiicli menta de Cheiro (of perfume, C. ovatum or 
I saw at Harrar in East Afi-ica. odorifemra, also .Jua), superior, in my 
t Gallinha ensopada, usually tolei-ably opinion, to that of Nepaul. There is also 
done, but alway.s a " sudden death. " the Cheiro' Comprido, or long .smeller, 


limejuice. The feijoada, locally called " tutii de feijtlo,"* is the 
staff of life in the many places where wheaten bread is unpro- 
curable, and corn bread is unknown. I have heard an Irishman 
call it a " bean poultice," and, 'faith, the unsavoury sunile fitted 
exactly. It is a mixture of farinha with haricots, flavoured with 
toucinho (cutis and suinus), the oil and cooking-butter of the 
country. This adipose tissue of boned, disembowelled, and un- 
fleshed pig, slightly salted, is hygienically well adapted to beans, 
combinmg carbon with nitrogen ; unfortmiately it enters into 
almost every dish, and it does no good to the digestion of " Young 
Brazil." The same may be said of many places in the AVestern 
United States and in China, where people are almost made of 
pork. Apparently it is a favourite food in young lands. In Europe 
we are told during many centuries the only animal food generall}- 
used was pork; beef, veal, and mutton being comparatively un- 
known. The rice is sensibly cooked. Brazilians know the knack, 
whereas the English and tlie Anglo-Americans still persist in 
eating the husk.f 

For dessert I appears a tureen-full of canjica — boiled maize, and 
sweetmeats, of which all orders and ages are exceedingly fond, 
Canjica is " kitchen'd " with brown sugar, with quince conserve, § 
or with guava The two latter are served up in Avooden 
boxes, or in flat tins. They are universal favourites, sup- 
posed to facilitate digestion, and they accompany salt cheese, 

and the Cheiro doce. Strangei-s often bring books we find many native names for the 

with them from Europe a nursery preju- different species : Pimenta-poca, Poca doce, 

dice against this excellent stomachic, supe- Quiyaqui, Quiy^-apud (corrupted to Cuje- 

rior for opening the appetite to all ab- pia), Quiya-Cumari, or Cumbari, Quiya- 

sinthe. Prince Max. was wiser : " Dans a^ti (coiTupted to Cuihemo9u), Inquitai, 

ces forets humides .... cette epice est Pesijurimu, Sabaa, and others. The ge- 

excellente pour la digestion, et pent aussi neric name in Tupy was Quiya or Qui- 

passer poiir un febrifuge tres salutaire" yuha ; in Carib " Axi ; " in Peruvian 

(iii. 6). So is Paul du Chaillu (Ashango- "Api. " 

land, chap. 3.) "The pepper itself * The Feijao (Pha.seolus vulgaris) here 

I believe to be a very useful medicine in takes the place of the Egyjitian Fid (Mu- 

this climate, for I have often found benefit dammas, etc.) It is of many kinds, 

from it when unwell and feverish, by tak- mulato, fidalgo, preto, roxo, incamado, 

ing a moderate quantity in my food." Bra- cavallo, and so forth. 

zilians are exceedingly fond of pepper, as f I have explained all this in the ' ' Lake 

were their Indian predecessors, who used Regions of Central Africa," i. 393, yet the 

" muita somma de pimenta. " Amongst Briti-sh rice-eater still feeds like the Prodigal 

the ten well-kno^^-n kinds we find the Son in distress. 

Pimentao, or large pepper (Capsicum cor- J Sobre-mesa, literally on the table, 

diforme, or in Tupy, Quiy4-a9Q, also § Marmel&da, not to be confounded with 

Pimentao comprido), much cultivated l>y our marmalade. 

the savages. Yet the Brazilians do not || (ioiabada, from goiaba, whence our 

seeni to enjoy the large boiled pods of guava (Psidium pyriferum). 
wliir-h tlie Spaniards are so fond. In old 


even as cheese and pudding go together in ancient Yorkshire. 
The wine, where there is any, calls itself Lisbon, and is dyewood, 
molasses rum, and half a tumbler of the worst juice of the Bar- 
celona grape ; the popular name for it is " caustic." Sometimes 
there is Bordeaux, and then Ave may inquii-e, as did the Teuton 
of his ecclesiastical host, " Senhor Batre, esde e binho ou binaki-e?" 
Every feed invariably ends with a cup of coffee, not " water 
bewitched," as in England, but, though rich, badly made. The 
bean is burned to blackness, as in Egypt; it is pounded, not 
ground, as in England ; but it is always strained, boiling water 
being poured through the charged bag. Moreover, the popular 
sweet tooth makes it into a syrup with treacly Rapadura, and 
" Rapadui'a — coisa dura,"* justly observes the Brazilian Mr. 
Merrpnan. Of course there is as little sitting after dinner as in 
Utah or a little Russian town. 

Such is the Jantar (dinner), the prototype of Almoco, or break- 
fast. The latter, however, in the better inns ends with a 
sobre-mesa of tea and cafe au lait, the milk always scalded, with 
bread, or that failing, with biscuit f and Irish butter. The people 
are like King George I., who preferred his oysters stale^ and the 
good citizens, who love to "taste" their fish and eggs, complain 
that the fine fresh butter made by the Germans lacks flavom*, and 
I have seen many a man temper it, as Suez peoj)le do the Nile 
water, with a pinch of salt. This adjunct to the minor meal 
reminds me of our "fasts" at Oxford, where the day was known 
by meat plus fish. 

My wife was allowed to swing her hammock in an inner room ; 
we j)assed the night on and under rugs in the verandah. The air 
was cold, colder than at Barbacena. We had been gradually 
descending, and a stranger would have expected warmth from 
this snug hollow. In the Brazil it is the reverse. The first- 
comers, I have said, when not priests, built dwelling-houses 
whicli afterwards became villages, towns, cities, in bottom- 

* "Rapadura, thing t' endure." The bullets. The traveller must use it in the 

word means "scrapings;" the thing is far west of the Brazil. Its sole merit is 

a preparation peculiar to South America, a that of being very portable. I never saw 

brick of uncrystallized sugar from which it in the United States, or in other sugar- 

the molasses has not been drained. The growing lands. 

word in Peru is Chancaca or Raspadura + Generally Rosea, our " rusk," too 

(St. Hil. III. ii. 266), where it also means often resembling the "rock of ages," as 

sugar with the syrup expressed from the the war biscuit was called in the United 

clayed or cured stuff, and allowed to drain States, 
or droj) into a vessel, being thus c;;st like 


lands, -where Avater for mills ( *'monjolos " ) and home uses was 
near and plentiful. Evaporation being excessive made the hollows 
rawer than the heights by night, and as the sun is not yet colom-ed 
German-silver in the Brazil, the cold was followed by the other 
extreme. A small difference of altitude here determines the 
worth or worthlessness of landed property. When men say that 
the soil is "cold" they mean that it is low-lying and subject to 
frosts, which destroy coffee and sugar : it may be geologically- the 
same as its neighbom- on the other side of the hill, yet it is unfit 
for any but such pauper cultm*e as cotton and cereals. Long ago 
Theoplu'astus* observed that it freezes less on hills than on hills, 
and it is an old remark that the ascent of warm air preserves vines 
and other plants on heights when they would perish iu the 

* Theophrastus, v. 20. I quote from Dew," by William Charles Wells. Edited 
p. 74 of a valuable book whirh was oblig- by L. P. Casella, F.R.A.S. London: 
ingly sent to mc by the Editor, " Essay ou Longmans, 1866. 



" Of all inveutions, the alphabet and the printing press alone excepted, those 
inventions which abridge distance have done most for the civilization of our 
species. " — Macau lay. 

Rising before dawn on the next day, we found from the blood- 
clotted hides of our animals that they had suffered severely from 
the vampire (Vespertilio Naso, or Phyllostomus Spectrum), aPhyl- 
lostom, localty called by the generic name of " Morcego " Andira 
or Guandira. These big ruddy-brown bats, of ghostly flight and 
cannibal tastes, are confined to the American continent, and they 
miaccountably prefer particular spots. I found many of them in 
the island of Sao Sebastiao (Sao Paulo), where there is no cattle- 
breeding. They seem to select the neck, shoulders, withers, and 
hmd-quarters of animals, — m fact, to attack where they can least 
be disturbed.* When a " raw " exists it is chosen before other 
places. The muleteers declare that the phlebotomy does no 
harm. I remarked that it always enfeebled the patient. In Sao 
Paulo and Minas no case of a man having been bitten by the 
" ugly spectre-bats " came under my notice. They did, however, 
much damage to the earlier European settlements m the New 
World. Cabiza de Vaca (1543) was Avounded by the leaf-nosed 
maroon-colom-ed monster near the Lake Xarayes. Messrs. Bates 
and A. R. Wallace, and my excellent fi-iendMr. Charles H. Williams, 
of Bahia,f suffered in person on the Amazons, where the rhmophyll 
appears to be decidedly anthropophagous. Koster mentions the 
use of an owl-skin to preserve animals from the leaf-nose. 

The mode of the vampu-e's attack has of late years become 

* Southey, i. 144, relates that they bit mized in the big toe during a single night, 
the ears of horses and greatly terrified the Mr. Williams felt the bite of the brute, 
animals. Prince Max. (ii. 61), never sa'n' and found a punctured wound about one- 
men bled by them. eighth of an inch in diameter. 

+ All his party of three vera plilebotn- 


the subject of debate. The wound is softly and skilfully in- 
flicted — I never saw my horses or mules terrified by it. Piunce 
Max. asserts before the doubting days, " Ce vampire (Phyllos- 
tomus) fait avec ses dents un grand trou dans la peau des 
animaux." Gardner believes tlie puncture is made by the sharp 
hooked nail of the thumb. Lieutenant Herndon thinks that the 
tusks bite, whilst the nostrils are fitted for a suction apparatus. 
Others trace the wound to the papillae of the tongue, an organ 
of action. The armature of the jaw, however, speaks for itself. 
It must be like a Vision of Judgment to awake suddenly and to 
find upon the tip of one's nose, in the act of drawing one's life- 
blood, that demonical face with deformed nose, satyr-like ears, 
and staring fixed saucer eyes, backed by a body measuring two 
feet from wing-end to wing-end. No wonder that it suggested to 
the simple savage the subordinate fiend " Chimay," Avho thinned 
him by draming the sap of life. 

We set out at 4'30 a.m. — the latest time that should be allowed 
even at this season — when nothing injui'es mules so much as 
travelling in the post-meridian sun. The bridle-path led over 
the same style of Campos, gleaming yellow with coarse low grass, 
and perfumed with the hardy Avild rosemary.* Even the gramens 
had lost the culms of fructification seen below the Mantiqueii'a. 
Everything except the sun told us that mid-winter was at hand. 
We forded sundry veins, all running northwards to the main 
artery : near one of them we enjoyed a roadside breakfast, and 
we jiersuaded the tropeiros of a neighbouring gipsy camp to 
refresh us with coffee. We might easily have fed at the half- 
way ranch at the Kio Elvas (P.N.)f Here is a bridge in the 
st3'le of ancient Minas, with central ridge, huge balustrade, and 
roof of ponderous tiles. 

As we trudged along slowly in the fiery sunshine, Ollaria and 
other out-stations, nesthng white in the cool verdure of the 
hollows, made us sigh for their shade. At noon we saw with a 
thrill of pleasure far below the Valley of the Great Eiver of the 
Murder-deaths,! whose sources we passed in the Mantiqueira 
Range, to the south-east of Barbacena. Here its valley, even at 
this dry season, Avas much cut up with water : during the rains it 

* Rosmarinho do Campo, a Lantana (?) which Mr. Walsh (ii. 227) places near 

+ Or Rio do Elvas, popularly pronounced Barroso ? 

En-as ; hence some travellers write it J Rio das Mortcs Grande and Pequeno. 
" Hervas." Can it be the " Widasmaotli." 

( 1IA1-. x.l FROM BAIU'vOSC) TO SAO JOaO D'EL-HEI. 109 

must be a lake. A little further on it will receive a southerly 
influent, the Lesser Rio das Mortes, and the two anastomosing" 
Avest of S. Joiio, will form the true Kio das Mortes. This, 
again, falls into the Rio Grande, also called the Parana, being 
the head-stream of that mighty artery, and dividing the Provmces 
of Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes. 

About six miles to our right rose the craggy lines of the S. 
Jose mountains. Far to the left was " St. John of the King," 
bristling Avith a dozen churches, spread lilie a white sheet upon 
a hill-side, grim and jagged as the Togi's bed. Under our feet, 
upon its little river-plain lay the Ai-raiaP de Matosinhos, a 
charming suburb, distant a mile and three-quarters — more 
exactly, eight hundred Brazilian fathoms — from the city. We 
passed up the neat principal street, and entered a main square 
formed by the best houses, each with its flower garden, set off by 
a few coffee shrubs of prodigious size, and the richest verdure.f 
There is no priest, but the church of the Espiritu Santo 
a|)peared, externally at least, in good order. Here during its 
fete pilgrims flock from the country for the spiritual refreshment 
of prajdng through the day and night. 

Matosinhos stands where once stood the far-famed " Capiio de 
Traicao " — Tree-clump of Treachery — a term dating from the 
days which named its stream " River of the Deaths," or rather 
murders. At the end of the seventeenth century, the Paulistas, 
especially the Taubatienses, or people of Taubate, a Paulistan 
cit}^ in the Valley of the Parahyba do Sul, found gold diggings in 
most parts of their captamcy, now the Province of Minas Geraes; 
and they incontinently claimed all the rights of discovery. One 
of their Poderosos, named Manoel de Borba Gato, arrogated to 
himself the title of Governor of the Mines, and he was supported 
b}' his countrymen. They determined to expel, some say to 
massacre, the Forasteiros or Foreigners, meaning the emigrants 

* Arraial (Arraj'al), or Real, means pro- tlie povoa9ai>, or village of olden clays, be- 

]ierly the royal head-quarters in a camj). cause it was mostly fortified, and it was 

Thus Camoens (iii. 42) — generally in the presence of the Indian 

" Ja no campo de Ourique se assentava enemy. 

arraial soberbo e bellicoso. " + In these places, which are usiially well 

" Now on Ourique's field was i^itched and watered, if not manured, fniit-trees and 

manned shrubs thrive exceptionallj^. Cafe de 

The Lusan 'campment proud ami belli- Quintal, for instance, means something 

cose." much more luxuriant than what is grown 

Thence it came to signify a field of battle. in the open. 

In Minas Geraes the word was applietl to 

110 THE HIGHLA>'DS OF 'J'JiE BRAZIL. [<jiai-. x. 

from Portugal and E;iroi)e. The latter, nicknamed the " Phari- 
sees of Minas," chose as their Governor the Portuguese Manuel 
Nunes Yianna (Viana), '' White Man and European," and thus 
began, in 1708, the celebrated wars of the Caboclos* and Em- 
boabasf — " Red-skins and Feather-legged fowls." 

Yianna, then the " Grej'-eyed Man of Destmy," sent from 
Ouro Preto a thousand miners under a blood-thirsty villain, 
Bento do Amaral Coutinho, to assist his party the Forasteiros. 
The Paulistas, who Avere hutted in the Tree-clump of Treachery, 
were persuaded to lay down their arms, and were foull}' massacred 
to a man by the mob of slaves and- cut-throats who followed 
Amaral. The Governor and Captain-General of Rio de Janeiro, 
D. Fernando Martins Mascarenhas de Lancastro, who succeeded 
Ai*tur de Sa, went to the Ai-raial with four* companies of troops : he 
was met as an equal by Yianna of the will of bronze, and he was 
presently induced to retu'e.t In 1708 the Governor was succeeded 
by Antonio de Albuquerque Coellio de Carvalho — a man of 
different stamp. He mastered Yianna, and permitted him to 
retii'e from the Mines, and to live upon his property near the Rio 
de Sao Francisco. "Whether his merits were rewarded by the 
Com't," says Southey,§ "is nowhere stated; thej' are, however, ■ 
acknowledged in (his ?) history." Albuquerque, it is generally 
believed, pardoned Yianna b}' order dated August 22, 1709. 
The King (D. Joao Y.) subsequently revoked this, and directed 
that both the ringleader, with Amaral and his secretarj', Fr. 
Miguel Ribeiro, should be arrested. Some say that Yianna died 
at large, others in the prison of Baliia. These civil discords breed 

* According to the exact Yamliagen "Ca- and it is ai^plied insultingly, somewhat 

boclo " or " Cabocolo " means "ijeeled," like onr "nigger." Yet I have known a 

or "plucked," because the aborigines re- man nick-name himself "Caboclo. " Prince 

moved the Ijody hair as the Chi-istian Max. (i. 30 — 1) says that the mixture of 

Brazilians \ised to do, and as Oriental white and Indian produces the Mamalucco, 

peoples still do. Marcgi-aff (Hist. Nat. the negro and Indian Ceribocos (popularly 

Braz. 268) applies " Caribocas " and " Ca- Cafuz, corrupted to Cafuso), the jnire In- 

bocle?" to the mixture of white, negro, dians Indies, the civilized red-skins Cabo- 

and Indian : in this he is supported by clos, the wild Indians Gentios, Tapuyes or 

Gardner (p. 22). Prince Max. calls civi- Bugi-cs. 

lized Indians " Caboclos " (i. 30), and f Some wi-ite Embuaba. It is rightly 

elsewhere (i. 110) makes the word equiva- explained by Cazal (i. 235). See Southey 

lent to Tapouyas, pxire "Indians. St. (iii. 885). In many parts of the Brazil a 

Hil. (III. ii. 253) asserts that Caboclo or " knickerbocker " fowl is still termed 

Caboco is contemptuously applied to the "Emboaba. " 

pure Indian. On the Amazons, as the "Na- + Local tradition says that Vianna with 

turalist " infonns us (i. 35), the civilized 4000 men met D. Fernando at Congonhas 

Indian is called Tapuyo or Caboclo. Ac- do Campo, and compelled him, with 

cording to my experience the word now threats, to march back iipon Rio de Janeiro, 

means a man with a mixture of red blood, § History (iii. 83). 

1 ii.vr. X.] ITvO.M BAlUtOSO TO .SAO .JOAO DKL IlEf. Ill 

long-lived results. The Piiiilistas and Mineiros are cousins; but 
the two branches are still alienated by the battles for gold on the 
liio das Mortes and elsewhere. 

Beyond the prett}- subiu'b lay the " Agua Limpa," pure as the 
Neva : well it deserves its name. The pebbly bed is now forded, 
and during the rains a "pingela," or "pingella," a beam, often an 
unsquared tree-trunk, oftener without than with handrail, suffices 
for communication.* Higher up is a broken bridge dating from 
the days when Matosinhos had a flourishmg gold mine : it ended 
with the bursting of a d3'ke like the " Sadd El Ai-em." Reaching 
the Municipal Palace and Prison, we were arrested by the normal 
procession on the fete of Corpus Christi ; we pulled off our hats 
and we sat in the sun till it passed. 

There was nothing remarkable in the " fmiction." All the 
Irmandadesf Sodalities, or Tertiary Orders, were there, — white 
men in red cloaks, brown men in green, and black men — • 
natm-alh' — in white. Not wanting were the Aiijinhos, or little 
angels, chits in short crinolines, frilled pantalettes, satin shoes, 
and fancy wings, all under ten, apparently the ne plus ultra of the 
angelic age, and all learning vanity with a will. There was a 
profuse waste of wax taper, and very little of art in the images. 
The principal ecclesiastic bore the Host under an embroidered 
canopy, and military with music brought up the rear. 

These processions were much patronised by Nobrega and the 
great Jesuit lights of 1850. Doubtless the sliow^ the melody, 
and the m3'ster3', w^on maiij^ a stray Tupi sheep for the Fathers' 
fold.+ These ardent votaries were followed b}^ men wiio thought 
with Hosius, " Strip the Chm'cli of its pomps and pageantry, 
and its doctrines will become as the fables of iEsojD." The rite 
presently declined, became a system of farces and masquerades, 
" irreverent ceremonies, and ridiculous mummeries. § In these 

* The Indians of the Brazil, like those liyion que les formes ext^rieures du culte. 

of the Orinoco, made suspension bridges of Amateurs de tout ce quitient a un ordre de 

Uianas, woven together in the simplest ceremonies prescntes, ils trourent dans le 

fiishion, and allowed to oscillate above the culte chretien des jouissances particu- 

water. A "hand-rail" of vine or creeper lieres. " Prince Max, ii. 395. 
enabled the passenger to steady him- § St. Hil. (III. i. 100). I use his words, 

self. for he was a vei"y Catholic and a " Pi'o- 

f Mi-staking this institution, Mr. Walsli fessor," as far a.s a scientific man can be. 

(ii. 134) locates at Sao Joao two convents So in the Pro^nnce of Paste, amongst the 

at a time when religious orders were not Andes, Humboldt saw the Indians dancing, 

permitted to establish themselves in Mina.s masked, and hung with bells, round the 

Ueraes. altar wlicre a Fi'ancisoan was elevating the 

i "Les n:»tui-cls nc connaisscut de la re- Host. 


days it is perfectly and dully decorous, and it subserves the useful 
purpose of " bringing people together." It combines the pro- 
menade, the visit, the pic-nic — in fact, it is the one outlet, the 
grand parade, for poor human vanit}^, here so little, when in 
Europe so coiiiouslj', au'ed. And wherever in the Brazil the citizens 
have, primo, little to do with the outer world, secundo, little to do 
at home, there this style of devotion flourishes. At Sao Joao Ave 
heard the bell-ringing of Oxford : all the day and half the night 
was made vocal by the " dobrar," slow-tolling, the lever being 
used, and *'repicar," ringing in triple bob-major, when the 
tongue is hammered with the hand. It was a "furnace of music," 
a "tempest symphony." 

We followed the Praia, or Eastern Quay, stone revetted, whilst 
the opposite side is not. This en revanche has a picturesque bit 
of aqueduct lately repaired. The Bio de Sao Joao, descriptively 
but erroneously termed by some travellers Rio Tejuco,* flows 
through the city to the common reservoir on the north-east. At 
tbis season it is a film of water trickling down a foul bed, doggy 
and catty. Like manj^ a once rural stream in England, it wants 
only breadth, volume, and washing. Two old-fashioned bridges 
of solid stone, each with three arches of about twenty feet sj^an, 
cross it : to the east, and near the Camara, is Ponte Novo, looking 
very elderl}', and capped with a cross. Westward lies the Ponte 
do Eosario. 

Seen from its streamlet, Sao Joao is strikingly picturesque. 
The snow)' buildings of the northern section spread out, trigon- 
shaped, upon the Quay; thence, rich in tall houses, massive fanes, 
and clumps of wondrous verdure and startling flowers, they 
swarm up their wild and remarkable background of Serra, once the 
El Dorado, the focus of amiferous deposit. To the left, also 
lending its foot for the city to rest upon, is the Serra do 
Lenheiro, said to be 3000 feet above sea-level.f It is ridged 
and ribbed with that hard talcose slate soon to become so familiar 

* Rio Tejuco would mean "mud river." small iuflnent from the north, which, joined 

The Tuin (or Lingoa Gei-al) " Tyjuca," also by the " Barreiro " from the east, joins 

written Tijuca, is applied to many places the "Rio Acima, " the western section of 

in the Brazil where the first explorers the Sao Joao stream. 

found a Lad Tyjucopaba or Tyjucopao, in + Some say 5700 — 6000. But the city 

Portuguese atoleiro or lama9al, a slough or is only 1290 feet (Aroeira) above sea-level, 

quagmire. The Diet, translates Tyju " es- and about 2300 feet below Barbacena. I 

cuma, ' froth or foam ; and Tj'juca "lama," regret not having made observations for 

baiTO podre or apodrecer — mud, rotten clay, altitude, as the tempex-ature seems to sug- 

to rot. At Sao Joao the Rio Tejuco is" a gest nearly 2000 feet. 


to US, the thinnest brownish brushwood, finds place there, and the 
system looks like a magnified this-tle, a vast teazle. To the 
right is the " Bocaina," or Gap, the water-gate of the River of 
the Murder-Deaths ; and further still, -the Serra de Sao Jose, a 
brother of the Lenheiro, walls in the view. 

We deposited our very hot and dusty selves in the Hotel 
Almeida, kept by Sr. Joaquim Jose de Almeida, and sent our 
" tickets " to the Capitao Custodio de Almeida Magalhaes, who 
obHgingly insisted upon our " cutting our mutton " with him. 
Presentl}', lounging at the doorwav, we espied, in the act of 
ridmg b}', an indubitable British hat — white, massive, and broad- 
brimmed. Unhke Eotlien, but very like other Englishmen in 
similar circumstances, we took the liberty of asking the wearer's 
nationality, and when surprise at the sudden process had worn off, 
we found ourselves sittmg and chatting with Dr. Lee, a Kentish 
man, or a man of Kent. He had married, settled, and spent 
tliirt3^-three years, "on and off," at Sao Joao. Presently he 
introduced us to Mr. Charles C. Copsy, of Cambridge, who there 
had known some of my undergraduate kinsmen. He also had 
passed through the Church ; he was a lieut.- colonel of real 
Brazilian volunteers, seventy-four stalwart youths, well armed 
and uniformed ; moreover, he Avas Professor of English, geo- 
graphy, and mathematics at the Lyceum. 

It was pleasant to fall so unexpectedly upon these two culti- 
vated English gentlemen, to brush up reminiscences, to exchange 
adventures, and to hear the chaff of our own land. More 
pleasant still to find that their home habits had not permitted 
themselves to become Brazilianised. Brazilian is good, and British 
is good ; the mixture, as is said of other matters which shall be 
nameless, spoils two good things. It much suggests the old saw, — 

Un Ingleze Italianato 
E il Diavolo incamato. 

Also, *' on n'a quetrop souvent a rougir des compatriotes que Ton 
rencontre dans les regions eloignees." And, for the personal 
kindness of my fellow-countrymen of Sao Joao, I can only beg 
them to receive our heartfelt thanks. 

Before ending in sleep the uncommonly satisfactory evening, 
we may prepare for an inspection of the city to-morrow.* 

* I liave Lon-owed freely from the Apon- Cidadc de S. Joao Del-Ilei (sic), Provincia 
tamentos da Popula9ao, Topograpliia, e de Jlinas G-eraes. For Jose Antonio 
Noticias Chronologicas do Municipio da Ilodrigues. S. Joao D'El Rei (sicV Tj-p. 

VOL. I. I 


When Sebastiao Fernandes Tourinlio discovered iii 1572 the 
emerald miiies which proved to be ridiculous grass-green tour- 
malines, the Brazilian interior was at once traversed by intrepid 
bands of explorers and j^ioneers, mostly Paulistas. The names 
generally quoted are those of Bartholomeu Bueno da Silva, — 
by cognomen i^ihanguera, popularly translated Old Devil, and 
suggestmg the Shaitan Ka Ohai of Sindli ; his brother-in-law, 
Antonio Eodiigues ; Ai'zao, of Taubate ; Fernao Dias Paes 
Leme, his son-in-law ; Manoel de Borba Gato, before alluded 
to ; and Thome Pontes. The first lodes and vems* were found 
in and about the stream now called Eio das Mortes, and the 
abundance of ores caused the land to be named Minas Geraes — 
General Mines. Chroniclers delight to repeat that in those 
golden days a peck and a-half of corn cost sixtj'-eiglit oitavas of 
gold, now = £23 ; farmha-meal was worth forty oitavas ; whilst 
a horse or a bullock fetched thirteen to fourteen ounces. These 
prices, they state, effectually killed out all agricultural industry. 
I should think that the reverse would be the fact. 

The Arraial do Eio das Mortes began life as a village in 1684. 
In 1712 {aid Jan. 29, 1714) D. Joao the Magnificent named it 
ViUa de Sao Joao d'El Ptei.f On December 8, 1713 (aUl 1715) 
its proj)rietor, the Governor and Captain- General of Sao Paulo, 
sent to it the first Ouvidor-Judge, Dr. Goncalo de Freitas 
Baracho. By Provmcial Law No. 93, of March, 1838, it 
became a city, the chief place of a Comarca,t and the head- 
quarters of the electoral district. In 1828 Mr. Walsh gave the 
municipality 9000 to 10,000 souls. This figm*e had risen in 1859 
to 21,500, of whom 15,200 were free, 100 were strangers, and 

de J. A. Roclrigxies, 1859. The autlioi' a liji^lien : the particle " d' " cannot claim 

still practises as an advocate. His mono- " a capital letter, and the modern Portuguese 

graphy is one of the many valuable pam- vrvite Rei, not Rey, which is now Spanish, 
phlets which appear in the Brazil : they J In colonial days the Comarca was a 

are little known to the Geogi'aphical So- district within the jurisdiction of a CoiTe- 

cieties of London and Paris, and the tra- gddor. The latter name is now obsolete, 

veller should be careful to collect them. and the chief legal authority is the Juiz 

* The veeio (hardly a jjure Portuguese de Direito, or Juge de Droit. Thus also 

word) is a vein of metal. Yeeiro means the Juiz Municipal has taken the jjlace of 

the corpo do metal, the lode ; and veta is the Juiz Ordinario, from whom an appeal 

also a vein. The usual word is vea (vena), lay to the Ouvidor. The Comarca or arron- 

c.ff. " veas de quartzes que sao OS veciros. " dissement of the Rio das Mortes is com- 

t This is the only correct way of -m-iting i>osed of the municipalities of S. Joao, S. 

the name; all the others, as Del Rei, Del Jose, and Oliveira. The municipios of a 

Rey, D' El Rei, and numerous modifica- Comarca again are divided into freguezias 

tions, are obsolete or erroneous. The or parishes, and these also into districts 

Arabo-Spanish article El is reserved in (districtos). 
Portuguese for the king, and it commands 

CHAP. X.] 



6200 slaves, an element rapidly decreasing.""^ There were tliii't}-- 
nine electors, of whom sixteen were chosen by the city, 300 
jurymen (jm'ados), and 1600 voters. The city is about two 
miles long from north to south, and contains ten squares, 
twenty-four streets, and 1600 houses, of which eighty are two- 
storied (sobrados). The census of 1859 gave it — 

]\Ien, free 
Women, ditto 
Men, servile 
Women, ditto 








I am unwilhng at this late hour to make reflections savouring 
of Mormonism. But what think you, reader, or what would 
Milton and Priestly tliink, of such relative numbers as these in 
a poorly-peopled country ? Is it not a waste of productive 
power ? In fertile Para feminme births average, I am informed 
by my friend Mr. Williams, four or five to one masculme. Is 
it not lamentable to see men blinded by the prejudices of 
education, thus neglectmg the goods the gods provide ? Surely 
it is time for some IU™° Senhor Dr. Brigham Joven to arise 
in the land.f 

* In 1867 I was told the mtmber of 
slaves in the municipality is about 1350, 
in the city 500. This in not unlikely in a 
pastoral land, where free laboiu- is pre- 
ferred to the brutal negligence of the 
African, and whose hands have mostly 
been sold oil" to the agricultural districts 
of Eio de Janeiro, which still calls for 

t The text may appear paradoxical to 
those, to the many, who still believe can- 
nibalism and human sacrifice, slavery, and 
polygamy, abominations per se, the sum of 
all villanies, and so forth. I look uj)on 
them as so many steps, or rather necessary 
conditions, l)y wliich civilized society rose 
to its i^reseut advanced state. Without 

cannibalism how could the Zealander have 
preserved his fine physical develojoment ? 
Certainly not by eating his bat and his rat. 
Without slavery how could the Antilles 
and the Southern States of the American 
Union have been cleared of jungle ? White 
men could not, and free black men would 
not have done it. Without polygamy, how 
could the seed of Abraham have multiplied 
exceedingly ? At the utmost they would 
have doubled their numbers in half a cen- 
tury. In the Old World a return to the 
state of its youth would be a retrogi-ade 
movement, a relapse into barbarism. But 
it is not the same with new lands, which 
represent numerically the conditions which 
wo have forgotten centuries ago. 



Hdsta los palos del Monte 

Tienen su destinacion ; 
Uiios naceni para santos 

Otros para hacer carbon .* 

Tins quotation, borrowed from Dr. Rodrigues, refers somewhat 
vaguely to the past and futui*e of Stio Joao. .Hereabouts, 
shortly after the great earthquake at Lisbon (1755), it was 
jiroposed to transfer the seat of government. In 1789, as will 
appear, the patriotic movement in Minas fixed upon Sao Joao 
for the site of their Washington, and Ouro Preto for the Uni- 
versitA'.f Unfortunately, there is hardly a place of importance, 
or even without importance, in the Mming Province which does 
not assert its claim to the Imperial MetropoHs. I may brief!}' 
quote Campanha, Baependy, Minas Novas, Paracatu, Guaicuhy, 
and even the savage site of the Pirapora Eapid, on the Eio de 
Sao Francisco. 

In history these things repeat themselves. The Brazil will 
not always rest satisfied with her present capital, exposed as it 
is to the attacks of all first-rate maritime Powers, and far more 
vulnerable than was St. Petersburgh before the Crimean war. 
Presently the oldest claimant, Sao Joao d'El-Rei, will see her 
name once more thrust forward. But I doubt whether the 
project will be seriously entertained ; the many advantages of 

* It may be tlius translated : — incertua scamnum faceret ne Priapiim 

maluit esse deum. 

Even the tree in forest glade f Vamliagan justly calls this a gi-eat 

Each has its several lot ; thought, and proposes both a Capital and a 

"Wliile this to make a saint is made, University in the Province of Minas. The 

That fain must warm the pot. Brazil can afford to *' -wait awhile " for her 

metropolis, but she should not be patient 
The sentiment is Horatian. Quuni faber about her Alma Mater. 


the situation are counterbalanced by its uncentral position.* 
The Valley of the Sao Francisco will, one is inclined to prophesy, 
be in the course of tune the chosen seat for the metropolis of 
the Diamond Empire. 

On the shortest day of the year we set out to visit the little 
city, marshalled by Mr. Copsy; his local knowledge made all 
things easy. In the Rua Municipal we found the town-house, 
a large pile, whose ground floor boasted of barred Avindows, and 
whose upper front showed imperial arms and Justice in relief; 
moreover, it was unaccompanied by a shop. In Brazilian towns, 
as in Spanish colonies, a practical homage is rendered to commerce 
in almost all the best houses, by converting the lower half into 
a store. This, the Municipal Palace, was also the common jail — 
another "institution." It is somewhat barbarous, a flavouring 
of jealous Begum Sombre, to hold sessions over the heads 
of the buried alive ; and the demoralizing prominence and 
j)ublicity of mendicant incarceration should be abolished, and 
will be abolished, as soon as the municipal funds, at present 
much dejH-essed, permit. f 

The building, stone below and adobe above, is polychrome, 
and not without beauty. The frontage numbers 110 palms by 
a depth of 120 — not the normal square or the popular claret 
case. It has five entrances, all iron-railed ; the central adit 
curves outwards, and shows traces of the sentinel. We visited 
the state-room, 100 palms x 50, where an ii-on railing divides, 
as usual, the jurymen from the aldermen in session. The 
western ceiling was shored up, confessedly wanting repairs. To 
the north is the Public Library, open every day, and grimly 
decorated with the portrait of a local benefactor. Baptista 
Caetano, Mr. Walsh's " hog in armour," is dead ; the present 
librarian is stone deaf, and ignores the number of volumes 
under his charge. We guessed 3200, and were corrected by the 

• Sao Joao lies twenty-foiir leagues 7 : 000 $ 000. The taxes (imiiostos) were — 

south-west of Ouro Preto, capital of Minas, Per Provincial Collectorship 21 : 000 $ 000 

and sixty leagues north -noi-th- west of Rio ,, General (Imperial) do. 22; 000 $000 

de Janeiro. It is popularly said that a 

line tlirough Bom Jardim, eighteen leagues Total taxes . . 43 : 000 | 000 

to the south, would reduce the sixty to 

fifty leagues. They reckon from Sao Joao Not including imports and exports dues, 

twenty-eight leagues to Kio Preto, the fron- and toll bars (Barreiras), which may amount 

tier of Kio de Janeiro, and thirty-four to as much more. Thus, says Sr. Rodri- 

leagues to the mine of ilorro Vellio. gues, the municipality contributes to the 

f In 1859 the annual revenue of the ]iublic coffers jnore than one hundred contos 

Camara ranged from 6 : 000 $ 000 to of reis (£10,000) per annum. 


" Almanak," Avliicli Scays upwards of 4000. The mental x^abuliim 

consists mostly of old and now hardly legible folios and squat 

quartos, which have fed the minds of chui'chmen and the bodies 

of brocas — bookworms. Here, as in old Rome, the library may 

sing aloud, — 

Constrictos nisi das mihi libellos, 
Admittam tineas trucesque blattas. 

Sao Joao has reason to remember her literary men. One of 
her sons, Manoel Ignacio d'Alvarenga, wrote the " Gruta Ameri- 
cana," and, under the name of Alcindo Palmireno, he was a 
member of the " Ai'cadia Mineira."* The second notability was 
Joao Antonio Ferreira da Costa, and the tliird was the satirical 
Padre Manoel Joaquim de Castro Viana. Add to the three 
poets a number of "sacred orators," the "terrors of sin," and 
eloquent "echoes of the Gospel." Besides these, an architect, 
a painter, and a sculptor are quoted by the curious. There are 
two choirs, and fom* "professors of the piano." Every person 
of education is, more or less, a musician. 

We then proceeded up hill to the Extemato de Sao Joao. This 
establishment dates from 1848 ; it was originally called the 
"Duval College," after the founder, Mr. Eicliard J. Duval,t once 
an employe in the mines of Sao Jose, mider his cousin, Mr. G. V. 
Duval, once Dii-ector of Gongo Soco. He was followed by a 
Frenchman, M. A. M. Delverd, and the school was entitled 
Lyceum by the Councillor Carlos Carneiro de Campos. The 
site, on the extreme south of the city, is admirable, and commands 
a noble view. The old building once contained the inspection 
of gold (Casa da Intendencia), the smelting-rooms (Fundi9ao)I, 
the Eesidenc}' of the ouvidors, and barracks for the regulars. 
Wholesome and orderly, it has one serious disadvantage. In 
these lands, where Art has not yet acquii-ed sufficient power to 
control Nature, the violent hurricanes that open the Eains, 
ordeals of fire and water, are dangerously electrical. About four 

* lie A\as imprisoned by the Count became Inspector of Traffic on the Dom 

Rcscnde in the sidjterraneons dungeons of Pedro Segundo Kailway, and died in 1861. 

the Ilha das Cobras, but he must not be His son is, I believe, establislied in com- 

confounded with anotlier famous plotter, merce at Ilio de Janeiro, 
the lyrical poet, Ignacio Jos(^ de Alva- + Mr. Walsh (ii. 138) gives a good and 

renga Peixoto (Plutarco Brasileiro, por J. detailed account of the gold melting. He 

M. Pereira da Silva, pp. 323—330. Kio says, however, eiToneously, that in old 

de Janeiro, Lacmmert, 18i7). See chaps. Minas each Comarca had its Intendencia, 

35 and 36. and its Casa de Fundi9ao. The eiTor has 

t Mr. R. J. Duval made money here, been noticed liy St. Hilaire. 


years ago the fluid struck the Lyceum ; a bolis, hke that which 
entered the church of Stralaund,* Split one of the gable ends, 
and only by a mii"acle all the eighty pupils escaped. I should 
suggest £5 worth of lightning rod. 

We assisted at the geographical lecture delivered by Professor 
Copsy, and I supx^lemented a few remarks upon the subject of 
Eastern and Central Africa. The ingenuous youths were of the 
upper ten thousand, — the porcelain not pottery of Society, well- 
born, well-dressed, well-behaved, and apparently well disposed to 
learn. Besides this aristocratic establishment, Sao Joao has 
humbler schools. There are two " Minerva Lodges." One, the 
N'^ S^ das Merces, in the north of the city, presided over by 
T>. Policena Tertoliano d'Oliveira Machado. The second is in 
a central situation ; its inspector-general is Sao Francisco, and 
the directress is D. Antonia Carolina Campos d'Andrade. 

Om' next step was northwards to the Santa Casa de Miseri- 
cordia, one of the oldest in Minas. It was built in 1817, upon 
the site of a Poor-house, by Manuel de Jesus, a Spanish monk, 
whose funds did not exceed £2. Presently it obtained all the 
privileges enjo^^ed by the sister hospital, Lisbon ; large sums 
Avere left to it, and it added to itself a j)retty whitewashed chapel, 
under N^ S^ das Dores. It has also annexes for the insane, 
for lepers, and for contagious cases. For a free man the charges 
are 2 $000 per diem, and 1$500 for slaves. The sick annually 
treated are between sixty and seventy, f 

We then turned westwards, passing by the Church of Sao Goncalo 
Garcia, belonging to the Confraria Episcopal de Sao Francisco e 
Sao Goncalo, aggregated to the convent of Santo Antonio do Eio 
de Janeii'o. To this Order men of all colours and classes, except 
the servile, belong. The building is a mere shell, an unfinished 
ruin of much exposm-e, and doubtless it will take time to become 

* These fire-balls are a frequent form of t In 186i — 5 the hospital funds 

lightning assumed in the Brazil as in East- were 95 : 941 $ 019. The receipts were 

ern Africa, and desei-ving careful observa- 10 : 357 $ 651, the expenditiu-e was 

tion. At Sao Paulo I have often seen the 7 : 800 $ 983, and the lialance in favour 

electric fluid ascending in tlie south-eastern was 2 : 556 $ 871. The llecolhimento de 

sky, and at the height of alwut GO" pro- Expostos(Enfanstrouvcs)niadel3:241$000 

jecting a number of globes, like a mon- expended 500 f 000, and had a surplus of 

strous Roman candle. Houses arc often 12:711$000. The hospital entrances 

struck by them, as I have personally wit- were 224 ; the deaths, 51 ; the cured, 124; 

nessed, and nothing but the bolis can and the number under treatment, 49. Of 

explain the mode in which one of my maps the "exposed" during the same period 

was burned. five out of the ten died. 


a decent House of God. Near it is a magnificent Cambucaia 
tree, resembling a Eugenia myrtle four times magnified. Here- 
abouts also are two noble lofty Sapucaias (Quatele or Lecj^tliis 
OUaria), vestiges of the forest primreval, which once adorned the 
land. The aborigines used to extract from it a "cauim"* or 
wine ; the leaf reminded me of the two huge Mangos in H.M.'s 
Consulate Fernando Po. The heavy pot-like fruit, evidently the 
model of the Indian or indigenous pottery, and so celebrated as 
a monkey trap, and so loved by the Macaw, renders it as 
dangerous to sleep under as an African Calabash, a Hindostani 
"Jack," or a Borneo Doriyan. The mighty arms bear the neat 
little mud-huts of the Furnarius, here known as Joao de Barros 
(John Clay, Merops rufus or Turdus Figulus). The tenements 
are shaped in miniature lilie the items of a Kafi Kraal, and the 
single small entrance is not faced in any x^articular direction ; 
neighbours often turn their backs to each other, civilized as 
Londoners or Parisians. Tliis reddish j^ellow merle often amuses 
travellers. I have felt in society w^hen seeing them hopping 
on the road before me, evidently to attract attention, and 
chattering amazingly, with the apparent hope of a reply. In 
this case we certainly need not ask J. J. Rousseau f if birds con- 
fabulate or no. 

As we are about to mspect the show-Church of Sao Joao, if 
not of Minas Geraes, a short sketch of ecclesiastical architecture 
in this part of the Brazil may be ad\isable. In former times the 
first thought of the successful gold miner or speculator was to 
build and to endow a temple ; hence the mordinate number of 
fanes in the older cities, and the exceedmg rareness of a modern 
building. But though masons were easily procurable, architects 
were not ; consequently the churches speak well for the piety and 
intelligence of the ancient Mineiro, but badly of his " mstruc- 

* The T. D. explains Caulm by Vinho, tains, maize, pine-apple, sweet-potato, and 

and Cauim tata, literally " fire -water, " by sugar-cane, cidtivated or wild. Prince 

agua ardente. The word is generally de- Max. (i. 115) compares the chewed form 

rived from Caju (the Cashew tree, Anacar- with the Ava or Kava described by Cook in 

dium occidentale) and yg water : that Oceanica. 

fruit supplied the favourite fermentation. f The last view of this celebrated cha- 

"Cauim," like "Koumis," is so diflFer- racter, the " eleuthero-maniac, " is taken 

ently written by travellers that it can by Sr. Castilho (Excav. Poet. ) — 
hardly be recognized ; for instance, Caoui, ' ' Joao Jacques (certo animal 

Caouy, Caowy, Kaawy, etc. It is a ge- Que trata de educagao). " 

neric term, and applied to some thirty-two ' ' John James, a certain animal who of 

diflferent preparations of manioc, plan- man's education treats. " 


tion." The style mostly introduced by the Jesuits is heavy and 
couthless ; it tries to combine the vertical lines of the Gothic 
with the horizontal length of classical architecture, and it notably 
fails. The traveller must not expect to find the pillared aisles, 
the clerestories, the Lady Chapels, the Strypes, or the Chapter 
Houses of the Eastern Hemisphere. When the building is sub- 
cruciform, the arms of the transept are concealed by sacristies, 
corridors, and other conveniences which occupy the space between 
the double walls. Few also are carved and coffered ceilings ; a 
plain curtain covering the throne takes the place of altar veils, 
frontals and super-frontals ; there are no desk or pulpit hangings, 
no book covers or elaborate markers — in fact, ecclesiastical 
fripjjery shines by its absence. 

Nothing like the Pantheon or the Cathedral of Rouen has yet 
been attempted here. The Church Brazilic is the humblest form 
of that Palatial Hall of Justice and Sacred Temple which 
Brazilian enthusiasts derive from the Tabernacle in the mlder- 
ness. The integrity of the Palace, however, has been split up 
into nave and chancel. This plan may be grandiose enough when 
its dimensions are those of the old cathedral at Baliia. But 
generally the first effect upon the stranger is that he stands in a 
large barn, and the effect is very humble when it lacks the 
ph^'sical element of grandeur — greatness. 

On the other hand, the Church in the Brazil has the advantage 
of not reqmi'mg any frontage-rhumb ; from tliis region Jerusalem 
lies north, south-east, or west. It is almost always built on the 
highest and prettiest site, and there is a fine oj^en space in front 
for which St. Paul's and AVestminster must sigh in vain. The 
dangerous encroaching system of older cities is unknown, the 
acid-laden staining atmosphere of our towns is absent, and 
where not a chimney can be found, the "gathered gloom" of 
"smuts" is not to be dreaded. The sombre sadness of an 
iron-railed London square, with its "prison-look," is of course 
wanting. Finally, the rapid growth of trees, and the admu-able 
supply of water, form natural and artistic ornaments always at 

The Church of the Third Order of Sao Francisco, our old 
Grey Friars, opposed to the Black Friars or Dominicans, belongs 
to a brotherhood numbering upwards of 5000 members, mostly 
males. Like their brethren of the Carmo, they are independent 


of parochial jurisdiction ; and their accounts are forwarded for 
inspection to theii' head- quarters at Rio de Janeiro. The temple 
is built on the highest part of its square, the approach has a fair 
flight of stone steps leading to the paved " Adro " or platform. 
There is a two-beaked fomitam fed b}- the southern hills, and 
sj'mmetr}^ demands a correspondmg feature on the other side. 
The Cemetery of the Brotherhood lurks behind the church, and 
the modest Hospicio dos Irmaos da Terra Santa — Hospice of the 
Brothers of the Holy Land — acts as a foil to the pile. 

It has been said that the architect of the Siio Francisco used 
no rule but a compass ; there is not a straight line save the 
vertical ; the chosen form is oval, the division is into bays, and 
even the tiled roofs are curved. The dimensions are 240 by 
64 palms, and masonry is so solid that the walls contain the 
flights of pulpit steps, which are some three palms broad. An 
inscription over the main entrance gives the date of birth 1774. 
Local tradition declares that it was built over a humble chapel 
Avhich was allowed to remain, like the old woman's hut under the 
Palace roof of Anushirwan the Just. What an easy way to win 
fame ! The facade is two-wmdowed, the pediment is crowned 
with the two-armed Grecian or Sepulchran Cross, and the 
tympanum bears Jesus Crucified, St. Francis receiving the 
Stigmata, and sundry accompanunents. Over the main entrance 
are the instruments of the Passion, and the " arms," literally 
and metaphorically, of the *' Orago," or Patron Saint; the 
pyramid is capped by a N* S* da Conceicao in stone clouds 
amongst fat-faced cherubs, who display upon a substantial roll, — 

Tota pulchra es Maria, et 
Macula originalis non est in Te. 

Tliis shows how early the Iberian dogma, erst so popular in 
Catholic England, had been recognised by the Brazil, and how 
readily the "progressive doctrine" of the co-redemptoress will 
be accepted. 

The material is excellent, a fine steatite, blueish, and at times 
of an apple gTeen, which, when the usual bits of octohedral ii'on 
are rare, takes a high polish. The sculpture suggests woodwork, 
with very laborious alt-reliefs ; it is the handicraft — Hibernice — 
of a handless man, w^hose labom's we shall find scattered through- 
out this i^art of the Province. He is generally known as the 


AleijacTo or Aleijadinlio * — the Cripple or the Little Cripple ; some 
call him O Ignacinho, little Ignatius, others Antonio Francisco. 
His work was clone with tools adjusted hy an assistant to the 
stumps which re^^reseuted arms, and his is not the only case on 
record of surprising activity in the trunk of a man, or of a 
woman. Witness the late Miss Biffin. 

The '' clocheria," is 150 palms high, and of a shape peculiar to 
and very common in Minas Geraes — parallelograms made quasi 
cylindrical hy pilasters fittmg close to the angles ; the capitals 
are quamt, partty Corinthian, partly composite exceedingly. 
This may he called the "round-square" tower style, and it 
has nothing but the originality of eccentricity to recommend it. 
Young peoples, lilve young people, should learn that genius begins 
by imitating, and ends by creating ; when the latter process 
precociously precedes the former, the results are apt to be taste- 
less, ungraceful, grotesque. The capital defects of the belfries 
are their domes, mere ovens, apparently copied from the white 
ant's nest or the hut of " John Clay." Both should be puUed 
down and replaced by sometliing harmonising with the body of 
the church. They are easily ascended, an u-on railing makes 
them safe, and the peal of four bells is better than usual. 

Passing round the poHshed " Tapa-vento " of neat workman- 
ship, the gift of the good Mrs. Lee, we sight a hall of which Sr. 
Rodrigues says, "nada deixa a desejar." f Let me softly whisper, 
coloured glass and finished panels to begin with. The blues and 
whites look cold and raw, even in this glorious sunshine, and the 
beautiful cabinet woods of the Brazil are washed and painted to 
resemble marble run mad. The balustrade of the upper gallery, 
whence candelabra are hung, is tinted red. And from the centre 
hangs a huge lustre -with some thirty- six lights, much more fitted 
for theatre than for fane. 

The choir, as usual in the Brazil, overhangs the entrance. It 
is supported by a low, dark splayed arch of such a span, and so 
shallow a sag, that it merits the title of Manoelesque, as seen in 
glorious Lisbonian Belem. Sj'enite enables it to stand despite 
all the thrust, and the designer's initials deserve a i)h^ce upon it. 

* Aleijadiulio was, I liclieve, tlic ISOl. Vol. i. p. 77). There is a life of 

nickname of a X'^iintcr, Josd (.xon^alves, this worthy, but I have never been able to 

who lived at Rio de Janeiro (Pequeno Pano- procure it. 

rama da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, por f It leaves nothing to be desired. 

Moreira de Azevedo. Rio : Paula Brito, 


There are the normal six-side altars.* Of the Sanctuary (Capella 
M6r) we may remark that chancel and nave have different ceilings. 
The curved steps and the pavement are of iwlished stone. The 
throne and its lateral niches display twisted and festooned 
columns of white and gold, much cut and carved with painted 
cherubs of rmpleasantly "jolly" exjiression-f The Retahle is 
the Santissima Trindade in life-sized figures. The Creator is 
distinguished from the Preserver by a red cloak and a gold 
triangle for a crown, a Dove in red and Avhite hovering between 
them. Underneath is a large figure of N* S^ da Concei^ao 
supported by Santa Kosa de Viterbo, and Santa Isabel Rainha de 
Portugal. " Tudo," says the guide-book, " infunde resjoeito." t 
What would my old tutor Mu'za Mohammed Ali, the Shu'azi, 
have said to all this ? 

The Brazilians have to a considerable extent inherited the art 
of wooden statuary, in which Ebro-land has excelled the world. 
Here the chef-d'oeuvre is Sao Pedro de Alcantara, torn dress and 
all, cut out of a single block. The most worshipful is the 
Senhor Bom Jesus do Monte Alverne, of which the following 
tale is told. The Order being simultaneously in want of a 
statue and of funds, issued tenders ; an unknown Person offered 
himself, and required for earnest-money only the material and 
the implements of his craft, rating his labours at a fau' round 
sum. In due time he presented his work to the Sodality 
and disappeared. Sensible men suppose that it was some 
sinner who took this cmious path of penance for the health 
of his soul. We waited to see the image, but of the Sacri- 
stan the only obtainable tidings were " 'Sta na riia,"§ — a general 

* The altars on the right are, — No. 1. S. Francisco de Assis, S. Joao 

No. 1. S. Luiz de Franga, S. Boaven- Neiwmuceno and the Holy 

tiira (St. Good Luck), Santo Family. 

Antonio and the Menino Dens. ,, 2. S. Lucio, Santa Bona (who was 

,, 2. S. Pedro de Alcantara, Santa married), S. Domingo, and S. 

Qniteria and S. Bento (not to Joao Evangelista. 

be confounded with S. Bene- ,, 3. Santa Margarita de Cortona, S. 

dito). Roqiie, S. Joao and Nepomu- 

,, 3. Jesus crucified kissing S. Fran- ceno. 

cisco de Assis (the patron of The system of six side altars appears to 

the missioners who built Cali- be general throughout Minas, where some 

fornian San Francisco), sup- churches are crowded to accommodate 

ported by S. Francisco de them. 

Paulo and a Pope. In the + " Serafins de semblantes risonhos. " 

base of the altar S. Francisco J " All inspires respect. " 

de Assis, dead. § "He is at present in the street," i.e., 

On the left the altars are,— not at home — unconventionally. 


reply to enquiries touching whereabouts in a Brazilian country 

Further south, and commanding a noble view, is the poor 
chapel of Sr. Bom Jesus do Bomfim. It is fronted by four 
palms, and the knobby hill is thinly grown with wild grass * and 
the smaller Grama, f both yellow with hunger and thirst. B3' 
this Ava}', on June 17, 1842, the revolutionists marched in from 
Elvas and had the city at their mercy. A month afterwards the 
Provincial deputies met here and solemnly approved of the move- 
ment. The acting President made the common fatal error of 
leaving 500 men under Alvarenga, one of his best officers, to do 
garrison duty instead of taking the field. Finally, here, on 
September 7, the Sociedade Ypirunga meets to celebrate 
Independence Day. 

Descending the hill we enter the Post Office, a gauge of 
civiUzation in the Brazil. We find one room, and three clerks 
who never heard of "postal deliver}'." I This is a poor allow- 
ance in a city which has, like old Ilchester, a dozen churches, 
which bm'ns 48001bs. of wax per annum, and where there is a 
specialist tailor who makes Padres' clothes. 

* Capim do Campo. plaint. The Twopenny Post in England 

■f Graminlia. dates only from 1683, when David MuiTay 

J Until very few years past, travellers of Paternoster Row projected it. 
in the United States made the same com- 



" X3Lo ha utna pedra posta pela mao do horoem no centro de suas Cidades, que nao 
exprima iima idea, que nao represente uma letra do alphabeto da civilisafao." 

*S'/-. Manoel de Aravjo Porto Alegre. 

We completed the circle of the northern town by visitmg our 
compatriots in the Rna da Prata, the local Belgravia, and the 
best street in the cit}". They loaded us with small presents, 
the Balanus tintinnabulum, and specunens of gold from the old 
pit, magnetic iron, and water-rolled jasper, the true diamond for- 
mation of Bagagem.* "We carried off a valuable prescription, 
Avhich I have called Dr. Lee's pills, — a single seed of the Ei- 
cinus communis taken every thii'd hour, the third being gene- 
raUy the colojihon. He deserves a medal from the Hmnane 
Society for making so easy what is to some ahnost impossible. 
We were shown the " Azeitona da Africa — African olive tree — 
a slu'ub fifteen feet high, with a tea-like flower and dome-shaped 
foliage. It produces at all seasons round capsules containing 
some five tlu*ee-sided almonds, about the size of a quarter hazel 
nut : proportionally the}' are more oleaceous than the Palma 
Christi.t A quarter of a bushel gives five bottles of clear odour- 
less oil, fit for culinary purposes. 

We also saw the Brazihan copal, of wliich there are large 
deposits in Minas and Sao Paulo ; these came from near Oli- 
veira, sixteen leagues to the north-west. This " Breo," or pitch 
as it is vulgarly called, is the produce of extinct forests, com- 
posed of various Hymeneas, and semi-mineralized by heat and 
pressm-e. Like that of East Africa, it shows the " goose-sldn," 
or imprmt of sand; it often contains flies, and bits of bark; it is 

Dr.^ Couto named the place Nova -|- I saw only one slinib in tlie garden of 

Lorena in hononr of his patron, but this D. IVIaria Benedicta, and did not recognize 
was not endorsed by the people. it as an African growtli. 


affected b}" spirits of wine, and it almost dissolves in ffitlier and 
cliloroform. This most dm'able of varnishes was exported to 
Em'ope early in the present centmy, before the African coasts, 
east and west, supplied an article preferred by the trade. It 
will again appear in our markets when the labour-market in the 
Brazil shall become moderate. The aborigines used to make 
from the live-green, or raw copal — the " chakazi " of Zanzibar — 
"labrets," or hp ornaments of the brightest amber colour ; they 
were subconical cyHnders, a foot long and of finger thickness, 
a hollow tube of bamboo thrust into the tree serving for a mould. 
They were fixed by a chminutive crutch to the lower lip, and they 
hung down lilve pump handles to the wearer's breast. 

"We were also shown specimens of indigenous Vanilla, prepared 
by our hosts. The pods are strung upon a line, hung to dry in 
the smi and aii' every day, but not till too dry ; twice, with an 
interval, the oil of the '* Azeitona da Africa " is applied by means 
of a feather. Some split them and insert sugar or salt. This 
valuable growth has long been known in the Brazil ; a colonial 
law of 1740 forbids it to be cut. The author of the poem " Cara- 
muru," fii'st printed in 1781, sings of it (Canto 7, st. 47) — 

A baunillia nos sipos clesponta, 
Que tern no chocolate a parte sua : 
Nasce em bainhas, como paos de lacre, 
De um suco oleoso, grato o cheiro e acre.* 

But whilst the Spaniards exploited Vajaiilla (Epidendron 
Vanilla), even in their age of gold and silver, the Portuguese, 
especially the Paulistas and Mineiros, systematically neglected 
it, and our popular books ignore it. Yet the xolant grows wild 
in the greater part of the intertropical Brazil, and in places 
perfumes the air. It seems, therefore, to be reproduced without 
art.t The pods given to us at Sao Joao were large, fleshy, and 
very dark ; they preserved tlieu' characteristic fragrance for months. 

We resumed our way over the Ponte do Eosario to visit the 
Southern city. To our left are the ruins of " Sfio Caetano," a 
chm-ch which fell in or about 1864, and which has not been 

* "In lliaiia-sliape hangs the vanilla, +Prof. MoiTen of Liege proved that the 

which takes her place in chocolate. She is reproductive organs of the Vanilla planifolia 

borne in sheaths, like .sticlcs of scaling wax, have peculiarities v.hich require artificial 

with an oily juice and a grateful pungent fecundation ; in IMexico this process is 

smell." effected by an insect. 


restored. A hopeful sign ! That ohl saw, the nearer the kirk the 
farther from grace, is of general significance, and throughout 
the Brazil, the Age of Faith must be followed by the Age of 
Work ; moreover, roads will build churches, but churches will not 
make roads. The peculiarity of that temple was a chancel — 
o altar mor — much larger than the nave. A certam Guarda- 
mor, or local Commandant, commanded the architect to make it 
so, and silenced the objectors of " ii'regularity " with " Tvido 
quanto e mor, e ma'ior."* The same church bore the insolent 
inscription, " Key depende de nos, e nao nos delle," — " The king 
depends upon us, not we upon him." My authority remarks 
hereupon, so prodigal of fidalguia or gentility were these men 
who, mostly arrant roturiers in the Old "World, pm'chased titles 
and "founded families" in the New. 

We proceeded up the Eua da Prata — with difiicult}'. There 
is sometimes a raised sidewaj' in the flagged streets, but both 
street and way are equally atrocious. The black kidney-shaped 
cobble-stonest are as slippery as they are hard, and the new 
comer's gait suggests that of one practising hop-scotch. The 
effects upon the hallux and the digit minim of the Sao Joa- 
nensis must be sensible — and might not all or much of the evil be 
remedied by a few cart-loads of gravel, or well bruised macadam ? 
Of com'se not a wheeled vehicle is to be seen ; " carriage people " 
must content themselves with an old-fashioned sedan chair, or 
a " bangue,"+ an overgrown palanquin carried by two mules. En 
remnche the city is well supplied with water, and if money were 
expended every square and street could have its fountain. At 
l^resent there are three large Chafarizes, and springs whose waters 
men prefer, are still scattered about the neighbourhood. Some, 
we were told, have disappeared, and the rains, which as usual in 
these Highlands of the Brazil, formerly began in August, now 
defer tlieii" break till the end of November — the cause is probably 

We find ourselves thoroughly well Diorgiu's by the juvenile 
population ; stared at with ten-Cornish power ; we have our por- 

* " Whatever is greater must be bigger." J The word is the Hindostani "Banghi." 

It contains an untranslatable jeu de mots. The article is the Takht-rawan of the 

The same idea, expressed liy^?'o?ifZ and ^^ros, Meccan pilgrimage, of humbler form and 

passed between Napoleon the Great and his without camels. I have published a sketch 

librarian, when the latter objected the of the camel litter in my "Pilgrimage to EI 

bigness of a volume. Medinah and Mecca'' (vol. 1. 305). 

+ Pedras de ferro. 


traits taken mentall}', as if each paii* of eyes belonged to a turn- 
key. At Barbacena the youth prospected us open-mouthed ; 
liere they furthermore protrude the tongue, not wantonl}', how- 
ever, but in mere wonder. The citizens are described as high- 
spirited, intelUgent, fond of study, and anxious for information ; 
the ciuiosity of the juniors promises well, — without curiosity there 
is no enquiry. We remarked sundry scattered Ermidas, or small 
oratories. On the other hand there is no fixed market, and the 
Quitanda,* or res mercatoria, is exposed in the usual " Q.uatro 
Cantos," or place where four streets meet. The tailors' favourite 
place is on the sweet shady side of the way. This we understand 
when told that for the last four years the minimum of temper- 
ature has been 42° (F.) and the maximmn 88° (F.) Many houses 
were to let, and there were signs of depreciated property at Sao 
Joao, smce the end of its second and last aurea setas. A "palacete " 
built for 50001., at a time too when laboiu* averaged less than 
half its present price, now sells for 750/. But here as elsewhere, 
there are tln-ee distmct estimates; viz., that of the buyer ( — ), 
that of the seller ( + ), and that of the appraiser (+ or =). 

Sighting the N* S^ do Rosario, we did not requii*e to be told 
that it is the especial worship-place of the " Homo niger." It 
shows tawdry coarseness in colour and form ; there are no cam- 
paniles, the last belfry having been pulled down to prevent its 
coming down ; a silver lamp, w^eighing 900 ounces, lately stolen, 
and probabl}' by one of the brotherhood, has left the order poor. 
The Hamites have a better cemeter}- than church ; over the door- 
way of the well chosen situation is a skull, not dolichoceijhalic as 
it should be, based upon the distich, 

Ell fui o que tu ea. 

Til seras o que eu sou. f 

to which we anthropologically demur. 

At the wall base of the Rosario we were shown a " Deusa 
Astrea," or figure of Justice, in stone, lialf decapitated, and 

* In the Bunda tongue Kwitanda, by the sale, but invariably the thing sold (mon 

Portuguese written Quitanda, is the market- marche, as the French cook says) and 

place ; and Standa is explained as venda, "Quitandeira" is the woman who sells it. 
venditio, also Feira, or emporium ; thus, t " I ^'^^ what thou art : thou shalt be 

"to the sale" would be somewhat like the wliat I am." Sao Joao has not yet estab- 

"Eis ten polin," which became Stamboul. lished a branch of the Anthropological 

in the Brazil, Quitanda, is not the site of Society of London. 

VOL. I. K 


l3ang upon the ground ; this elicited some small wit. Presently 
we reached the Igreja Matriz, whose patroness is N^ S*" do Pilar, 
and which unites the brotherhoods " dos Passos (the Passion), do 
Sacramento, da Boa Morte, de Sao Miguel, das Almas (the Souls, 
i. e, in Pm-gatorj-), and de Santa Cecilia." I will spare descrip- 
tion of it after Sao Francisco. The building dates from 1711, 
except the modern facade, the work of Sr. Candido Jose da 
Silva. There are six side chapels and one tipstaii's for the 
sacrament. The high altar is, lilce the two pulpits, of old wood 
thickly gilt, and its ceiling is gilt, painted and panelled, whilst 
that of the nave is the smiplest tunnel or half barrel ; and, 
curious to say, the temple is finished. As the Provincial Govern- 
ment votes small annual sums to the *' Matrizes," the latter gene- 
rally want a last touch. 

"We rested in the house of the Latin Professor at the Lyceum, 
Dr. Aureliano Pereira Correa Pimental. That high literary 
tastes are not extmct in Sao Joao, may be proved by the fact, 
that tliis gentleman is teaching himself Hebrew and Sanskrit. 
He kindly gave me the satii-es, epigrams, and other poems of 
Padre Jose Joaquim CoiTea de Almeida, * and he recommended 
to me for translation the Assumpgiio of Frei Francisco de Sao 
Carlos, t Some noble traits are recorded of the Professor. I 
will spare his modesty the pain of seeing them in print; but there 
are few men with more family than substance, who will unasked 
reduce the interest upon an inheritance fi'om fifty per cent, to 

The end of our long peregrination was to the church of N^ 
S^ de Carmo, administered by the Tliii'd Order of that invo- 
cation ; its principal benefactors were the Barao de Itambe 
and the late Joao da Silva Pereii'a Gomes. The fa9ade orna- 
ments of cut steatite, with fanciful initials and cherubs worked by 
the Crijjple, the round-square towers with composite pilasters, and 
the internal consoles and columns were those of Sao Francisco. 
Its interior was being refitted with cedar wood, cut by a self- 
taught man, Sr. Joaquim Francisco de Assis Pereii'a; it will 

*Riode Janeiro, Laemmert, 1863. or rather exhaixstecl himself by mortifica- 

TAAssumpgao da Santissima Virgem, tions, on May 6, 1829. It was liis object 

now a Brazilian classic, published Rio de to mix, with praises of the %-irgin, descrip- 

Janen-o, 1819. The author was born in the tions of his "beautiful country" (no.sso 

J^ranciscan Convent of the Immaculate Con- bello paiz), and he has certainly succeeded, 
ception, August 13, 17G3, and there died. 


fissuredty, despite all our deprecations, be whitewashed and gilt. 
Pity that routine forbids it to be left au naturel ; the theatre 
should be as brilliant as possible, but the dim religious light 
far better becomes the delubra deorum. 

The Terceiros (Tliii'd Order) of the Carmo, have housed their 
dead better than their living, in above-ground catacombs some 
eighty feet west of the church. The square cemetery measuring 
400 palms in cu-cumference, with walls 28 palms high, has 
good grated doors,* with the initials of the Portuguese artist, 
J. J. F. (Jesuino Jose Ferreira), A small mortuary chapel fronts 
the entrance, the interior has cloisters like the Campo Santo of 
Pisa in miniature, and in the thickness of the walls are tiers of 
catacombs, family vaults apparently often wanted. 

We had worked like horses through the livelong day, and we 
were only too glad to house ourselves. Professor Pimental dined 
with us, our fellow-countrymen were also there, and the result 
was a highly satisfactory symi^osium with a musical clooping of 
corks. Rare indeed are they — these noctes coenseque deum. We 
separated as the small hours chimed, promising to breakfast at 
Matosmhos on the morroAv.t 

Before leavmg Sao Joao I ascended its Serra of notable me- 
mory, under the guidance of a Pdo-Grandense, the Capitao 
Christao Jose Ferreira. There is a fine bird's-eye view of the 
city at the top of the step-flight, some 150 feet long, leading to 
the Capella dos Mercenarios, whose confraternity, black and 
indigenous, is entitled N" S"* das Merces. From this place 
on the rough slope we could see the General Cemetery crowning 
the hill on oiu* right, the old Matriz below, with the northern 
city clustering around it, and bottoming all the rivulet that 

picciol fiumicello 
Lo cui rossore ancor ? mi raccapriccia, 

* "Ramagem," our "ramage"— branch- scribed with tlie letters S T (Sao Tbomd). 

ery. The educated at the spot declare that this 

+ Future travellers, who have more lei- and other ciu-ious shapes, especially an 

sure than ve had ai-e advised to visit the ounce perfectly outlined, are produced by 

fall or rapids of the Carandahy river, and decaying roots and vegetation. The ma- 

the "Sao Thome das Litras," eighteen terial, however, is laminated sandstone, 

leagues to the south-west, and nine leagiies elastic or non-elastic (Itacolumite), and the 

from Campanha. It is described a.s a little infiltration of oxide of iron produces between 

town, built upon the serra of the same the slabs these dendrites. I have seen 

name. The literary name comes from a them in railway cuttings near Sao Paulo. 
rock v.ithin sight of the square, and in- 

132 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [( hap. xii. 

whilst on the mound opposite, the show-church, Sao Francisco, 
pride of the southern quarter, completed the prospect. 

Thence, ascending a jagged hill, where building stone was being 
blasted, we sighted the ancient gold "diggins." This was the true 
El Dorado of El Dorado, the focus of the auriferous foci, all gashed 
and pierced for gold, with pits, fodinas, and quarries, now filled 
with sand, and broken down by weather into ravines which drain 
the Serra at right angles. The birth-place of the ore was the 
upper rock-ridge ; thence it was weathered into the lower levels. 
There was also a formation called Jacutinga, of which more 
hereafter ; suffice here to say, that it is 75 — 84 j^er cent, of mica- 
ceous iron, based probably upon specular or oligiste, with free 
gold in lines and potholes. To our left lay the N''' S''' do Monte, 
a hideous chapel, like the colonial fanes of modern Spanish 
colonies, double windowed (two red shutters being the windows), 
single doored, and suggesting a noseless face. Near the Igreja 
do Carmo we found no traces of the large muddy pool, or water- 
pit. At the quarry bottom there, says Mr. Walsh, the citizens 
used wistfully to peer for drowned and buried treasures, and we 
asked in vain for Dr. Such his tank. After inspecting the water- 
works we returned "home," via the Kua da Allegria, "of glad- 
ness," wliich till lately bore, said our guide, the "less honest" 
name of Eua da Cacha9a, or Bum Street. Thus, chez nous, Grass 
Church Street became Grace Church Street. 

We are about to visit the " St. John Del Eey Mining Com- 
pany (Limited)," which here began its operations ; and these we 
may prospect in situ. Its bu-th date was April 5, 1830, and on 
May 4 it sent from Liverpool to Rio de Janeiro nineteen men, 
under then." commissioner, the late Mr. Chas. Herring, Jun. The 
contract* gave permission to work the mmeral grounds imme- 
diatel}^ north of the cit3\ The deposits were found in a great 
lode parallel to a valley 1320 yards long by 150 broad, and in 
small veins perpendicularly offsetting from it. The native 
workings had consisted of an open trenchmg,f and their miners 
had opened at Dr. Such's tank an ii'regular quarry 110 feet deep. 
Their pumping gear of bucketed wheels, each worked by eight 

As security for the gold duty being the Imperial treasury witliout payiug 

paid, the licence required a deposit fund interest. These were sold in 1834 for 

of 50 contos of reis in Brazilian apolices £3,713 13s. Ud. 
or Government bonds, to be \ised by f Talho abero. 

vuw. xTi.J THE NORTH OF SAO JOAO D'EL-llET. 133 

or tell men, had failed, and the pit was soon filled up with mud 
and water to within thirty feet of the edge. 

In August, 1830, an open-cut, adit-level, faced on both flanks 
with stone work, was begun from the rivulet side to the east. It 
proved the main lode, whilst its course cut the cross-veins below 
the depth reached bj'' former miners. Moreover, it drained the 
surface water deposited during the rains. In those da^-s the dry 
season above ground began in April, underground in July, and 
this gave but foiu* clear months. The "shaft of St. John" was 
sunk about the same time in favourable ore ground, west of the 
tank. On the east was commenced a second shaft for sump or 
drainage. Both served for ventilation, and were provided with 
"whims" or "gins,"* for pumj^ing and drawing stuff. Dams 
were erected to secure washing during the dries, and dwellings, 
store-houses, offices, and other "surface-works," were put up. 
The superintendent and mine agent obtained rights to water 
courses, and then commenced the normal operations of blasting, 
pulverizing, and fanning in the Batea,t followed by the more 
scientific process of smelting and amalgamating the pyritiferous 
matter, which was sent to London for assay. 

The total salaries for the first year amounted to ;£2,310. The 
works, however, did not pay ; and in 1835, after incurring a loss 
of ^026,287 18s. 4d., Mr. Herring transferred himself to Morro 
Vellio. Thus ended, at Sao Joao, the aurea setas No. 2, and since 
that time the "mother of gold"! has reigned with little moles- 
tation. Up to late years a small quantity of the precious metal, 
about £2,000 per annum, has been exported by the municipality. 

The industry of the city is at a low ebb. Sao Joao has a 
banker, the Capitao Custodio de Almeida. Cotton and woollen 

* The drums round which are wound the lighter dirt are removed by tilting over and 

ropes which draw up the ore. Tlie ' ' gin with the lingers. Tlie washer sometimes 

race" is the level "horse round" where adds raw rum or aloe juice, or an infusion 

the animals work. of the plants called Capoeira and Itambamba, 

t This Batea corresponds in gold working which, sprinkled over the contents of the 

with the Calabash of Guinea and the pan of pan, is supposed to clear them mechanically, 

California and Austi-alia. In the Brazil it as cold water or the contents of an egg 

is of various shapes, sizes, and kinds of clarifies coffee. 

wood ; usually it is a circular i)latter of J Miti de Ouro, a Brazilian pixy, who 

cedar, 1^ feet in diameter, concave, with a guards the virgin treasure. She is rather 

dip of y-.*! inches, and fonning in the centre whimsical than malevolent; but at times 

of the flattish cone a little hollow (piao da she does a little murder. So the Indians 

batSa "the angle of the pan"), into which of the Manitoulin Islands believe that the 

the diamonds or the gold dust settle. It is ISfanitou has forbidden his children to seek 

worked with the usual rotatory motion that for gold, 
requires some practice, and the water and 


cloths, plain and striped, are made by the hand. They are 
stained with indigo urucu (the well-known Bixa orellana), and 
other dyes in Avhich the country abounds. These stuffs are 
strong, and out-last many lengths of machinery-woven stuffs ; but 
they are expensive, and the supply hardly suffices for home use. 
Tea was grown, and the Padre Francisco de Paula Machado's 
preparation, from his chacara on the Barro road to Oliveira, is 
largely bought at Sao Joao, and is aj^preciated at Bio de Janeii'o. 
Cereals thrive, and tubers everywhere abound. Hard woods* 
are of various kinds, but they are now produced m small 
quantities. The high lying and healthy campos gromids make 
stock breeding the favourite industry ; black cattle are tolerably 
good, the horses and mules want fresh blood, and the same may 
be said of the hogs that supply the prized "lombo" and 
" toucinho." Cheese is also exported. There are large tracts 
of bottom land admu-ably fitted for growing cotton, which 
might be made a source of wealth. A little " tree-wool," cleaned 
and uncleaned, together with hides and leather, is exported to 
pay for salt, the prmcipal import, f Of tliis indispensable article, 
some 100,000 alqueires are annually introduced for sale and con- 
sumption, and it is brought up by mule troops belonging to the 
planters and traders. 

Sugar-cane supplies spirits and vinegar, with a small surplus 
for trade. In 1859, the municipality contained 48 Engenhos, 
or boihng establishments, 30 worked by water and 18 by 
bullocks. In the same year the city numbered 64 stores for 
goods, native and foreign, 1 inn (hospedaria), several taverns 
(locandas), and 4 druggist's shops (boticas), '' Carne seca " 
(charqui) and pork are as usual much consumed, and four 
bullocks are slaughtered daily. 

Early in the last century, Sao Joao was haunted by a Familiar 
of the Hoh' Office, appointed by the Inquisitor General, Car- 
dinal Nuno da Cunha. A certam Padre Pontes, it is related, 

* Here called "wood of the law" (Ma- The imports in 1859 were : — 

deira da Lei), becaxise in colonial days it Salt, iron, pottery, wet and dry goods, 
might not be felled without permission. 

The Portngnese Madeira is the Latin " Ma- Total . . 2,305 : 900 $000 
teria" used by Ctesar and others. 

+ The exports in 1859 were : — Thus showing in favour of produce 

IndustiT . . . 1,292:0001000 a total of 1,202 :900$000 ( = £120,000 

Commerce . . . 2,216 ; 800 $000 per annum, assuming the milreis = 1 


otal . . 3,508: 800 $000 


found himself in the Holy Tribunal's grip. Wisliing to change 
his condition, he had forwarded tlie follo^^ing questions to the 
Vigario da Vara, the Vicar with juridical powers. 

"Pedro the Priest mshes to intermarry with Maria, having a 
dispensation from liis Holiness to that effect. Query, can Pedro 
the Priest so do ? " 

The Vicar, an intelligent man, replied : — 

" To me it is a vii-gm case, but if Pedro have the dispensation, 
Pedro can so do." 

And Pedro, presenting a forged dispensation, went and did 
it : he was married with all the honours by the Padi-e Sebastiao 
Jose da Freii-ia, the Padre Francisco Justiniano assisting as 
witness. The affair was x'l'esently bruited abroad, the deceit 
was discovered, the Inquisition was an edged tool in those daj^s, 
and the hot amoiuist was consigned to confinement with ugly 
prospects. Escaping, he became " Doctor Vieii-a," and travelled 
to Eome, where, the matter being taken in jest, he was par- 
doned. The actors suffered more than the author of the farce, 
both were placed in the hands of the Holy Office ; or, m plain 
Enghsh, thrown into the dungeons, now happily turned into 
stage and green-room. Padi*e Sebastiao returned home, after 
justif3'ing his mnocence. Padre Justiniano remained with the 
Holy Office: and it is still doubtful whether he was "relaxed" 
(relaxado), that is to say, strangled and roasted, or he died in the 
course of nature, a captive and an exile. 



" Capitania tao largamente prendada da natiireza, em mil recursos uteis ao 
Estado e aos parfciculares, e tao cahida ate ao presents em desemparo e desciiido." 

Dr. Couto. 

It was Saturday — begging da 3' by ancient usage in the Brazil. 
AVe were strangers, and therefore fair game. The Praia was 
beset by cripjiles of every kind, and some wore the weekly " pro- 
perty dress " — I had never yet seen so much mendicanc}' in so 
small a place. Was with me a person who still believes in the 
Knightly and middle-aged legends about alms, and even a share 
of bed unwittingly given to individuals of exalted rank in the 
Spiritual Kingdom : one of these wretches might be St. Joseph, 
or something higher. All, therefore, received coppers, and the 
results were a glorious gathermg of Clan Ragged, the expen- 
diture of small change, the not seemg St. Joseph, and the 
frequent seeing " Saint Impudence." 

Mr. Copsj^ took advantage of his midsummer vacation, and 
joined our party. It is no light matter to take leave of a 
Brazilian wife, especially wdien young and pretty : these ladies 
determinedly ignore innocent gipsying, and carefully scrutinize 
the gait of the returning mate as he " turns in." He was not, 
therefore, sans soucis, till he had " crossed the first Corrego," * 

*"C6iTego" (with the acute accent, specific terminology tax so heavily the 

which raises the voice-tone) is pronounced stranger's memory. The Corrego is a rill, 

by the jieople " Corgo," and sometimes so not to be confounded with the Sangradouro 

■vNTitten in poetry and by the unlearned. (and the smaller feature Bebedor or Bebe- 

The English turn it to "Corg," iijjon the douro), the natural drain of a lake or high 

same principle that mato becomes "mat," gi-ound, nor with the arroio or arroyo (Arab. 

restilo, "restil," dono, "don," vardo. . ii\ ^ n i • i. -ij. 4. 

,< j' „ , 1 ' << 1 ' „ m, • -i' A) • JU a fiumara, nullah, or intermittent 

para, and doce, "dose. Their ears do --'^ ' 

not distinguish the semi-elision of the mountain stream. It is somewhat larger 

final vowel. And here we may see the than the Regato or rivulet, which again 

wonderful richness and the exceptional must not Ite confused with Rego, a leat or 

variety of the Luso-Latin tongue, which water-coiu'se. Next is the Ribeiro, a brook, 

almost ignores general words and whose whose feminine form, Ribeira, classically 

riiAP. Mil.] TO AND AT SAO JOSE D'EL-RET. 137 

where, as (lemons and Avitclies dislike running water, Atra Cura 
stayed behind. 

Reaching Matosinhus, the Memorious suburb, we breakfasted 
with Dr. Lee and his very agreeable SJio-Joanense wife, whose 
kind manner and hospitality, in the shortest possible time, won 
all our hearts. We wandered about the fine large garden, where 
the orange is the most banal of fruits, and we found the 
" Sneezer " * growing with Egyptian luxuriance, and a leaf-green 
rose with undeveloped petals, ver}^ fragrant was the Verbena 
(Verbena Vii-gata, Sellow), a powerful sudorific, used externally 
and internally as a cure for snake bites. As a parting j^resent. 
Dr. Lee gave nie a mastiff-pup, answering to the name of 
" Negra," lank in body, with brindled coat, square head, broad 
shoulders, and huge hands and feet. This is the breed called in 
jNIinas Cao de fila, and I have seen specimens which much 
reminded me of the thorough-bred English bull dog, not the 
toy animal which now goes by that name. "Negra" nearly 
reached the Rapids of the Sao Francisco River before I was 
compelled to part with her. 

Bidding a regretful adieu to our excellent hosts, we struck 
up the Valley of the Rio das Mortes Grande. The stream was 
stained possibl}^ by gold washing, and the Ponte de Sant lago 
remained as described thu'ty j^ears ago, a crazy frame-Avork of 
patched wood, with tiled roof and gravelled footwa}" sixt}- 3'ards 
long. The local authorities have lately bought it for 600/., and 
thus it runs every risk of ruin : these instruments of civiliza- 
tion should in the present age of the Brazil be farmed to con- 
tractors upon conditions of moderate tolls and regular repairs. 
The road was especially vile, and after rain it must be almost 
intransitable. I have alread}^ spoken of Brazilian lines of com- 
munication generall3\ In this Province the Imperial are rare : f 

means a river bank, like Riba (or Ribanccira, " Ribeiraosinlio, " for instance, means a 

a tell bank). In parts of the Brazil it is iin- big smaU stream. It is applied to a water 

properly ajiplied to a lai-ge navigable river, of the class Ribeirao, but small for its 

f . y. the " Ribeira de Igiiape. " Follow tlie Ribeirao-ship. 

Riacho, a stream ; the Ribeirao, a large * EspiiTadeii'a, Nerium odorum, or Ole- 

stream ; and the Rio or rivei-, which latter ander. The word is sometimes ai)plied to 

is arbitrarily applied to minor features. the sternutative Oi-telao do mato (Peltodon 

Many Rio Grandes are mere " creeks. " Each radicans, one of the Labiadre?) The pco- 

term has its incremeutative and diminutive ]ilc do not much admire the Oleander, and 

forms, the latter much aft'ected in these haji^iily ignore its poisonous properties. 
lands. Sometimes both arc united wliim- f I know only one, that of Philadelphia, 

sically, but with a specific signification. 

133 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BEAZIL. [chap. xiii. 

funds were voted for a highway to Goyaz, but the municipal 
chambers couki not combme, and thus it has not emerged from 
the pa2)er stage. 

We passed many Chacaras now in ruins, and recalling the 
opulent days of Sao Joao. A classical site lies some two miles 
belovv' the bridge, hugging the right bank of the river, and on 
the western road to the Alagoa Dourada. The lone spot is 
now known as the Yargem (Meadow reach) de INIarcal Casado 
Rotier, a French-Portuguese. It has been often pointed out as 
the future metropolis of the Brazil. 

On the left rose the Serra do Corrego, a south-eastern spm* of the 
Sao Jose Range ; the jagged mass of lime and sandstone grit still 
conserves, they say, gold and rock crystal. At its base crouched 
" Corrego," a rugged hamlet of poor huts and rich fruit trees, 
and a little farther on the chapel of N^ S* do Bom Despacho 
(of happy conclusion) ; it was a neat little place when gold was 
abundantly washed from the " Corrego," and it had a pompous 
annual festival ; during the last fifteen j^ears it has been in ruins. 
Beyond the northern liills are the Caldas or Thermse de Sao 
Jose, best known as the Agoa Santa. According to Mr. Coj^sy, 
the springs have a temperature of 72° (F.), and are rich in carbo- 
nate of soda; he compared them Avith those of Buxton, 82° (F.), 
good for the rheumatics, and rich in muriate of magnesia and 
soda. Mineral waters are found in many parts of Minas, but 
hitherto " balenary establishments " have been greatly neglected, 
and patients have had to "rough it " without even lodgmg. Of 
late, however, energetic steps have been taken in this matter so 
important to the common weal.* 

Presently we crossed the Morro da Candonga,f a lump lying 

* In the Kelatoiio, or Annual Eeport of 
the President of Minas (Rio Tyiaogi'aphia 
Esperan9a, 1867), we find (p. 68), that 
measm-es have been adopted to secure ac- 
commodation at the mineral waters of 
Caxambfi, in the Municipality of Baepondy, 
and at the "Aguas Virtnosas" of Cami^anha. 
The waters of Baependy are distributed into 
nine fountains already known. ' ' They con- 
tain," says Sr. Julio Augusto Horta Bar- 

bosa, "free carbonic acid, carbonates, sul- Total . 0'630 in 1000 gram- 

phates of alkaline base, traces of sulphate mes, or 1 litre." 

of iron and sulphuric acid, probably due to f The word means in Portuguese slang, 

organic decomposition, and much esteemed deceit or trickery, hence a trickster is 
in cutaneous diseases. The following is the called Candongueiro, an intrigiier. It has 
analysis of the waters in the Sen-a do Picfi. probably come from the coast of Africa. 

Acid, Sulphuric 


, , Carbonic 


Chlorine . 


Silica . 








Oi'ganic, iron, 
alum, &c. 



south of the Sfio Jose Range, and deeply pitted with huge ravines 
like craters of extinct Yolcanoes^. From the summit we saw to 
the right of the road the calcareous formation known as the Casa 
de Pedra,* or more fjincifully as Gruta de Calj'^pso. Presently 
the Trindade church, and Sao Jose, the city, lay below our feet, 
singular and romantic. The basin is traversed by the Corrego 
de Santo Antonio, a tributary of the Rio das Mortes ; though 
higher than Sao Joao,f it must accumulate heat in hot weather, 
cold in cold weather, damp in damp weather. Stretching from 
north-east to south-west rises the Serra de Sao Jose, Avhicli divides 
the valleys of the Eio das Mortes and the Carandahy ; it forms, 
they say, a double line, a gigantic rut bisecting the centre. The 
perpendicular wall, 200 feet high, ultra-Cj^lopean in architecture, 
and towering 500 feet above the basin, is a Jebel Mukattam, and 
not unlike the Palisades on the Hudson. Its crest bristles with 
curious projections, stiff points, pilves, needles, and organ pipes, 
while the debris fill the low lands with felspar and clay slate. It 
is the first of many which we shall presently see, their right lines 
intersecting the country divide it into vast compartments, and 
supply to it gold. The precious metal is still washed about 
N''' S^ da Conceicao de Prados,| under the Ponto do Morro, to 
the north-east. 

The pavement of the steep " Calcada " was even worse than 
that of Sao Joao ; and we reached the house of Mr. Robert H. 
Milward, to whom our introductory letters had been sent for- 
ward, thoroughly prepared to dismount. But no such luck was 
in store ; Mr. Milward was out of town, and Mrs. IMilward was 

* The usual term for a cave. Mr. Walsli(ii. communicating witli the open. I am tired 
223), visited and described the feature. Mr. of glancing at caverns, after the Mammoth 
Copsy places it at six miles equidistant from and Adelsberg, and there Avas no pic-nic to 
Sao Joao, and Sao Jose and near the RioElvas. justify the loss of a day. 
The site is an isolated, calcareous upheaval, t This is proved by our ascending 
some 300 feet raised above a mere brejo, or nearly the whole way. ]\I. Gerber does not 
swamp, and about 440 yards long. The give the altitude, which is popularly sup- 
natural tunnel is the model of a subterra- posed to be 5300 — 5400 feet. We mayre- 
neous river bed. The ceiling has stalactitic duce it to 2500 feet, a little below that of 
jags, and saw-teeth, the sides are worked Bai-bacena. 

and turned by the water bath, and the bot- J Prados, nine miles from Sao Jose, is 

tom is clay, still preserving tlie bones of likely to become important, as one of the 

extinct animals. The party walls of thin stations on the future railway, via Alagoa 

calcaire, form the usual curios. The " pul- Dom-ada to the head waters of the Rio dc 

pit " of Gothic style, and the "Chiux-h," Sao Francisco. At present the speciality of 

lead to a dark passage, opening upon tlic the little to\ni is saddlciy, supplied by 20 

"Gruta do Lustre," Grot of the Chande- workshops, employing 150 hands: the 

lier. Behind this ai-e a limestone column articles are sold wholesale for 20|000 

and another chambered bulge : the latter each. 


not visible to us, although we were thoroughly visible to her. 
We retraced our steps upwards through a sprinkling of " Jacu- 
beiros,"* some of them " Gente de Casaca."t Theii" only occu- 
pation, when not making shoes, seemed to be playing "peteca," I 
a kind of hand shuttlecock, in favour with both sexes. "We did 
not expect to find " chicken-fixins " at the inn kept by the Capitao 
Severino, better known as " Joaquimsinho," and we were not 
disappointed. Happily for us, however, Saturday is beef day at 
Sao Jose. 

Whilst the beef was being manipulated, we wallved to the 
southern slope of the basin and inspected the Matriz dedicated to 
Santo Antonio. According to the chroniclers, § it is the most 
beautiful and majestic in the province; it is finety situated, facing 
the mountains, the town, and the Riverine valleys and lowlands 
to the east. According to local tradition, it was built about 1710, 
by the Margal Casado Kotier, and the sacraments were first 
administered in 1715. In those days of pristine piet}' the wealthy 
founder sent every Saturday night a gang of 200 slaves, each 
carr3'ing a pan of auriferous earth ; hence the ^rnddle walls are 
mixed with gold as the pise of the Dahoman palace is kneaded 
Avith rxim or human blood — honoris causa. 

The st3de is the barocco or old Jesuit, and resembles the Sao 
Bento of Rio de Janeiro ; it is, however, more primitive, tawdr}-, 
and grotesque. The nave is rectangular, "\Nith frescoes of very 
poor art, life-sized saints, Gregory and Ambrose, Augustine 
and Jerome, with the Annunciation, the Magi, and the creche or 
crib of Bethlehem. The ceiling is a half hexagon, with panels 

* Jacubeiros de Sao Jose, a highly in- cold water. St. Hil. (HI. i, 270,) omits the 

vidious term, equivalent to coxmtry-bnmp- sugar. 

kin, applied by the neiglibonring Siio- -t- "Coat peoi)le," opposed to those who 

Joanenses. Disputes about "urban pre- wear jackets or shirt sleeves. The garment 

cedency " here ran high as they ever did is generally understood to be of broadcloth, 

between Perth and Dundee. Jaciilia is invariably black. 

servile food, and Padre Cori-ea sings of a J In Tupy, the word jirimarily signifies 

bad lot. (Epistola, p. 24.) a "beating." It is explained in the Diet. 

,, -T 1 -1 bv " volante " or "supapo," made of maize 

Nem agradece a jacuba j^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^^^ « ^.^^^^. ^^^^ ^^^ ^j. 

Que nao comeria em Culm ! ^^^^^ „ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^. ^^ ^ cat's-paw. 

' ' Nor likes he the Jacuba Botocudos had the football made of a 

Which he woiild not eat in Cuba I " ''^1'^'"^ ^^°*'^ ^^i"- ^^"'^'^^ ^^''^''- "• 


It is also affected by nude drivers, and § Casal (vol. ii. ) and Pizarro (vol. viii.) 

e^^pecially by the boatmen on the Rio de especially. Of course the dead were buried 

Sao Francisco. The simple "mets"' is around and within it. The custom was not 

maize flour mixed with rapadura sugar and abolished in Rome and Naples till 1800. 

iH.vr. xiTi.J TO AND AT SAU JOSE DEL-REI. 141 

and paintings not badly executed. There are six side chapels, 
the thii'd left containing a large cross. Two pulpits attached 
to the side walls are poor and naked, with highly ornamental 
canopies, suggesting those "African gentlemen" whose sole 
costume to speak of is a tall blue chimnej^'-pot hat. On the left 
is a cmiously-shaped choii" or organ loft, supported by queer 
car3'atides and cornucopia?, and copiously- festooned and painted. 
The organ is tolerable, and indeed it is said to be the best in 
jMinas ; the organist kindly gave us a specimen of his art. Under 
the choii' are two fanc}' figures weeping bitterly without a cause. 
Above it is a projecting branch for lights, a heraldic full-sized 
wooden eagle — somewhat like those which support om- lecterns — 
whose beak supports a lamp chain ; of these Jovian bii'ds there is 
one before each altar. 

The sanctuary is a mass of gilding and carving, and the ribbed 
roof shows a quadripartite vaulting. On the right-hand wall is 
the Marriage of Cana, to the left the Last Supper, large pamt- 
ings, but not equal to the popular treatment of the subjects. 
The retablo under its canopy of gilt wood is Saint Anthony, per- 
forming the miracle of the animals. He holds up the mon- 
strance. The people, doubtless " sceptics " and " shallow infi- 
dels," refuse to adore, but the once T^-phonian donkey, new type 
of the zeal without knowledge, falls on its humble knees. It calls 
to mind the old hymn — 

Cognovit bos et asinus 
Quod puer erat Dominiis. 

Three steps lead up to the throne of the Santissima, a fine piece 

of wood and gilding, always, however, excex^ting the fat boys 

dressed in gold-wash, who put out the eye of taste. Above it is 

a figiu'e of our Lord ascending to Heaven. 

The Miracle room showed a votive offering, dated 17-17, the 

men in periwigs and full skirted red coats, were "s^ild brethren 


Sir Plume, of amber snuff-box justly vain. 

The sacristy contained the usual old fountain, decorated with 
an impossible head, a few insignificant pictures, and old prie- 
Dieu chairs of fine black-wood, with seats and tall backs of 
hishlv embossed leather. These articles are common in the 

142 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xiii. 

cliurclies of Minas, some of the country clergy affect them, and I 
have fomicl them at tunes in laical houses. They are picturesque, 
but who, in the name of comfort, sits off the dorsal angle ? a 
nursery stool would he preferable ! This property room is rich 
in thmifers, chalices, and other items of the ecclesiastical plate 
service ; it is said to contain 1280 lbs. of silver and silver gilt. 
The most grotesque part is the Capella de Sete Passos, the 
seven j)rincipal stations of oiu* Lord's passion, beginnmg with 
the garden and ending at the crucifixion. The figures were life- 
size, of painted wood, and nothing can be more like a Buddliist 
temple m those lands where Buddhist art does not excel. 

We then strolled about the place, and inspected the minor 
lions. The Casa da Caniara, opposite the Matriz, is certainly 
the best of the 300 houses. We counted, besides the parish 
church, 1, Sao Joao Evangelista, 2, Eosario, 3, Santo Antonio 
dos Pobres, 4, the chapel of Sao Francisco da Paula, and 5, 
the Merces, still under repaii' ; a total of seven, and a tolerable 
allowance for a population of 2500 souls.* Descending the 
calcada, we crossed over the neat little stone bridge, and worked 
round to the principal Chafariz. The entrance to its flagged 
platform certamly dates before tlie days of crinoline ; the front 
shows three masks and two spouts, still surmomited by the arms 
of Portugal. All is lilce the garden of black Hassan, but the 
place would make an admirable bath. 

Beyond this the red land is cut and hacked by the gold-washer. 
" St. Joseph of the King" (D. Joao V.) was the wildest sohtude 
during the seventeenth century, when the Paulistas and Tau- 
bateenses began to push theii' bandeii'as or commandos into the 
vast mysterious interior. Guided by the brave and energetic 
adventurer, Joao de Serqueu'a Affonso, a part)' of explorers 
seeking red-skins and "yellow clay," reached the margins of the 
Rio das Mortes, and founded the usual "Arraial." Its golden 
treasures attracted emigrants, and on January 19, 1718, about 
two years before Minas Geraes was raised to an independent 
captaincy, it became a villa and a municipality under the Go- 
vernor D. Pedro de Almeida, Count of Assumar. In June 1842, 
it acknowledged the insurgents, and in 1848 it was degraded to 
a mere "povoagao," a "one-horse" affaii-. But Eesurgam was 

* lBlS28it contaiued, wcaretold, 2000 Municipality numbered 24,508 souls with 
sonls. In 1864, tlie population of tlie 1209 voters and 35 electors. 


its motto, and on October 7, 18G0, it took upon itself tlie noLle 
obligations of cityliood. 

In April 1828 S. Jose became the head-quarters of the General 
Mining Association, that had secured three leagues of auriferous 
soil, and whose interests were looked after by Mr. Charles 
Duval.* In 1830 a tract of ground was also secured by the 
*' St. John Del Rey." But water was found to be very 
abundant in the mine and very scanty on the surface ; conse- 
quently, stamping and washing went on slowly. Two years 
afterwards the directors gave up the diggings in disgust, the 
'* plant " was bought by Mr. Milward, and grass now grows abun- 
dantly in the streets. 

The trade of Sao Jose, except in Jacuba and Petecas, is at a 
stand-stiU. Once it had five fabrics of native flax, seventy looms, 
(theares,) where 30,000 metres of country-grown cotton were 
woven, five potteries of good clay, and eight Idlns, which pro- 
duced per annum 3000 bushels of lime. In 1855 the municipal 
judge calculated the exports at 450 : 000 $ 000, and the imports 
at 250 : 000 $ 000. 

Nature, in one of her usual freaky moods, produced at '' Sao 
Jose of the Jacubeii'os," no less a personage than Jose Basilio da 
Gama, ex-Jesuit noviciate, favourite of Pombal, member of the 
Arcadia Mineira, author of the celebrated epic, or rather 
metrical romance, '' O Uraguay," and glory of his native land. 
As might- be expected, however, under the circumstances, the 
X3lace of his birth never recorded his natal date, which is supposed 
to be about 1740 ; the names of his parents have only just been 
discovered, and where there are seven churches, there is not a 
slab to honour the greatest of the Brazilian poets. 

His ** Exegi Monumentum " shall conclude this chapter. 

Ura^iay ! men sliall read thee : tliougli some day 
Brood o'er this vision dark, eternal night. 
Live thoii and 'joy the light serene and clear I 
G-o to Arcadia's groves, nor fear to be 
A stranger stepping on an unknown shore. 
There 'mid the sombre myrtles freshly reared, 

* Mr. Charles Duval, who was married system of treating the quartz and pyrites : 

to a Polisli lady, still remembered in the having failed to see Mr. Milward who, in 

countiy, afterwards became Chief Commis- those days liad charge of tlie operations, 

sionerof Gongo Soco, and died about 1857. I can neither add to nor correct his infor- 

Mr. Walsh (ii. 117 — 8) fully describes his mation. 

144 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [cuvp. xiii. 

Not all Mir6u * the sad um shall hold. 

Raise from the foreign sky and o'er it strew 

With peregrine hand the wreath of barbarous flow'rs ; 

And seek thy follower to guide thy steps 

Unto that jDlace which long thy coming 'waits. 

* His poetical, or pastoral name. 



" Aeris tauta est clemeutia ut nee nebula iuficiens, nee spiritns hie pestilens, nee 
aura corrumperes ; medicomm opera parum indiget." — Gerald. Camhr., Chap. 9. 

The beds of Sao Jose were not downy. We agreed to rise at 
1 A.M., and most of us spent the night talking over okl times. 
INIules, however, will stray, and with the thermometer showing 
36° F. negroes will feel torpid. Yet Ave effected a start at 
4*50 A.M. The road at first traversed wooded lands ; at least, so 
we thought in the darkness of mid-winter. It was almost like 
riding up an endless wall of stone, slightly slanting, and sliding 
down on the other side. Presently it began winding through a 
gap in the grim Serra de Sao Jose ; bad it was to ascend, worse 
to descend, and the raw damp of early dawn was not favourable 
for the exercise of an}' faculties, perceptive or reflective. 

At 8 A.M., desperatel}' sleepy, chilly and comfortless, we 
reached the Rio Carandahy, which, draining the westward face 
of the meridional range north of Barbacena, falls into the Rio das 
Mortes Grande, and thus into the liio Grande and the Parana. 
The name is trivially explained by the cry on sighting a drowned 
man, "A cara anda ahi ! " — here goes the face! The term is 
l)robably Tupy, and Cara-andahy would mean the ''hawk's 
hook," or curve. In the Brazil, as in "the East," there is 
an abundance of folk-lore philosophy, superstitious, fanciful, 
descriptive, and facetious. Thus, " araxa," toTvni, so called be- 
cause it is a " sun facer," " ara" being day, and " echa" that looks 
at, is popularly derived from " ha de se acliar," he (or it) must 
be foimd, alluding either to a Quilombeiro* (maroon negro), or to 
the gold reported to be abundant. 

* Tlic Quiloinl'O mny l>c a roiTn]ition nf P.ia/il it is n]ip1if>l tn ihc Inisli sottlementsi 

the Bimda word whicli Fr. Bernardo ^laria of fugitive slaves and other malefactors : 

de Cannecatim (Lisbon, 1804) writes in some of these IMaroon villages, as the Qui- 

his well-known dictionary, Curiembu (Ku lombo dos Palmares, will live in history. 

Riemlni ),/.<•., povoar, to populate. In tlie " Calhambola," "Carambola," or " Qtu- 


Having breakfasted at the Carandaliy Bridge, we ascended to 
a kind of plateau, or table-land. This taboleiro was grassy, and 
thinlj' wooded above Avith stunted trees like the ilex and arbutus 
of the Tjrolese glade ; whilst the slopes and hollows shoAved the 
huge red water-breaches and the bouquets de bois of the Minas 
Campo. There were only two fazendas upon the thousands of 
square acres, well supplied with small streams in little glens. 
The path was all up and down, nor did it want the usual <iuag- 

Three mortal long leagues delayed us till nearly sunset. After 
many an " anathema esto," we reached an outlying settlement on 
a hill-top, primitive as a Tup}^ taba.* Thence descending a 
steep winding path, we found ourselves in something more 
civilised, the Freguezia de Santo Antonio de Alagoa (vulgarly 
Lagoa) Dourada.t It appears in the shape of a single street, a 
favourite form in old-fashioned parts of the Brazil, this long town 
reminding one of a settlement on the Gaboon or the Congo Biver, 
and survives in the suburbs of such civilized places as (Sao Salva-. 
dor da) Bahia. Some fifty one-storeyed houses, with far-projecting 
eaves, which suggest, when viewed from below, a colossal flight of 
steps, stretcli straggling from north to south, and spread along 
the meridional bank of a brook traversing a dwarf bottom. This is 
one of the head Avaters of the Brumado, the brumous, or foggy, 
called by the elders Corrego, or Eibeirao de Inferno, or " Hell 
Creek." . After six or seven lengues it falls into the Paraoi)eba. 
According to some, it is the main stream, and we are noAv in the 
basin of the Eio de Sao Francisco. Crowning the square-like 
street ai-e the remains of a neAv church, intended for St. John ; it 
is highly effective as it now stands — a ruin before it became an 
edifice. Further down is the Matriz de Santo Antonio, old and 
with the antiquated belfry, a detached wooden framework. Also, 

lomliola," and in Prince U-ak. (i. 281), * The Taba in the Kraal or Indian 

" Gayainbolos, " which I can only consider village, a collection of "Ocas," in Portu* 

to be further debasements ; one of them, gnese Cabanas — wigwams. The Ocara is 

however, occiirs in the Cartas Chilenas, a the open space, generally circular, snr- 

celebrated Brazilian satire, the " Draper's rounded by the lodge.s. 

Letters " done in verse,— f According to' the Diccionario GeO' 

E«,^»>rio o ■u„w, V „ 1 Hi grapliico, sub voce, it Avas originally the 

mancla a hum bom cabo, que Ihe traga ai«J^ il,T^lTl•n j 

A\v„.>^+«c. ^,.;i . h 1 1 Alagoa Escura — the Dark Lake. Dourada 

A quantos quilohibolas se apanharcm • ° +• , -x. n • j . 

Em duras gargalheira«. ^ sometimes erroneously A.-ritten Doirada : 

the Portuguese diidithong ' ou js mostly 

A sturdy corjioral he sends to bring sounded "oi," to the great confusion of 

All the I\Iaroons on whom he can lay hand.^ foreigners, 
In hard neck-irous. 


for the poi^ulatioii of GOO souls and Sunda}" visitors, there are two 
chapels of ease, the Merces and the towerless Rosario. 

We passed on to the further end of the straggling village, and 
" ranched" at a kind of cottage that hore the " strange device" — 

CA3A HOSPERIA ASAO, (sic, the word reversed.) 
Dom Miguel da Assumpcao (sic, ciio a Dog) Chaves. 

Tlie kennels serving for hed-rooms were foully dirt}', the floor 
was foot-tamped earth, and the ceilings were in Mineiro style, 
strips of hamhoo bark about an inch in diameter crossing at right 
angles. This rough matting has its advantages ; it is cheap, 
clean, and not close enough to prevent ventilation ; in the better 
establishments it is fancifully patterned, stained, and chequered. 
The beds had, for all coverture, bits of thin, coloured chmtz, not 
pleasant with the mercmy at 35° F. ; the occupants usually shiver 
in thin " pouches,"* or cloaks; of course we had not forgotten 
to bring railway rugs. 

It was Sundaj', June 23, the *'vespera" (eve or vigil) of St. 
John, perhaps the oldest "holy day" in the civilised world. It 
is, I need hardly say, the commemoration of the Northern Solstice 
of the Mundi Oculus, when his " Dakhshanayan" begins. It is 
the feast of the mighty Baal (or Bool b5?n : 1 Ivings xviii. 22—24), 
the great "master," the "husband" of the moon, the mighty 
" Lord " of light and heat, the sun of this great world, both eye 
and soul. We find him called Bel and Belus in AssjTia and 
Chaldea, Beel in Phoenicia, Bal amongst the Carthaginians, 
Moloch {i.e., Malik, or king) amongst the Ammonites, Hobal in 
Arabia (Drs. Dozy and Colenso), Balder (Apollo) in Scandinavia, 
Belenus in Avebury, and Beal in Ireland.! The flaming pjTe is 
in honour of the Mundi Animus, the solar light. Thus we read m 

* The Poncho of Spanish America. pagan Irish certainly worshij^ped with 

Here it is a hea\'y sleeveless cloak of blue hills, trees, wells, and stones, the heavenly 

broadcloth lined with red baize: when bodies. The Bel-aine, "little circle of 

the stnif is fine, the garment of many uses Belus," was their year. How tlieu could 

is preferable to any macintosh or water- they have omitted the sun, that object of 

proof, and it protects from the sun as universal adoration ? The Baldersbad of 

v.ell as from rain. A " ponche " of white Scandinavia are described by many a tra- 

linen is used by tlie wealthier cla.sses when veller, and Leopold von Buch found them 

riding during the heat of the day. in northern Norway, they are seen on both 

t I know it has been stated that nearly coasts of the Baltic, and they extend into 

all the Bels, Bals, and Bils, which come so Prussia and Lithuania. I cannot understand 

luindy to the sujiport of the Baal theory, how a festival which is universal should 

are forms of Bil, good, Bally, a to^^^)ship, be termed characteristic of the insular 

Bile, a tree, Bealach, a road, ami Bil or Celts. (Athenaeum, No. 2073, July 20, 

Boul, the mouth of a river. But the 18G7). The furthest point soiith at which I 

L 2 


the " Quatuor Sermones," " In worship of St. John, the people 
Avakecl at home, and made three manners of fii-es : one was of 
clean bones, and no wood, and that is called a bonfire ; another 
is clean wood, and no bones, and that is called a wood-fire, for 
people to sit and Avake thereby ; the third is made of wood and 
bones, and that is called St. John's fire." So the sun-worshippers 
of northern England, the central counties, and of Cornwall, 
kindled on their highest Lowes and Torrs, at the moment of the 
solstice, huge fctix de joic, and called them " Bar-tine." And 
at this moment, whilst we in the heart of the Highlands of Brazil, 
are watchmg the piling up and the kindling of the pyre, semi- 
l^agan Irishmen in Leinster and Connaught, even in Queen's 
County : they are dancing round, and their children are jiimping 
through their memorious Beal-tienne* (Baal-fire). And still the 
Bound Towers in which the signal fires were lit, are looking on. 

Here also we see illustrated the efi'ect of climate upon great 
national festivals. The northern yeule, or yule — merry Christmas 
• — the Feast of the Southern Solstice, has scant importance in 
these latitudes, Avhere the weather is hot and rainy, and the roads 
are bad. Midsummer is the cool of the year ; the temperature is 
then delightful, and the Avays are clean. People meet at the 
church toAvns from everj-- direction ; each i^lace has its bonfire, 
bands promenade, and people sit up all night, and gleefully 
renew the " Tree of St. John." t They keep the feast in 
utter ignorance of its origin, and indeed I have often asked 
of European ecclesiastics the meaning of the bonfire, but in 
vain.t Educated Brazilians liave inquired how is it that men 

found tlie fires was at Guimar in lieautifnl f The " mastro dc S. Joao " is a tall, 
Tenerife : tliere every person named John thin tree-trunk, sometimes left gi-owing 
must on Midsummer Day "stand liqiior " and merely trimmed; more often it is 
to all his friends. The Solstice day has felled, stripped, and replanted. This is 
probably made St. John's name so popular generally done a week or so before the fes- 
at the baptismal font throughout Christ- tival. Attached to the top is a vane aljout 
ianity ; hence too our Jones (i.e., John's, two feet square, of light frame-work fillccl 
the same form as Johnson) and Evans, the with calico, upon which is painted a figure 
genitive of an old Welsh name equivalent of the Saint, and amongst negi'oes he is 
to John. St. John seems especially to often black. This "mast" reminds the 
have favoui-ed the Basque country. In his English traveller of our "shaft," or May- 
jiyre is placed a stone which serves him as pole. The bonfire (fire of joy) was known 
a " prie-Dieu ; " on the next morning it to the indigenes of the Brazil, who called it 
is found to preserve some of his hairs, " Toiyba, " from Tory, a faggot, 
which naturally become relics. The fire is t The Equinoxes, as well as the Solstices, 
of herbs, and those who jump through it were honoured with inemorial fire-festivals, 
do not suffer from "itch." c.f/., Ea.stcr-day or May-day, the Holi of 
Till lately live coals from the fire were India, and the Irish La Beal teinne ; also 
strewed over the fields to produce a good All-hallow-een (Oct. 31). And if Christ- 
crop, ianitv had an astronomical origin, so have 


Avalk over the St. John's fire without burning the feet ?* Of 
course, the answer is that those who pass through the flames 
always pass quickly, and t)ften with wet soles. Girls throw the 
contents of eggs into water, and see in the forms which they 
assume the faces of theii- "futtirs,'' f They all judge of their 
luck, of course matrimonial, by twisting paper-slips, v.diich are 
opened or not by the cold. Uneducated men believe that St. 
John sleeps through his festival, and happily so, for were he to 
wake he would destroy the world. Pooi' saint ! They sing 
lejigthy songs beginning with — 

Sao Joao se sonbera que lioje e sen dia, 
Do Ceo clesceria cam alegria e prazer. t 

And the fiery fete is more pleasant in the country than in the 
towns, where bell-ringing, discharges of fireworks, begin before 
dawn. You are deafened with the ridiculous rockets, and the 
moliques or niggerlings make the streets unpleasant by throwing 
"feet seekers" (buscapes) or squibs, wdiicli do their best to injure 
your legs. 

The village is a mean place, but its situation is remarkable, 
and the inhabitants say that it is the highest " arraial " in 
Minas ; whilst the Serra das Taipas§ is the loftiest range, and 
Itacolumi is the monarch of mountains. It occupies one of 
the highest plateaus — perhaps tlie highest — not only in Minas, 

all other advanced faiths. For religion, t St. .John coidd he but know that we 

or the belief of things unseen, began on the honour him this day, 

earth with earthly matters and ended in Down from heaven he would stray in 

the heavens with the Grreat Unknown. his gladness and his joy. 

* Thi.s is the legitimate Irish Bil-teinne, The metre is a favourite with the country 

good or lucky fire through which cattle people, so is the rhyme ; the consonance is 

are driven and children are passed to of the first line end and of the syllable 

guard them against the maladies of the that ends the third hemistich, whilst the 

year. couplet terminates unrhymed. In this 

f In Ireland "Brideogh," a picture of way are mostly composed the " Modinhas " 

St. Bridget, properly Brighid, a Vestal which we may tran.slate "ballads," and 

Virgin. It was made upon the eve of that when recited, as the fashion is, not sung, 

apocryphal saint "by unmarried wenches the peculiarity favours a pathetic or senti- 

with a view to discover their futui-e hns- mental dropping of the voice suitable to 

bands." So in Germany the maiden invites the theme. Curious to say, the same kind 

and sees her destiny on St. Andrew's Eve, of couplet and triplet also may be found 

St. Thomas' Eve, Christnuus Eve, and New amongst the wild Sindhis. I have given 

Year's Eve. Before midnight on St. An- instances in " Sindh and the Races that 

drew's Eve, melted lead is poured through inhabit the Valley of the Indus," pp. 88 

the open parts of a key whose wards form and 116. 

a cross into water cb-awn from the well § Some call it Alto das Taipas. It is the 

during the same night, and the metal north to south ridge connecting the heights 

takes the form of the tools denoting the of Ouro Preto with those of Barbacena, and 

craft of the spouse to be. Burmeistcr calls it Serra de Barbacena. 


but in the Brazil, as is proved b}' the waters flowing from it to the 
northern and southern extremities of the Empire. And yet this 
*' Avasser-schied," which separates two of the mightiest river 
systems known to the world, is of moderate altitude, not exceeding 
4000 feet. A similar anomaly of Natiu'e is often to be seen in 
the divisions between highh^ important basins, witness the Eio 
Grande-Tocantins, the Madeira-Paraguay, the Nile-Zambezi, the 
Missouri-Colorado, and the Indus-Bramliaputra. 

The name, the lay, and the trend of this great " Linha 
Divisoria" are still in confusion. The people, who are poor in 
general names, call it " Espigao Geral," the General Ridge.* 
Thus they distinguish it from the " Espigiio Mestre," or Master 
Ridge, to the north-west, the divide of the Tocantins and the 
southern Paranahyba. Baron von Eschwege has connected the 
two by a vast curve, which heads the Valleys of the Amazon, the 
Parana, and the Sao Francisco, and he has named the Espigao 
Mestre " Serra das Vertentes," or Range of Yersants. In this 
he is followed by Burmeister, whilst St. Hilaire, after the fasliion 
of French departments, preferred calling it " Serra do Sao 
Francisco e do Rio Grande, t 

This mountain plateau forms in Eastern and Equinoctial South 
America the tliii'd and innermost transverse range, the others 
being the Serra do Mar and the INIantiqueira. Running in a 
dii'ection roughly to be described as east to west, it connects the 
great north to south ridges. It begins at the Serra Grande, alias 
do Espmhaco, about W. long. 0° 30' (Rio de Janeii'o). It then 
runs on a parallel between S. lat. 20° and 21°, throwing off large 
streams to the north and south, and presently becoming the 
Serra do l*iumhy.t It continues to trend west for a total of 
180 miles, till it reaches the box-shaj^ed mass called the Serra 
da Canastra, lying about W.long. 3°— 3° 30' (Rio) and 47° (Green.). 
Some maps, following Spix and Martins, extend the Serra da 

* It is jjerliaps more generally known as Sandfly. St. Hil. (III. i. 169) venders it 

the Serra da Alagoa Dourada. " Water of the Swallow " (Mlji>-ui). Many 

t A name atHietingly common in tlie however of his derivations are farfetched, 
Brazil. This " Lig river " is the eastern and taken from vocabularies. Thus he 
head water of the Parana-Paraguay-Plata. derives (III. i. 166) Capitinga from the 
The Pai-an^ is formed by the junction of Guarany Capyi, gi-ass, and pitiunga rank 
this stream "wdth the Paranahyba, which I smelling (T. D. Piteii, bafio, fortum, rank- 
call the Southern to distinguish it from the ness) : it signifies simply white gi-ass. So 
Great Northern Paranahyba of Mai-anhao (III. i. 238) he makes Peripitinga to be 
and Piauhy. " "fetid n;sh : " it is "flat rush," pitinga, 

t The word means Water of the Pium or flat, not pitiunga. 


C'auastra to the Serra Negra of Sabara, and thence north to the 
division of waters between the Rio de Sao Francisco and the 
Southern Paranahyba. INI. Gerber and the majority prolong the 
Serra da Canastra to the " Mata da Corda," which extends to 
S. lat. 17°, and whose hist buttress we shall see on the Rio de 
Sao Francisco. 



" Cr;tm'ln'ba-T)ilmbali-i-i." 

]irii:iliaii Lrlnlilng Sontj, 

When our traps Nvere settled in the dog-holes, I walked off 
to the Palacete da Commissao, which housed the survej'ors of 
the great futiu'e line of rail, which will soon end the present 
"hideous waste of power" hetween the Valleys of the Parahyba 
and the Sao Francisco. Mr. John Whittaker, C.E., was then in 
charge, with two first assistants, Messrs. Thos. Hayden and 
Chas. A. Morsing, besides a number of underlings. Everything 
was in admii'able and business-like confusion ; mules tramj^ed 
about the court, saddles hung from the walls, boxes strewed the 
floors, and instruments Avere stowed away in the corners. It was 
the signal of separation, half the party going north and the 
other south. 

On the Fete of St. John we made a halt, and were invited to 
lay the first chain. At noon we proceeded to the brook, heading 
a little crowd of spectators, whose Avives and children eyed the 
outlandish proceedmg, as usual, from their windows. The peg 
was duly planted, my wife giving the first blow, and breaking the 
bottle. A chain was laid down, and sights were taken to " N. 
74° W.," and " S. 73° E." The inauguration passed off well ; 
flags flew, the band played its loudest, Ave di-ank Avith many 
vivas — pam ! pam ! pam ! pams ! — and hip ! hip ! hip ! huiTahs ! 
to the healths of the Brazil, of England, and especially to the 
prolongation of the Dom Pedro Segundo RailAvay ; many com- 
plimentary speeches Avere exchanged, and the music escorted us 
back to our *' ranch." 

The scene of the ceremony Avas the site Avhere the Dark 
became the Golden Lake. When first discovered it covered 
the loAvlands upon Avhich the houses noAv stand, and in order to 


drain it, the old miners practically solved the geographical 
problem of connecting two versants. By means of deep gap- 
like cuttings, which still remain in the lowest levels, they tm^ned 
the feeders of the Carandahy, which flows south, into the Bru- 
mado, which runs north. Here the greater part of the precious 
metal was discovered, and there are many traditions of its 
former wealth. Mr. Walsh* gives an account of the old diggings 
now in abeyance ; he mentions a forty-pound nugget, which 
proved to he the connnon nucleus of fibres ramifying in all 

As regards the line to be taken by the railway through the 
'•' Paiz Camponez," three termini have been warmly advocated 
by their several partisans, and the Commission was sent to see 
and survey for itself. The three valleys which claim the honour 
are those of the Para, the Paraopeba, and the Rio das Yelhas. 

The Para passes to the west of Pitanguy, and falls into the 
Sao Francisco about S. lat. 19° 30.' Unfortunately, the Great 
Dividing Ridge, which must be crossed rid Santa Rita, Lage, 
and Desterro, puts forth a succession of lateral buttresses, with 
numerous and important smiace-drams, requiring long turns, 
tunnels, bridges, and similar expensive works. Moreover, when 
it reaches the Siio Francisco the latter river is completely 
unnavigable, and cannot in these days be made navigable. 

The Paraopeba,! which runs to the east of, and almost parallel 
with, the Para, has some advantages. From the Rio das Mortes 
to the Carandahy, the distance is only five leagues. At the 
Alagoa Dourada the ground is favoui'able ; thence it would run 
down the Brumado valley, and enter that of the Paraopeba after 
eight leagues. This line would pass fourteen leagues west of 
the present capital of Minas, through campos where agriculture 
flomishes, and Avhere there are backgrounds of unoccupied 
forests. I On the other hand, M. Liais has proved that the 
Paraopeba does not, like Sahara, He nearly on the meridian 
of Rio de Janeiro, and that being far to the west it necessitates 
a useless detour. Moreover, the Paraopeba River is practicable 
only for thirty, some say twenty, leagues § between the mouth 

* (ii. 162). § The Riverines of the Paraopeba declare 
f "Paraopeba," which Dr. Coutu writes that it is navigable for canoes below the 
"Paropeba," and others " Paroupeba, " is Salto (cataract) of S'* Cruz near Con- 
said, I do not know with wliat autliority, gonha.s do Campo for almost double the 
to mean the "river of the leaf." distance mentioned in the text. 
J llato Geral, of which more presently. 


of the Betim (S. lat. 20° 10') and the. Cachoeira do Chero — the 
Rapids of Lamentation* — in S. lat. 19° 30'. Finally, here again, 
as Liais has shown, the Rio de Sao Francisco cannot he made 
safe, even for tugs, from the dehouchure of the Paraopeha to the 
terrihle Rajjids of Pii-apora.f 

During the afternoon we walked up and down the hanks of 
the haby Brumado. Here the hatea produced a few spangles 
of gold ; the owner of the land is said to take at times three 
to four florins' Avorth per diem, which barely pays. The da}' 
ended as great days always do amongst true Britons — with a 
grand dinner given b}' ]Mr. AVliittaker, and he managed it wonder- 
fully well. The good vicar, Rev. Francisco Jose Ferreu-a, who had 
duly said mass at 11 A.ii., took the head of the table ; my wife 
was at the foot, and the sides showed seventeen Brazilians and 
eight strangers. The food was, as usual, represented by messes 
of chickens and meat, feijao, rice, farinha, and pepper sauce, — 
in fact, " Mexii-iboca," I — Avith cheese, beer, and port from the 
engineers' stores. The only peculiarity Avas the system of 
toasts, after the fashion of old INIinas. Immediately after the 
soup, each one made a little speech, and sang in the most nasal 
of tones a little scrap of a sentimental song, generally a qua- 
train and a l)ittock. The folloAving are specimens : — 

Aos amigos um brindo feito 
Reina a aUegria em nosso peito 
Grato licor, allegre, jvicundo, 
Que a tiido este mundo, 

desaf ria o Amor ! § 

All the audience takes up the last Avord, and joyously prolongs 
Avith a melancholy murmm- — " Amo-o-o-r." Follows, perhaps : — 

Como he grata a compauliia, 

Lisonjeira a sociedade, 
Entre amigos verdadeiros,'' 

Viva a coustante amizade — 

Amizade! (chorus.) |( 

* Reminding lis etymologically of tlie § A toast to tliis good company, 
" Bab-El-Maiulab " — Gate or Gut of the AVhere every heart beats high with gles 

Weeping-place. Tlie generous wine flow.s fa^t and free, 

•f- Tliis is not the place to treat of the For nought in all the world we see 

Rio das Velhas, which will ))e descriljed in That is not \\ on by love, 

the first chapters of the second volume. || How happily we here are met, 

J Mexiriboca is a ludicrous term like How pleasantly the time hath passed 

our "hodge-podge," meat, rice, beans, Amid the friends we ne'er forget — 

farinha, and other matters mixed and Ever may constant friendship last, 

eaten with a spoon. And amity. 


Sr. C'ypiianno liodriguez Chaves greatly distinguished himself 
both in the singing* and the speecliifymg. All kinds of healths 
■were drunk and redrunk. At last the married men were 
proposed ; the bachelors objected, and then began a general 
fight, friendly and furious ; the Centaurs and Lapithse bound 
over to keep the peace. At such time, — 

* " ■' The whole table, 
With cheers aud tigers, was a perfect Babel. ' 

After dinner Ave removed our chaii's, and took coffee in the 
street. Soon the temperature became nipping in these hollows 
of the Brazilian Highlands ; thin ice forms over shallows, and 
in places a soup-plate full of water will be frozen in the night. 
We removed to the ranch, where Mr. Copsy made for us a 
" Crambambali," f a native brule, highly advisable in these frozen 
altitudes, and we " sampled " sundry glasses of it. The "vigil" 
fires were not lit again, but the band of ten men promenaded 
the streets, and ended with giving us a serenade. We did not 
separate till late, and we sat till " Sat pratci hihenint.'' 

I have spent many a less merry Christmas in Merry England, 
and we shall not readily forget ]Midsummer Day at Alagoa 
Doui'ada, in the year of grace 1867. 

* This singing at meat has been univer- accomplished author of the ' ' Art of Din- 
sal in Europe. In old Germany, when sit- ing ? " 

ting after dinner all the guests were obliged f I will give the receipt in the words of 

to recite some rhymes ixnder pain of being the compounder : — -" Pour into a large deep 

obliged to drink off a bumper. I believe dish a bottle of the best white rum, add a 

that the practice was introduced into tlie quant. sufF. of sugar, fire it and keep stir- 

Bi-azil by the Hollander invaders during ring. Gradually add a bottle of port, and 

the 17th Century. It is not known on the when the flame weakens, put in a little 

seaboard, where Portuguese " speechifying " cinnamon and a few slices of lime. Blow 

is the rule, but pai-ts of the interior still out and you will have the very perfection 

preserve it. What would say to it the of Crambambali. " 



A^em se deutro campinas dileitosas, 
Gelidas fontes, arvores copadas, 

Outeiros de crystal, campos de rosas, 
Mil fructiferas plantas delicadas. 


Though joy lasted to the small hours, sorrow came in the 
morning. Mr. Copsy was compelled by professional engage- 
ments to tiTrn his back npon iis. " Prodigio," the old white 
"madi'inha," leaped a ditch dming the night, and was not fol- 
lowed by the rest, a rare circmnstance. The intelligent animal 
doubtless cherished tender memories of good feeding at late 
baiting-places, and feebly determined to renew the pleasure. 
We rose at 4 a.m., and we could not mount till hot 9 a.m. We 
were accompanied by the engmeers, nor could, indeed, we have 
gone far alone. Notlimg is easier in the Campos generally than 
the " errada " — for Avhich the popular i:)hrase is " comprar 
porcos " — to buy pigs. The land is often a net of paths — a 
kind of highway from nothing to nowhere. Wlien you ask 
about the wa}-, the inevitable answer is, " Niio tem " (pro- 
nounce "teng") "errada" — you can't go wrong, and behold! 
}-ou at once come to a point where four or more roads cross 
or meet. The people know every inch of ground ; they cannot 
" stravague," and they cannot conceive that you can. 

Moreover, we are now on a mere bridle path, without commerce, 
commimications, or comforts ; the few inhabitants are naturally 
intelligent, but they never rise above semi-barbarism. If you 
inquire the hour, the replier will look at the sun and say 9 a.m. 
when it is noon. If you desu-e to know the distance, the answer 
will probably be, " One league, if the gentleman's beast is a good 
one ; if not, one and a half." Koster sensibly divides his 


leagues into legoas gTandes, legoas pequenas, and legoas de 
nada — of nothing, which may mean four miles. 

Crossing the old Lake-site, we ascended the northern hill by 
a hollow lane of red clay, and soon debouched upon the Campo. 
From the higher ground appeared, far in the blue north-east, 
the loft}' wall of Itacolumi. The suri'ace is much broken with 
"cluses," wooded and boggy ravines, generally struck by the 
patli at a right angle. Railroads here must find, perforce, and 
follow the bed of some stream ; otherwise it is a " bad look-out." 

After marching five miles, we forded a small water, and ate 
together om* last breakfast. The occasion was not solemn. In 
these lands, where all wander, men do not say, " adeus " (fare- 
well), but " ate a primeu-a," " a tantot," or " ate a volta " 
(pronounced " vorta "), till the return ; and I have long learned 
to substitute for adieu, an rcro'ir. In fact, we all expected to 
meet again, and some of us met before we expected to meet. 
Mr. "Whittaker then mounted his mule, and, followed by the 
minor lights, went his Avay, whilst we went ours.* 

Two hours took us to Ollios d'Agua,t so called from a 
lakelet on the left. We rested at a cottage, and found the 
women busy at the old spinning-wheel, working the cotton that 
grew before their doors ; this is a passe-temps as general 
throughout Minas as in ancient France. AVlien cooled with 
oranges and plantains, we resumed, and sighted, deep down in 
a romantic hollow, a Fazenda belonging to the Padre Francisco 
Ferreira da Fonseca. It was a charming hermitage, embosomed 
in its hills, and beautified by its luxuriant weeping willows, its 
feathery palms, and its stiff Araucaria pines. The Bombax 
(Pameira) rose sturdy with its slightl}- bulging stem, + tapering at 
the top, and armed with short and stout, sharp and curved cock- 

* I leave these words as they were Arr. ). There are in tlie Brazil, as iu 

wTitten. We did meet again, more than Africa, many kinds of this tree, some with 

once, and with pleasure, and little expect- wrinkled but unarmed bark, others with 

ing what was aliout to happen. On June thorns : the flowers are white pink, or 

21, 1868, Mr. .John Whittaker died at Rio white and pink, they easily fall like the 

de Janeiro, mounied Ijy all his friends, and blossom of the Calabash ; the leaves are 

by none more than (Utrselves. either entire or have one to two lobes. The 

f "Eyes" of water — a term probably bole gives a %iscid gum, and in some species 

translated from the Arabic : in the Uracil the soft spongy centre is filled with largo 

many jilaces arc so called. larv;»?, which the savages used to eat. The 

X Another sjiecies of Silk-cotton tree, fruit, about the size of our largest pears, 

"le fromager ventru," is called from its yields a cotton of which no serious ha* 

prodigious central pot belly, the " Barri- yet been made, 
gudo " (Chorisia or Bombax venti'icosa, 


spurs, over which no one but Dahoman Amazons can pass. The 
large palmated leaves set off a profusion of pink and Avliite 
blossoms, resembling the richest tulips, and these are soon 
followed by pendants of useful, but not yet utilised, cotton-pods. 
On the road side was the Chapel of N''' S^ da Lapa ; the gossip 
tree opposite it was a magnificent Gamelleira, a pyramid of cool 
green shade, almost equalhng the sycamore of Halmalah, or the 
piles of wild fig which adorn the eastern borders of wild Ugogo. 

About mid-afternoon we reached Camapoao * district and 
streamlet, the latter crossed by a dangerous bridge. The little 
chapel was under repair's, and a few fazendas, large and small, 
showed that the land could bear coffee and sugar. We noAV 
entered the cretaceous formation, wliich corresponds with that of 
Sao Paulo, and scattered upon the path lay dark flints embedded 
in white chert. 

At the end of the march we inquii-ed for a restmg-place, and 
were shown a deserted Ranch-shed, green with decay, and crj'ing 
fever and ague. One Jose Antonio de Azevedo i)resently took 
us in, and proved himself a bitter draught — a veiy "niggard 
and misknown knave," the model of grumbling incivility and 
extortionate rapaciousness. This old wretch startled us. The 
traveller in these lands becomes so accustomed to the affable, 
hospitable Brazilian Avays that he feels acutely those displays 
of small churlishness which he would not remark in a French 
or English boor. And how rare are such bad manners here ma}' 
be judged by the fact that this Azevedo was the sole base excep* 
tion to the rule of kindness and obligingness. 

This day we suffered much from the Carrapato,! and "realised" 
the popular jest levelled at the Mineiro, namely, that he is 
known by his jiatent boots and — "fiddle." The nuisance is of 
the genus Ixiodes of Latreille, and entomologists still dispute 
whether it be of one or of two species. The people declare 
that the Carrapato grande is different from the miudo, a small 
and hardly perceptible insect. Spix and Martins take this view, 

* Or Camapuam, trauslatecl ' ' seins ar- that the insect, on account of its resem- 

rondis," opposed to Camapirera, " peitos blance to the ripe bean of the Palmi Christi, 

cahidos." Cama signifies the breast, and was called by the ancients Kporov and 

" apoam," contracted to poam, round. riciniis. It is the vincucha of Paraguay, 

+ Not Carapatoo, as written by Mr. the tique of French Guiana, and the 

Walsh, nor Garapato, as by the Eeligious licinus of old authors. 
Tract Society. The former remarks (ii. S) 


and Pohl named the former Ixiodes americanus, and the latter 
Ixiodes Collar. St. Hilah-e (III. ii. 32) and Gardner (293) 
believe that there is only one kind, which greatly varies at dif- 
ferent ages.* It is the " tick " of the jMississippi valley, and 
when fully developed it is not unlike our sheep-tick. 

This acaride, seen under the glass, shows a head armed with 
a trident of teeth, serrated inwards ; the two external blades of 
the terebro when entering the Hesh bend aAvay, forming a triangle 
with the base outwards and downwards, and rendering it difficult 
to remove the plague. The three pairs of short and one of long 
legs are all provided with sharp and strongly-hooked claws, the 
flat body is coriaceous and hard to smash ; the colour is a dull 
broAvnish red, lilce the cimex. The young animal in early 
spring is a mere dot, with powers of annoyance in inverse ratio 
to its size. It grows fast, and when distended with blood it 
becomes somewhat bigger than a marrowfat pea. 

In most parts of Minas and Sao Paulo the nuisance is general ; 
it seems to be in the air ; every blade of grass has its colon}^ ; 
clusters of hundreds adhere to the twigs ; myriads are found in the 
bush clumps. Lean and flat Avlien growing on the leaves, the tick 
catches man or beast brushing by, fattens rapidlv and at the end 
of a week's good living drops o^,2^Iena cruorls. Horses and cattle 
sufler greatly from the Ixiodes, and even die of exhaustion. The 
traveller soon wears a belt of Intes, like the " shingles " of 
Lancashii'e. The tick attacks the most inconvenient places, and 
the venomous, ii-ritating wound Avill bring on a ricinian fever, 
like the i)ulicious fever of Russia. Thus in East Africa Dr. 
Krapf found a " P'hazi bug," which he declared to be mortal ; it 
was the papazi, or tick, which sometimes kills by incessant 
worry. In East xVfrica I used to scatter gunpowder over the 
hut-floors, and to blow up the beasts before taking possession. 
The excitement of day travelling makes the nuisance compara- 
tively light ; but when lying down to sleep the sufferer is per- 
secuted by the creeping and crawling of the small villain, and 
the heat of the bed adds much to his ti'ibulation. 

The favourite habitat is the Capoeii'a, or Jsecond gro^A-th, where 
cattle graze. The low scrubs known as '' Catinga " and " Car- 
rasco " are also good breeduig grounds. Annual prairie fires 

'' Its youth is said to commence "ith the dry seawou. 


destroy millions ; but the Capoes, or bouquets cle bois, act as 
preserves, and the branches are incrusted with them. The tick 
does not exist at certain altitudes ; yet, when ascending Jaragua 
Peak, near Sao Paulo, I found my overalls coloured pepper and 
salt. Below certain latitudes, also, the Ixiodes disappears. It 
loves most of all cool, damp places, on the dry smmy uplands, 
where it acts lilve the mosquito of the hot and humid Beiramar, 
and is less common in diy and sunny spots. On the upper 
waters of the Sao Francisco River the ticks were a mortification ; 
when I descended the stream about half way they suddenly 
ceased, and reappeared only at intervals. It is difficult to lay 
down precise rules as regards their i')resence. Water is fatal to 
them, and animals are freed from them by swimming broad 
streams. Travellers are also advised to take off the infested 
clothing, and to hang it up in the hottest sun. 

The stranger, with his body painted like an ounce, or like a 
child's horse plastered with red Avafers, applies for a remedy, 
and receives a dozen i)rescriptions. All have a common object, 
to cause the beast's claws to retract, and not to leave the head 
in the skin, otherwise the result may be a venomous sore, which 
may last for months and even years, at times inducing dangerous 
cutaneous diseases. Some apply mercmial ointment ; others 
bisect the tick's bod}^ with scissors ; some insert into it a red-hot 
pin. The people ai:)ply snuff at the end of a cigar, and when much 
bitten they wash with spirits and a strong infusion of tobacco, fol- 
lowed by a tepid bath to remove absorbable nicotine.* In many 
places, when attacked by a score at a time, I found these methods 
too slow ; the easiest plan was to pluck oft' the animals before 
they had taken firm hold, and to wash away the irritation with 
countr}' rum and water. 

The general cure for the plague will be clearing the country of 
its ragged and tangled thicket and Avood, here called Mato Sujo, 
or du'ty forest, and by substituting a cleaner growth. There are 
many tick-eating birds ; for instance, the Caracara buzzard, that 
performs kindly offices to cattle. Unfortunately, they are not 
protected by law in the Brazil. 

The decrepit greybeard, our host, after venting upon us his 
independence, consented to cook some beans, rice, and onions, 

I met in tlic Brazil a French traveller who was iiainfully intoxicated after nibbing 
liis skin with a mixture of tobacco and native nun. 


which he added to the contents of our provision basket. His 
hovel was filthy as his person, and his Idtchen excelled the 
average pigstye, yet he was miserly, not poor. Though seventy 
years old, he was living with two negresses; there was only one 
bed in the house, and no amount of coaxing, not even a glass of 
Cognac, would persuade him to vacate it. He was in years, 
and required his comforts. He had lately suffered from the 
" amarellao,"* a kind of jaundice here common. He would 
hardl}^ permit a hammock to be swung, for fear of injuring the 
walls of stick and mud. The conversation between him and his 
charmers lasted nearly all night. I was roused from my wrappers 
on the table by seeing a bowie-knife and a repeating pistol make 
their appearance. My wife had been kept awake by a cmious 
kind of whispering, and by hard listenmg she had heard the dark 
and ominous words, '* Pode (pronounced paude) facilmente 
matar a todas " — Easy to kill the whole lot. She had forthwith 
armed herself, and the dog " Negra " began to growl in sym- 
pathy. Of com'se, nothing occurred ; the slaughter alluded to 
was x)robably that of the host's chickens, whose murder he feared 
at our hands. Whatever may be the desagremens of Brazihan 
travelling in these bye-paths, the traveller is, as a rule, perfectly 

Next morning we left the old Pongo, whom the troopers called 
*'son of Ganha dinheii'o," and ''grandson of Paga me logo,"f 
grumbling that we had stolen his posts and rails for firewood. 
The dawn light showed us an ugly mud hole, which would make 
the hair of an easy-going man stand upright ; the animals 
plunged through it x)anting, and " Chico," the negret, stuck 
till he was rescued. Presently we were stopped by a wide ditch, 
where a gate had been. This arbitrary proceeding is common in 
the wilder parts, and at Sao Paulo it has lost me a whole day's 
march. Fazendas and plantations Avere scattered about ; we 
passed a neat -white establishment belonging to Senhor Joao 
Lopes Texeii'a Chaves. He had been described to us as 
" liomem muito brabo," who, if "in the humour," would have 
refused the " pouso." I ought to have tried the experiment, 
and doubtless we should have rested comfortably ; unfortunately 

* In pure Portuguese " Amarellidao. " ing to him, Afi-icans iu the Brazil are very 
Koster (ii. 19) alludes to this complaint, subject to it. 
which he identifies with jaundice. Accord- f " G-ain-C'oin,'" luid "• Pay-me-quick." 


we had no Brazilian in our i)arty, or everything wouhl have been 
made easy. 

This part of the Highlands is a cold, red land : the Ai'aucarias 
become numerous and luxuriant ; beans and hulls heaped upon the 
■well-swept floors fronting the cottages, show that " mantimento"* 
is the principal industr3\ There are signs of stock-breeding, 
and pigs, gamit and long-legged, uproot the soil. At 8 a.m. the 
view reminded me of a sunrise seen from the Peak of Teneriffe. 
Below us lay a silvery water, flowing and curling before a gentle 
three-knot breeze ; from the distinctly marked shores jutted green 
tongued capes, and stony headlands ; feathery islets protruded 
their dark heads from the white flood, and far, far oft' we could 
famtly discern the fm-ther blue coast of the Straits. The decep- 
tion was complete as the Arabian Bahr-bila-Ma, or " sea without 
water," and the Mrig-trikhna, or " deer-thii-st " of the Hindus.! 
Descenduig, we found the water to be a cold fog, or rather a thin 
cloud, with distinct and palpable vesicles condensed by the ground. 
At this season the phenomenon appears almost every morning. 

We then breasted a hill-ridge, up which straggled red paths, 
over a quarter of a mile in breadth. A single house was on the 
sunnnit, but, gainmg it, we were surprised to find Suasuliy,! a 
street of some 300 houses, and banded Avith broad lines of rough 
pavement to prevent the red clay being washed down. The lay 
was east-west, and it was backed by gardens and orchards. In 
the middle of the lower thoroughfare was the Matriz of S. Braz 
upon a raised platform of stone, two belfries with a pair of bells, 
and a restored front copiously whitewashed. The women Avere 
in jackets of scarlet baize, the favourite Avinter Avear, and the 
children hid themselves behind the doorways as Ave passed by. 

* A term locally aiiplied to all kinds of aud it.s young "Cua^u Merin " (not minor 

"Munition do bouclie." in the sense of small). Casal wxites " Sas- 

t The Mirage. The Arabs also know it as suhy : " PizaiTO " Sassnhy " and " Suas- 

Bahr-el-Ghizal, the Deves' Sea, Bahr-el- suhy," Spix and Mai-tins " Sussuhy," and 

Mejanin, the .Sea of Madmen (who expec-t St. Hil. (I. i. 400) derives it from "Cuchu'' 

to drink of it), and the Bahr-el-Ifrit, or petit parroqnet, and "yg" water— Ki^-i ere 

Fiend's Sea. des petits jiarroquets. Jlr. AValsh writes 

t St. Hil. (III. 2, 202) makes Cuagu " Sua-Suci, or Snssuy," and heard about it 

mean a deer in the Indian dialect of the some tale which reminded him of the Araj 

Aldea de Pedras : thus we should trans- Philenorum — he was, it seems, a greedy 

late Suasuhy, "deer's water." The cele- recipient of "humbug," that reverend man. 

brated naturalist, Alexandre Rodrigues Eurmeister prefers Suassui, the " Alma- 

Fen-eira, explains the Indian word for stag, nak " Suassuhy. Vulgarly it is wi-itte)i 

Suha assd — may it not be Suia assu, large Sassnhy and Sassui, and is translated 

game? — to signify "big head;" bxit he " Veada com filho," doe and fawn. In 

derives it preferably from €uu, to rumi- the Province of Sao Paulo there is a " Sua- 

nate : (^(m assu tlien would be a ruminant, Mirim," explained to mean the little doe. 


Senhor Antonio Jose Cardoso, of the Hotel Nacional, gave us hot 
water, clean towels, and a good breakfast, all much requii'ed. 

At 11 a.:m. we remounted, and felt the sunheat after the cold 
damp dawn. The nearest ascent, where stands the Chapel ol 
N* S* dos Passos and the village school, gave the fii-st of many 
pretty back views. The road was a rough cross-country affair, 
over a succession of ground waves, divided b}' rivulets that feed 
their main drain, the Paraopeba. After a short hour we crossed 
the bridge of this stream, which was red with gold-washing ; even 
after discharging into the Sao Francisco, it is said to preserve 
for some distance its ruddy tinge. Near the fazenda of Senhor 
Col. Luis Gonzaga we found a dozen gipsies, all men, resting 
tentless on the ground, whilst their beasts grazed on the road- 
side grass. These mysterious vagabonds are rare in Sao Paulo, 
and numerous in Minas, where they are horse -chaiinters and 
hen-stealers, as everywhere between Kent and Catalonia. They 
are evidently a different breed from the races around them, and 
then' long, wavy haii' is the first thing remarked. I shall reserve 
for another volume a detached notice of the Brazilian '' Cigano" 
— that object of popular fear, disgust, and superstition.* 

Passing the Piquiry stream, we found the land greatly im- 
proved. It produces several kinds of manioc, and the red variety 
(Mandiora roxa) here ripens in five months. There were long 
slopes green with grama (Triticum repens), and the thickets 
were rich in climbing Cyperacea sedge, wdiich, mixed with the 
young Capun Gordm'a, makes excellent forage. This plant is 
known in the Brazil as "Andrequia," "Andre's knife," a mixed 
word, Luso-Indian,f which well expresses its x^owers of cutting. 
I'he road was hedged with a gorgeous growth of golden broom, pro- 
fusely blossommg, and reminding the European not a little of his 
lioneysuckle. The people call it the " flower of St. Jolm,"t because 
it is most beautiful in theii" mid-winter, when floral beauties are 
comparatively rare. It has justly claime<l a place in poetry. 

Outra engragatla flor que em ramos pemlc 
(Chamuo de S. Jo;\o,)§ 

* So little w known ubout the subject wltich are proklluted, lait with .slips of 

that the u.'-ually well-infonneil Anglo-Bra- tharp-eilgecl grass, 
/iliau Times ignores the presence of gipsies J Flor de S. Joiio. 

in the Empire. § Another gi-acefid flower with pemlent 

f According to Captaiu Speke (Journal, twigs 

itc, chap, xiii.), IMtesa, the despot of (Xauied " of St. John '). 

Uganda ii.sed to have his sidijcct-criminals Caramuri'i, vji. :J<!. 

cnt to pieces after death, not witli knives, 


says Fr. Jose de S. Eita Durao. Remarkable, too, -were the snowy 
petals and the long green pods of the leguminous shrub with 
cloven-hoofed leaves (Bauhinia forficata, the mororo of the In- 
dians) ; here it is called " unha de boi," or, as some prefer, 
" de vaca."* Another pretty growth is the Poaya, a kind of 
Tpecacuanha,+ " the little plant near the path," which it beau- 
tifies with its small red and yellow trumpets. Here I noticed 
that our Brazil-born Africans had preserved their home custon) 
of barring the wrong path with a twig laid transverse. 

The little village of Redondo has a chapel dedicated to N* S* 
de Ajuda, and, better still, a charming prospect. Bej^ond the 
foreground of forest and green grass sprmging rankly from the 
ochreous purple soil, a colour here known as sangTe de boi, t falls a 
basin of regular slope and sole, rising on the far side to the feet of 
a bluff stone wall towering in the air. This range, now to our east 
and north, is called in some maps " Serra de Deus te livre," — 
of God help you ! — doubtless from the perils of the path. It is 
more generally known as the " Serra de Ouro Branco," from a 
town on the direct highway — we see its white line threading the 
ravines — between Barbacena and Morro Yelho. The grand pile 
Avill long remain in sight, but a bulge in the ground concealed 
from us the settlement. 

Santo Antonio was first, and is still entitled White Gold, in 
opposition to Ouro Preto, or Black Gold. The latter§ is darkened 
by a little oxide of iron. The former is natural^ alloyed with 
platinum-; — a rare formation. The new metal discovered only 
two centuries and a quarter ago, and now used even for watch- 
works, is supplied in Minas by the gravels of streams flowing 

* "Bullock's Hoof," "Cow's Hoof." The the Ipecacuanha -preta (I. officinalis ar- 

Sy.stem prefers Unha de Boi, and ranks nida) ; the I. branca (Viola Ipecacuanha, or 

it amongst the astringent mucilaginous Pombalia Ipecacuanha Vandelli). 
plants. + " Bullock's Blood. " 

+ Poaya is in the Brazil a generic term § Mr. Walsh (ii. 125) says that black goM 

for this species of Rubiacese. The true " contains an alloy of a^Vccr, which acquires 

emetic root is distinguished as Poaya a brown tarnish by oxidation when exposed 

Verdadeira, or de botica — of the apothe- to the air. " This is anjiihing but correct, 
cary's shop. The Sj-stem derives " ipe- || D. Antonio de Ulhoa, a Spanish savant 

cacuanha " from ipe-caa-goene, " the little travelling in Peru (1748), speaks of it as 

plant near the roads:" it is rather " the the third perfect or noble metal. The name 

littleplant which excites emetism " (goene), originally given was " Platina," little 

and doubtless the wild mediciners well silver, the diminutive of " Plata," which, 

know its use. Being much used in certain in Portuguese, would be " Prata " and 

feminine complaints, it may mean " the "Pratinha." Europe has, I i)resume, pre - 

little plant of the woman" (Cunha). The fcrred the barbarous " platimim " to assi- 

wnrd has been corrupted to Epicaqnenhn milate it -svith f»mim nivl C'ii>niiii. 
and Picahouhn. There are many kinds, 


through table-lands and low hills. A piece weighing half an 
ounce was found in the Lavras, or diggings of the Barao de 
Itabira, near Marianna. Harder than iron, and much resembling 
gold, it gave great trouble to the old founders who wasted upon 
it their solimao (corrosive sublimate), and wondered to see the 
pale brassy bars Avhich " touched," however, twenty-two carats. 
Dr. Couto says that about 1780 an unknown individual took a 
portion (parcella) of it to the Government melting-house at 
Sahara. As it was uncommonly refractor}-, as it split in two, 
and cracked round the impression, the officer declared it worth- 
less. The disappointed miner disappeared, remarking that he 
never thought that it could be valuable, as he could find horse-loads 
of it. Although it was conjectured that he came from near the 
little village of Santa Anna dos Ferros, the valuable dejoosit has 
never been brought to light. The mineralogist examined the 
ingot which he found at the Intendency of Sabarii ; it weighed 
thii'ty to forty oitavas, or eighths of Portuguese ounces, and was 
platinum, with a fifth part of gold. Some local paper credited 
me ^\-ith having rediscovered the mine — I wish that I had. 

About 3 P.M., as the ride was becommg delightful, we came to 
a hiU crest, and Congonhas showed itself suddenly, as Trieste is, 
or rather was, sighted from the old carriage-road. The situation 
is on the southern side of a charming valley, an oval whose long 
diameter, from north-east to south-west, is formed by the Eio 
Maranhao,* or " Skeiny Stream." The silvery water flows over 
hind set in emerald verdure, a rich margin of meadow land, rare 
in Minas, where the bottoms are narrow. Jags and gashes of 
white, red, and yellow clay on the upper bed are the only vestiges 
of the once rich gold mines. To the north is a vast rugged ridge, 
straight and wall-like ; it is called Serra (de N^ S'*) da Boa 
^Morte, from a village and a chapel of that invocation. Its cul- 
minating point is the Peak of Itabira, which we shall presently 
see, and here it forms a semicircle extending to the Congonhas 
Mountains, a massive pile to the west. Eastward is the great 
chain of Ouro Branco, which alters strangely at the different 
angles of view. 

At first glance Congonhas appeared to be all one church and 

* MaranMo (anciently written Maran- " matted bush. " The little stream rises to 
ham) is a skein, a tangle: "arvoredo the S.E. near Queluz, and winds round to 
emmaranhado," for instance, would mean the Paraopeba Eiver. 

1(1(5 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xvi. 

convent. Presently a second temple appeared on the further 
side of the riverme valley ; it Avas double towered, and the 
colours were white, bound in black, like the N" S"* do Monte, 
Madeira, which strangers and seafaring men will call the " con- 
vent." Lune-washed houses dazzling in the slanting glance of 
the sun were scattered in a Ime on the transverse axis between 
the two fanes. AYe descended a rocky and paved ramp of most 
unpleasant i)itch, and soon found ourselves under the roof of the 
Alferes (Ensign) Gourgel de Santa Anna. He made us grateful 
to him for ever by giving us warm baths and " planter's coffee,* 
and he kept us waiting for dinner only three hours. 

* "Cafe de fazendeiro ; " coffee -wliieh not to speak of other lauds. The former 
the wealthy planter drinks, not the "agua leaves a yellow tinge when poured out of a 
de Castanha," Chesnut v.ater. of Portugal, wliito cup, the latter does not. 



Distante nove legoas desta terra, 

Ha lima grande Ermida, que se chama, 

Senlior de Matosinhos. 

Cartas Chilcnas, 71' 

"Some nine leagues, stands a gi'eat oratory, which is called The Lord of 

N^ S"^ DA C0N9EICA0, here a favourite invocation of the Bona 
Dea and the Magna Mater, is a Mineiran Loretto ; one cannot 
but wonder to see such labour in a hamlet of GOO souls, 
unassisted, moreover, by angelic hosts. The gold-washings 
explain the cause ; a deserted tenement still shows the well- 
carved scutclieon of some old Fidalgo ; moreover, at the begin- 
ning of the last century the Indians, now extinct, were still in the 
land, and worked willingly, or Avere made to work, at ecclesiastical 
architecture. The Brazilian traveller often finds in wild places 
solid and stately buildings which could not be attempted in the 
present day. Tlie church of Congonhas has no grounds or 
estates settled upon it : moreover it has latel}'^ lost a dozen of its 
few slaves, and the general opinion of enlightened Brazilians is 
decidedly against the successors of the Apostles binding persons 
to service. But from the lltli till the 14tli of last September is 
its Romaria, a mixture of " patron " and pilgrimage. Some 7000 

* Coiigoulias is called "doCampo," to "Paraguay tea." It is also specifically 
distinguisli it from Congonhas de Sahara. . applied to the Ilex Congonha, common in 

Tlie name is common in tlie Brazil, having Minas and in Parana. The Congonha 

been applied V»y troopers and travellers to Cimarrao is only the infn.sion, di-unk with- 

the many spots where they found the out sugar. Carafina is Congonha of an 

.several varieties of Ilicineca;, of which the inferior kind. In Mr. Luccock (p. 523), we 

most valuable is the Mate, or Hen^a do Pa- read "Congonha is, in writing, commonly 

raguay (Ilex Paraguayensis, desi^ite St. Hil. substituted for Caancunha. The name is 

who, III. ii. 249, obstinately defends the derived from a plant, an infusion of which 

incorrect old form Paraguariensis). I will is held to be an excellent remedy in female 

not describe the shrub, this has been done complaints." Thus he confuses with Ipe- 

liy eveiy ^vTiter from Southey downwards. cacuanha the Congonha, which in the Tupy 

The Brazilian term "Congonha" is tongue was kno\ra as Caa-mirim, f/^e little 

generic, meaning all the shrubs tliat make leaf. 

168 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xvii. 

souls then lodge in the houses which lie emjity for the rest of the 
year, and the free gifts of many coppers and a few notes amount 
to some ,£2000 per annum, here worth i;20,000. The brother- 
hood of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos distribute the alms amongst 
the people of the holy hamlet. There was no better way — be it 
said with due respect for popular belief — of founding a town in 
the old Brazil than by instituting a Growing Stone, a Healing 
Cross, or a Mii'acle- Working Image : * these tilings were found 
easily, as we now create a Spa by burying rusty nails M-ith quassia 
and charging sixpence for admission. 

The dii-ector of the college being absent, we called upon his 
vice, the Kev. Padre Antonio Jose da Costa, a son of Siio Joao ; 
he had resided here only a month. He kindly reproved us for 
going to an inn, when there was so much vacant lodging for True 
Believers, and, callmg for his key-bunch, he set out to show the 

We will begin with the beginning. The steep and badly-paved 
cal^ada which we descended yesterday has a branch to the right : 
this places the stranger at the base of a tall brow, upon which 
the Loretto is charmingly situated. In front is the church ; to 
the right or westward is a long range of double-storied buildings, 
white above and j'ellow-ochre below : the third or eastern side of 
the hill- square is formed by poorer buildings, "porta e janella," 
also pilgrims' quarters. 

Ascending the hill — t^-pical, I presume, of "the hard and narrow 
way — and bisecting the square," is a dwarf avenue of buildings 
called the Sete Passos, the Seven Chapels of the stations. The 
two lowest are old, the next pair is modern, and three are yet to 
be built wdien the contributions of the pious shall suffice : this 
last contains two of the normal fourteen, " stacions of Rome;" 
and, when finished, the place Avill be used as a burial gromid for 
those Avho can or will afford it. In former days the fine pavement 
of cut stone round the temple cost a total of £4:0 : now a smgle 
station represents £600. The expense is solely in the labour, 
the whole country is building material. 

These oratories are low squares of solid masonry wliitewashed, 

" Such images are called apparecido, or as regards the educated ; with the vulgar 

apparecida, from theii- "appearing" on it is distinctly the reverse of fact. And 

the sea-shore, in streams, in caverns, et le by the operation popularly called counting 

reste. It is the fashion now to deny that noses, how many of these are found in 

Catholics worship images ; this is a truism proportion to those ? 

CHAP. xvrr. AT C0NG0ISIHA8 DO (^AMPO. 169 

with terminals at the four angles, and " half-orange" domes and 
finials. Windowless and entered by a single door, they suggest 
the humbler sort of " Kubbah," which protects and honours the 
remains of Shaykh and Wall in Arabia and Sindli. The lowest, 
number 7, lacks inscription, and represents the Last Supper. 
Wooden figures, mostly mere masques or " dickies," without 
bowels or dorsal spine, dressed like the traditional Turk of the 
Clmstian Mediterranean type, are seated round a table richly 
spread with tea (or mate) pots, cups, liqueurs, and meats. Our 
Lord is saying, " One of you shall betray me." All look with 
quaint expressions of horror and surprise, except Judas, who sits 
next the door, hideous of aspect, and caring as little to disguise 
liis villany as lago upon an English stage. My wife complied 
with the custom of the place, took the knife from Judas his 
platter, and dug it into his eye, or rather into a deep cut which 
cleaves his left malar bone, and then smote with it his shoulder. 
This poor Judas ! who, upon the DTsraelitic principle duly 
carried out, merits the affectionate gratitude of a Redeemed Eace. 
The next station, the Agony in the Garden, presents a peculiar 
inscription, which is supposed mysteriously to be Greek. I have 
copied it for the benefit of Grecians : — 

ETioa( ) CTvs ma ( c) 

Gonia FiOLixivs 


The first of the new stations shows the mercurial and somewhat 
Hibernian St. Peter strikmg oft' the ear while the Saviour is 
about to heal the wound. The inscription Tanquam ad latronem, 
Sec, does not merit notice ; the Pagan soldiers do. Surely such 
Roman-nosed warriors never could have existed unless they used 
their proboscis as the elephant uses its trunk. But grotesque as 
they ai'e, and utterly vile as works of art, these wooden caricatures 
serve, I have no doubt, to fix their subjects firmly in the public 
mind, and to keep alive a certain kind of devotion. The 
ci\TLlising, or rather the humanising, influences of the parish 
service and the " patron " have already been alluded to. 

The chui"cli is reached by four semicircular steps, guarded by 
an iron railing : here an inscription commemorates the origin of 
the pilgrimage. 

170 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BEAZTL. [phap. xvii. 














The beginning was a rongli way-side cross of dark wood bearing 
a rude figure of our Lord, and dedicated to N° S"'. do 
Matosinhos. About 1700 it began to work miracles ; the ground 
was consecrated, and a small chapel was built, the germ of the 
present church and seminary. 

Before the entrance a double flight of broad steps diverges and 
meets upon the adro, the usual spacious paved area, fronted by a 
handsome stone balustrade, and commanding a hn-ely view. At 
the angles of the sets of steps, and at intervals in the front of the 
platform, are twelve gigantic* figm"es of the four major prophets ; 
sundry of the dozen invidiously distinguished as the minor being 
nowhere. Each figure is habited in conventional Oriental costume, 
bearing a roll engraved with some remarkable passage ffom his 
book, in Latin and large old letters. The material is steatite, 
found in the neighbourhood, and the workman was the ubiquitous 
Cripple, who again appears upon the facade. The group has a 
good effect at a distance, and in the Brazil the idea is original : it 
compares, however, poorly with the Bom Jesus de Braga, near 
Oporto, and the humblest of Italian holy jilaces. 

The facade is of course whitewashed, all except the cut brown 
stone at the corners : there are two windows assisted by a very 
simple rose-light : small apertiu'es also are made in both the 
flanking towers. These belfries are domed and finished with 
extensive terminals, an armillary sphere suj^i^orting an angel 

"^ The height is a little above 8 feet. All agree that the statues are t^v■elve, yet 

On the right are Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, in a memorandum given to me I find them 

Joel, Nahum, and Habhakuk, fronted by thus descriljed : to the right Ezekiel, Hab- 

Isaiah, Daniel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, and bakiik, Hosea, Joel, and Nahum ; on the 

J Jaruch the Scribe. Thus the four " gi-eat left Baruch, Daniel, Jonah, Amos, and 

lirophets" are uot in order of precedence. (Miadiah, 


^vllo bears a cross. The entrance is floridly carved in the 
gi-eenish saponaceous stone, so common in these parts ; the 
cherubs and the instruments of the Passion are better executed 
than usual. The most artistic features are the doors of massive 
liard wood, cut in highl}^ relieved rays, and jiainted ecclesias- 
tical green. I saw this style for the first time at old Olinda, 
and greatly admired it : some of the bosses were raised five 

Little need be said about the interior : the walls are panelled 
and frescoed Avith tawdry paintings, and hung with penny prints, 
whilst the images are below criticism. There are four side 
cliapels, the first on the left sliows St. Francis de Assis, the 
favourite St. Francis of the Brazil, and the second on the left 
has a S. Francisco de Patila, supposed to be a life-lilce copy of the 
Parisian statue. The organ-loft, over the i)rincipal entrance, has 
a small instrument, and the choii", on its left, projects into the body 
of the church. There are two pulpits of bare stone standing upon 
(lotliic animals ; the lateral cherubs are well cut, but the canopies 
are inferior. There are two box and two open confessionals : 
the former generally contain a curiously pierced stool. The 
latter, sometimes made portable, are boards with a sieve-like 
grating, supposed to separate the seated saint from the kneeling 
sinner. Perhaps this religious exercise of olden date might in 
these ages be modified to a good purpose, by insisting that 
priest and penitent should be strangers to each other, and 
as both would doubtless strongly object to and ablior this 
measure, it would add to it another and a fresh charm of mor- 

The sanctuary has a tunnel roof frescoed with two curious 
productions — " the Trinity in Heaven, and the Burial of 
our Lord." Here also are the finirteen stations of the Passion. 
The high altar shows a large figure of X° S'' do Calvario : it is 
supported by Santa Anna tending the Virgm, S. Domingos, Sta. 
Luzia, Sta. Veronica with the veil, and the Pioman soldier -wntli thc^ 
lance. In the base is an altar-tomb, and when a board is re- 
moved it exposes the Cadaver, the grand object of the i)ilgrimage, 
the full-length efligy of N^ S"" De Matosinhos— a dead Christ, 
with angels kneeling and praying. The faithful prostrate to it, and 
kiss the hand with immense devotion, as is proved bj' the sinking 
of the floor close in front. On one side is a small '' presepio " or 

172 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xvii. 

crib of Bethlehem. Four fine chandeliers of massive silver 
illuminate the high altar and the body of the church. 

The sacristy has the usual small lavatory and manutergia, Avith 
pictures, like the rest of the building, and two bishops of 
Marianna upon the ceiling. On the east is the Miracle-room, — a 
long, low hall containing cxvotos in hundreds, memorial tablets 
recording cures and escapes, and waxen models of unsound 
limbs made whole. Here is preserved the old original wooden 
cross upon which is cut — 


(the crucifix) 

NO. S. D. 


Outside and east of the church are two stones embedded in 
the area close to the w^alls ; they appeared to me quartzose 
granite. One is the Growmg Stone, which, despite the annual 
attraction of many kisses, steadily increases ; tlie other is not 
crescive in its faculty. Our priestly, guide sensibly remarked, 
he would not answer for the fact, but that it might be, as all 
things are possible to the Creator. This explanation, since the 
days of " numquid Deo quidquam est difficile ? " is still popular 
from London to Pekin ; unfortunately it is wholly beside the 
question ; no one denies that the Almighty has power to do what 
we often doubt that He does. At Iguape, on the sea-board of 
Siio Paulo, there is a brother-stone with like gifts. In both cases 
the parts around the mineral are trodden upon, scraped, and 
carried away as relics and remedies. Hence, possibly, the 
growth. The harmless superstition reminds us, amongst other 
instances,* of the rent — one foot wide — in a granite rock near 
St. Levans, Avhen big enough to allow an ass and panniers — 
homely fancy ! — to pass through, we may expect the end of the 
world, viz., the conclusion of the present quiescent rera of 
eai'tli, and a recommencement of its convulsions, if convulsionists 
sa}' truth. 

We then visited the college, which began about thirty-seven 
years ago. Its founder was the late Reverend Padre Leandro de 
Castro, a Portuguese Lazarist, who also instituted the D. Pedro 

* Exempli gi-atiA, the venerable Lniidou Stone of man}' fable.s. Doubtless these petral 
mai-vels originated in the Tn es Petrus, &c. 


Segundo establishment at Eio de Janeiro. Over the doorway is 
the date 1844, showing the latest addition. The building is 
large, with ten front and some forty side windows ; but we saw 
nothmg of the curiosit}^ described by Mr. Luccock : " Behind the 
church is another sacred singularit}', — a garden in imitation of 
Paradise, where Adam and Eve, beneath the cross, are sitting 
beside a fountain, in all the nudity of innocence." 

The present director is the Eev. Padre Joao Rodriguez da 
Cunha, a native of Sahara, and his salary, I was told, is 1801. per 
annum. The Provincial Government is supposed to contribute a 
yearly 400?.; but our guide complained that the assembly had not 
paid it for two years. There are seven professors and three 
priests for spiritual matters ; the pupils average between sixty 
and seventy, and all wear the Soutane. There can be no better 
situation for a college. During the last three years, neither 
doctor nor apothecary has been known at Congonhas, and as often 
liappens to passengers and crews of ships without sm-geons, the 
want has not been felt. Of course we were told all about the normal 
old woman who had outlived the century. 

It is said that the Capuchins proposed to take charge of 
this academy, but added an impossible condition — exemption 
from civil law, and subjection to theii* diocesan only. This was 
judged — procaciter atque injuriose? — "a tendency to obsolete theo- 
cracy," a " revival of the days of Gregory YII. and Innocent IV." 
Sensible Brazilians have an aversion to the ecclesiastical Alma 
Mater, with her curriculum of Trivium and Quadrivium ; where 
youth is taught by esercizi spirituali contempt for worldly matters ; 
where politics are subject to religion ; where state becomes hand- 
maid to Church which inculcates unquestioning belief, blind obedi- 
ence, austerity, asceticism, and self-abnegation, — vii'tues wholly 
unfitted for the citizens of a free commonwealth : they exclaim 
against philosophy being made the ancilla of theology, and to 
traditional fancies usurping the place of the teachings of natui-e ; 
they do not wish to see human reason represented as a deceiver, 
and liberty of the press condemned with the " deluge of infernal 
ink," and seventy-eight other " modern errors." Moreover, there 
are not a few ugly reports of a peculiar hygiene being introduced 
mto these seminaries, such as nitre being mixed with the 

* .Vppoiiilix to tlie Prciiilcntial Tielatorio of Itiiias for ISO-"), p. 08. A veiy aMe paper. 

174 THE HIGHIANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [(.hap. xvii. 

On the other hand there is no doubt of the superior teaching 
and discipline imported by the reguhir clergy of Europe into the 
Brazilian establishments. And here, not being entitled to offer 
an opinion upon such points in any country but my own, I leave 
this great dispute, which is not likely to be settled for a handful 
of years. 

We then descended the rest of the steep calcada, passing on 
the right the ruined chapel of Sao Jose. At the bottom is the 
little river Maranhao, which formerly divided the Comarcas of 
Villa Rica and Rio das Mortes, it is crossed by the usual wooden 
bridge. On the northern bank is the hamlet of Matosinhos front- 
ing Congonhas, " in the same manner that Gateshead does Avith 
respect to Newcastle-upon-Tyne." It has a Matriz dedicated to 
N^ S^ da Conceicao, with a tolerable facade, and near the 
entrance an emblematic coat-of-arms cut in soapstone. The 
interior was still under repairs. About thirty years ago it was 
struck by lightning, and one man required the " triste bidental." 

I visited the old gold-diggings, and found them of little import- 
ance. Caldcleugh has left an account of the industry* which was 
still thriving, in 1825. The precious metal, twenty-two carats 
fine, was found in the pores and cavities of friable or rotten quartz 
injected into green-stone. Mr. Luccock detected dust-gold '* among 
schist-clays, and the other component parts of the ground," 
and the latter contained the ore "with equal certainty and in 
nearly equal quantity, wdiether of the prevailing red hue or any 
of the shades of brown or yellow." The matrix was crushed by 
stamping-mills, and the freed gold was made to run in the 
usual way down streakes or inclined plains, where hides placed 
in a contrary dii'ection to the lay of the hair caught the heavy 
particles, t 

We returned our best tlianks to the amiable \'ice-director ; his 
attention and affability deserved all om* gratitude. Before shaking 
hands he gave us, by way of memento, a parcel of toothpicks 
made of a highly-prized lliana, locally called " Cipo de salsa." 
How comes it that the " pahto," cleanly and comfortable, is still 
obnoxious to popular prejudice in England? 

* Travels, ii. 227. Mr. Walsli (ii. 173) written a book upon Tiu'key. 

pa.ssed throngli Coiigonbas, ilescrihes the + This old system is still in use at Murro 

Paraguay tea, Init says nothing of the Velho. I reserve a longer notice of it for 

temple or the gold mines. Yet he had a future chapter, 
ti-avelled amongst the Turks, ami h:v] 



iSao pois 0.S quatro, A A por siugulares 
Arvoredos, Assiicar, Agoas, Ares. 

Manocl Botelho de Ol'ifclra. 

It was earl}- noon wlien we left Congonlias. Once more we de- 
scended the liill and crossed the Maranhao ; we then struck up the 
little valley of the " Eibeirrio de Santo Antonio," a surface drain 
of the " Serra da Boa Morte." The soil was mostly chalk-white, 
like kaolin, and the banks of the hollow ways, once level with 
the ground, and now sunk many feet beloAV it, worn down by 
torrential rams, and by the tramp of man aiul beast — still showed 
stiff deep red cla}'. The cross-country track abounded in artistic 
views of " salvage sojde." Congonhas, like a pearl set in 
emeralds, lingered long in sight, and the Ouro Branco Range yet 
gleamed high, towering in the limpid air. 

At this season the weather is regular as a chronometer. The 
nights are raw and foggy in the low-lands ; in the upper levels 
cold and clear, with high raised skies, planets that make the 
moon look very dowdy, and sparkling stars that have not for- 
gotten to twinkle because we are so near the ecpiator.* 

Aiu'ora comes in oloiuls, and yet the cloud 
Dims not but decks lier beauty : 

Between 9 and 10 a.m. we have the full benefit of the daj'-orb, 
whose effulgence ignores a thread of ciiTus, a vesicle of vapour. 
After three or four hours of the solar distillation, wool-pack and 
boulder clouds gather in the east ; they float high in the blue 
immensity, then they coagulate as it were, forming mackerels' 
backs, and finally they Aveave purple hangings, innocent, however, 

* In fact, I uften tlumglit on the lUo do tiriest, that tliey danced more Juenily tlian 
Sai' Francisco, even wlien the air was usual. 

176 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BKAZIT. [chap, xviit. 

of thunder or rain. At times we prepare for wind and wet, but 
all agree that the signs are the signs of increased cold. It will 
not always be so. At 3 p.m. we have no more reason to complain 
of the heat, and the sunsets are cool and clear, delightfully 
tranquil, the evenings of the lotos-eaters. 

After a couple of hours, we entered a land of iron, all black and 
red sj)angled with mica. The darkest soil was a degradation of 
the mysterious " Jacutinga," and the yellow-brown ruddy colour 
came from hfematite, clay iron stone, often worked up in nodular or 
botryoidal pieces ; there was also compact martite or magnetic 
iron, which often 3'ields perfect specimens of the double pyramid, 
and in places a crust of the quartzose amygdaloid, called " canga." 
The chalybeate water ran splendid as gems over its bed of mine- 
ral. Only two houses were in sight, the Fazenda do Pires, with 
its avenue of Araucarias, and deep embosomed in the hills, an iron 
foundry belonging to the Commendador Lucas Antonio Monteiro 
de Castro. 

We then began to ascend the Serra de Santo Antonio, an east- 
west buttress of the Ouro Branco Eange. The little block hes on a 
parallel with and about thirty miles north of the Espigao Geral 
or Serra das Yertentes.* It is a mass of huge clay mounds ribbed 
at the sides with outcrops of finely laminated clay-shale and 
building slate ; the deep hollows separating the bulgings are 
densely timbered and luxuriantly green, the effect of the Avater- 
courses and the nightly mists. The viplands sparkle with bud 
and blossom, mostly pink and yellow, and the gTass carpet looks 
smooth enough to be stroked by the hand. At this season it is a 
sheeny surface of greenish yellow, with dashes of broken colour, 
and the edges seen against the air look worn like frayed velvet. 
The path wound along the sides of these mound-hills, and a false 
step would have entailed a roll of 250 feet. Not a sign of habita- 
tion was in sight, except some roofless ruins in a hollow to the 
right, which suggested the haunted house. In fact the scene was 
unusually wild and romantic. 

From the summit of the basin rim we saw far below us a forked 
stream threading the hills between avenues of thick tangled 

* 111 Burmeister's map, tlie Serra de from the north-east. Thus it appears as a 

Saiito Antonio is the apex of the angle great westerly hay in the Serra Grande or 

formed by the SeiTa de Ouro Branco from do Espinha9o. In Geber's map neither 

the south-east, and the SeiTa da Cachoeira the feature nor the name is found. 

CHAP. .will. I TU TEIXKIKA. 177 

groAvtli. The main branch flowing west to east was faintly blue ; it 
receives a streamlet whose waters, slightly green, enter from the 
south-east. They drain the noilhern wall of the Santo Antonio 
Kange, which here separates the Valleys of the River Paraopeba 
and the northern Rio das Vellias.* Both rivulets are described 
as " corregos desconfiados " — not to be trusted — and the angle of 
descent shows that their floods are dangerous. Anastomosing a 
little about the ruins of a bridge, which was carried away by a 
freshet in January 1867, they take the name of Rio da Prata. 

Here then under our eyes is the task which is to occupy me 
some three months of river navigation. The people declare these 
baby waters to be the head waters of the Rio das Velhas. As 
Mill be seen, a larger volume comes from a section of or bulge in 
the Serra Grande (do Espmhago), called " Serra de S. Bartho- 
lomeu," and hing about tliii"ty miles to the north-east. The 
Silver River, however, can boast of superior length ; it is in the 
south-easternmost division of the great basin whose main drain is 
the Rio de Sao Francisco. 

Of undefinable interest is the first sight of a newly born stream 
in these new lands, suggestive as the sight of an infant, with the 
difference that the source must grow to riverhood, whereas the 
child may never become a man. A panorama passes before the 
eyes. The little stream so modestly purling down its channel 
shall presently become a mountain torrent with linns and kieves 
and cataracts and inundations that sweep all before them. Then 
will it widen to a majestic river, watering acres untold, its banks 
clothed with croft and glade, with field and forest, and supporting 
the lowly hamlet and the mighty city. Last in the far distance 
spreads the mouth and looms the port, busy with shipping, the 
link in the cliain of communication which makes all nations 
brothers, and which must civilize if it has not civilized mankind. 
Standing at the small fount we see these vistas with a thrill of 
pleasant excitement, not unmixed with a faint sensation of anxiet}'. 
How many risks and hardships are to be undergone, how many 
difficulties are to be conquered before the task can be accom- 
plished, before we can see the scenes of what is about to be. 

* It must not be confounded -svith tlie into the Southern Paranahyba, the gi-eat 

Southern Rio das Velhas, another consider- northern fork of the Paran^-Paragiiay- 

able stream visited by C;ustelnau. The Phita. For the future, whenever the Rio 

latter river rises near Dezemboque, flows das Velhas is spoken of, Noi-them will be 

to the north-west, and discbarges itself not expressed but understood. 

VOL. I. N 


The Rio das A^ellias, Paver of the Old Women, derives its name, 
says local histoiy, from the three old squaws found squatting upon 
its banks by the Pauhsta explorer ** Old Devil," Bartholomeu 
Bueno, when in 1701 he first struck the stream at Sahara. The 
etymology is somewhat loose and lame. The red men, we are 
told by Sr. Rodriguez Valerio, a competent authority, called it 
"Guyaxim," and a corruption of this word becomes Guaicuh}',* 
still found on obsolete maps. This would mean the " old squaw's 
stream " (in the singular), and probably the early explorers mis- 
translated it into a plural, whilst their descendants invented the 
now classical three old women. 

We forded the two forks that form the " Silver River," and, 
when in them, the waters appear crystal clear. The beds 
and the strips of rivei'ine valley were strewed with alluvium 
galettes, water-rolled stones and pebbles. The harder talcose 
cla3's Avere cut into peculiar shapes : some resembled the balls and 
eggs used by the Indian slingsmen ; others were not to be distin- 
guished, except by the jiractised eye, from our rude drift-hatchets. 
They probably suggested the weapon to the aborigines, and were 
formed by nature as artistically as the celts used by the seaboard 
tribes to open then* 03'sters and shell-fish. On a future occasion 
I shall have something to say about the^ " Stone Age " in the 
Brazil, which lilce every other great division of the globe hitherto 
explored, distinctl}^ shows the epoch :f it shows every variety, from 
the rudest palcTeolithic wedge (coin) of sandstone to the neatl.y 
chipped arrow-head of rock-erj'stal, and the neolithic or polished 
stone axe, rivalling any Celtic hatchet. Moreover, in the far in- 
terior it has not 3'et been thoroughly superseded by the Age of 

We toiled up the very red further side of this interesting basin, 

* Tlie word is apparently an agglutina- Age " asserted by that sound authi'opolo- 

tion of Goiamim, old (woman), cunha (wo- gist Mr. E. B. Tyler, "Kesearches into the 

man), and ig (water). Possibly it may be Early History of Mankind, and the Deve- 

Cacuao-ig, which would bear Ihs same sig- lopment of Civilization." These nide 

nification. Yves D'E^Teux gives the six drift-hatchets are alluded to in " Notes on 

ages of womankind : — 1. Peitan, babe; 2. the Antiquity of IMan " (pp. 85 — 87, An- 

Konguantinmiry, child ; 3. Konguantin, thi'opological Review, No. 1, May, 1863, 

adolescent ; 4. Konguanmoucou, woman ; Trubner & Co. ) ; and the literatiu-e upon 

Konguan, woman ; 5. Konguanmoucou- the subject is becoming imposing, 
poire, woman in foi'ce of age ; and 6. To me the era is esjiecially interesting, 

Ouainuy, old woman. because it embraces the period when men 

t The Brazil has a well-defined age of had not, or what is much the same, knew 

wood, and the indigenes still use wooden not that they had souls. The soul, in- 

clubs and swords. I am hapjiy to find the deed, seems to have been the discovery of 

universality and uliiquity of the "Stone the Bronze Age. 


guided by a manielon cresting the spine. Another large hollow 
lay in front and beneath ns ; the surface where not cut up by the 
esbarrancados or water breaches, showed low timber above and 
large tree clumps in the depths, a test of superior soil and better 
shelter than its southern neighbour. On the right was the little 
mining village, " Sao Goncalo do Bacao," with white church and 
brown huts. The lowest level was a green patch known as 
Teixeu'a, rich with palms and bananas, maize and manioc, cotton 
and the fibre-bearing Yucca or bayonet plant : it looked the 
quietest of spots, where a man might most easily be consumed by 

The northern background was a picture. We now stand full 
in the presence of the great Itacolumite and Itaberite formations. 
The sinking sun, canopied b}- snowy cloud lined with lively 
crimson, cast a glow of gold upon the castled crag, " Itabii'a do 
Campo,"* the Stone Girl of the prairie, which the Cornishmen 
called the Peak of Cata Branca. Early in the march we had 
seen it, and it then looked like a hill crowned with two blocks of 
masonr}' somewhat out of the perpendicular. From the basin 
rim of the Silver River, looking north-north-west, the rocks that 
jagged the summit appeared to form a single block. Here the 
head has a trident of three tall black prongs, and when winding 
eastward we shall often see it rising sudden and single like the 
Chimney Rock of the Plata River. Its form and plan recalled 
to mind many a half-forgotten legend of enchanted stronghold 
and magic mount, and curious tales are told about water springing 
from its base, and a shaft sunk by Nature in its depth. 

* Dr. Couto, wlio fouiul crystiillized Tliis geograpliical feature will lie noticed 

copper upon its flanks, translates the name in Chap. 30. 

" Mo^a ou rapariga de pedra." St. Hil. From these Itabiras, the reader will 
renders Yta bira " pieri-e qui brille." remember, is derived the name of the 
" Yta," more often ^\Titten "Ita," occurs mineral "Itaberite," a slaty rock of gra- 
in many Brazilian compound words lior- uular cjuartz and iron of several varieties, 
rowed from the aborigines, and means rock, often pure oxide. Eschwege, who fathered 
stone, or metal, especially iron ; whilst the word, describes the mineral as feiTU- 
"bera," or "berab," is to flame. The ginous schist, and makes it the matrix 
usual explanation of " Itabira " is pointed of the diamond. At this Itabira do Campo 
stone. Ca.stelnau calls it "Itabiri," but begins the westernmost iron-Cordillera, de- 
the loss of his JISS. compelled him to wi-ite scribed in this portion of Minas Gcraes. 
much from memoiy. The distinctive "do It will run to Curral d'El-Rei, cross the 
Campo" prevents confusion with the Itabira Rio das Velhas at Sahara, and near it form 
do Mato dentro ("of the interior forest"), the SeiTa da Piedade. In its lower slopes 
a magnificent pile to the north-east. We gold is abundant, mostly associated with 
shall find also Cata.s Altas do Campo op- iron, 
posed to the Catas Altas do Mato DcTitro. 

180 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BliAZIL. [chai-. x\ hi. 

We passed a ranch, whose tall and long-bearded owner, witli 
felt broad-brim pulled low over his brows, regarded us smiily and 
vouchsafed no reply to questions concerning the night's rest. 
This individual, known as " Joiio Militao," has the reputation of 
being a " valentao " or country bully, and, worse still, he is 
spoken of as a " capanga," a bravo or professional assassin. The 
latter gentry, relics of a barbarous age, are unhappily not yet 
extinct in the provincial parts of the Brazil. The Pundonor 
being still a mainspring of action, and the duello being unknown, 
men use the services of the hired ruffian with little squeamishness, 
and the enemy is potted from behind a tree like the Irish land- 
lord of the last generation. As education advances and manners 
are softened by increased intercourse with the world, the disgrace 
will, like the old Poderoso, become obsolete. We behaved 
to the Sr. Militao at least as roughly as he did to us, and the 
next morning he civilly entered into conversation about the 
parroquets which we were shooting. 

Hajipily we found next door lodgings in the house of Jose 
Teixeira, a saddler : he Avas evidently not rich, but he was kind 
and attentive, and his wife aided him to make us comfortable upon 
our little beds of sticks and straw. The third and last 
"morador" or squatter in this green i)atcli presently came in, 
armed wdth a gun, and much excited. Upon the road we had met 
a small white ciu-, running purjioseless and looking fagged : one 
of our party struck at it with a hunting whip : it did not cry or 
leave the path, but kept doggedly on without attempting to injure 
any one. Seeing its skin wet I did not suspect hydrophobia, but 
arrived at Teixeira, we were told that it liad been rabid for some 
days, and had bitten sundry animals. 



O China allegre, fertil e jucuudo, 
E o chao de arvores muitas povoado : 
E no verdor das folhas julg-uei que era 
AH sempre continua a primavera. 

Eustacliidos, by Manoel de Santa Maria Itaparica. 

To the right or east of, and ahoiit a mile and a half from 
Itabira Peak, there is a gentle rise, the site of the mines and the 
village of Cata Branca.* A few details concerning its former 
fortunes may be interesting : it now belongs to the Morro Velho 
Company, and better days may again da"VMi upon it. 

The ground, belonging originally to poor settlers, Brazilians and 
Portuguese, i:)assed into the hands of the Count of Linhares, who 
sold the concession to the late Dr. Cliffe, an Aiigio-American. 
The latter, a man of true trans- Atlantic energ}- and self reliance, 
paiied with his right to the " Brazilian Company," raised Jan. 
28, 1833, and during that year the superintendent, Mr. A. F. 
Mornay, completed the purchase. 

The mining estate, including the fazendas of " Santo Antonio," 
which was bought, and " Ai-edes " (P. N.) which was rented, lay 
favourably, 4350 feet above sea-level, t within two miles of the 

* "Cata" is sometimes en-oneoiisly Goi-don, of Morro Velho, took the obsen-a- 

■ttTitten Calta ; it is derived from "Catar," tions with a Pelissher's aneroid upon the- 

nearly synonymous with " Buscar," to seek, SeiTa, not the Peak of Cata Branca. They 

but with the sense of Imnting. Tlie were on July 12, 186i — 
miners applied it to a pit sunk in the 
upper strata till they reached the auriferous 
matter, whatever the formation might be. 

Castelnau (1843) visited, and has left a This would reduce the height in the text 

good historical description of the mine to about half. Mr. Gordon also makes the 

from the obser\'ations of M. Weddell. My " Itacolumi Peak " of Ouro Preto to bear 

notes arc taken from the Reports of the rlue east of Itabira. The maps of MM. 

Brazilian Company 1833 — 37, modified by Burmeister and Gerber place the former 

reliable information. east-south-east (39°) from the latter. 

f Doubtless much exaggerated. Mr. 

1. Bar. 27-40 

Therm. 59° 

11 A.M. 

2. „ 27-37 

„ 63° 

1 P.M. 


Corrego Secco village, four miles or six miles by the long road 
from Itabira town, and 35 from the provincial capital. The 
soil was poor, but within a league were large rocas or farms in 
Campo land, which supplied provisions to Ouro Preto. 

The Serra of Cata Branca trends where mined from east of 
north, to west of south. The containing rock proved to be 
micaceous granular cjuartz with visible gold, as in California. 
The strike was N. 15° West, and the dip from 80° to 85° ; in 
some places the stratification was nearly vertical, in others it was 
bent to the slope of the mountain, and generally it was irregular. 
The lode, narrow at the surface, widened below from 6 to 18 
feet, and the greatest depth attained was 32 fathoms. The 
quartz formation was of many varieties, soft sugarv, hard smoky, 
common white, and blue, which proved to be the richest ; and 
the sides were hard quartzose matter equally bad for sjialling and 
blasting. The south-eastern end was most productive. On the 
western side of the quartz were found the ferruginous formations 
"C^nga" and Jacutinga;" the latter was struck by drivings made 
below the Serra ridge, here a mass of iron peroxide : the works, 
however, wanted ventilation, and were abandoned. 

The lode, which could not be called a " constant productive," 
abounds in " vughs " or vein-cavities, tubes, pipes, and branches, 
called by the Brazilian miner " olhos " — eyes, surrounded by a 
soft material, mainly running vertically, and richer in free gold 
than the average. Near these pockets, but not disseminated 
through the vein, was a small quantity of auriferous pyrites, iron 
and arsenical. A little fine yellow dust, oxide of bismuth, ran 
down the middle of the lode, and gave granular gold. The best 
specimens averaged from 21*75 to 22 carats, our standard 

The Santo Antonio lode lay parallel with and east of the Cata 
Branca. The Ai-edes mine, 8 miles to the south-west, was beyond 
the Peak : here the Serra is covered with boulders of hard quartz, 
very numerous at the base of the great vein. They rest on the 
common, soft, various-coloured clays of the country, and are 
intersected with lines of sugary quartz, which gave a little very 
fine gold. This formation extends far to south and west of 
Itabu-a : openings were made in it, and one, the '' Sumidouro," 
was successful. Aredes showed also a small formation of Jacu- 
tinga containing red gold, sometimes alloyed with palladium, and 

tUAr. XIX.] TO COC'HE D'AfU'A. 183 

accompanied with oxide of manganese. The soil was good, and 
it contained 1 — 2 square miles of arable land that produced all 
the cereals of Europe. 

Mr. Mornay, afterwards Superintendent of C-ocaes, and Vice- 
Director of Cuiaba, began with a salary, besides house and all 
civilized luxuries, of .:£3000 per annum, and this was paid out of a 
capital of 6000 £10 shares. In November, 1833, he was followed 
by Commander C'otesworth, R.N., who afterwards died at Liver- 
pool. The latter was like all the " Ser\dce " superintendents, 
then such favourites at home, a strict disciplinarian, active and 
energetic, fond of riding horses till they broke down, tetchy on 
the subject of his rights, and " zealous in the discharge of his 
duty," — which led to disputes. Finding the mine an immense 
hole, he had to fork* the water wliich filled the shafts, and to 
level, dial,! and measure afresh. The mine began with the anti- 
quated practice of ''stamping," or rather '' crushing," by horizontal 
millstones of hard, tough, quartzose matter ; presently the best 
machinery in the Empire was put up. In 1835, besides hired 
labourers, " Cata Branca" employed 38 Europeans, 76 negroes, 
and 34 negresses. 

In 1844 the mine fell in. The sole had become sloppy, and 
the liquid Jacutinga could not be drained by any mechanical 
force ; the ground was not properly timbered, and the side-thrust 
increased till it was enormous. The general account is that 
thu'teen workmen, one of them an Englishman, were killed : 
some increase the number, which others declare to be exag- 

The "Cata Branca" failure, one unfortunately of very many, 
resulted from two causes. Firstly, there was an utter absence of 
economy, and as Mr. Moshesh justly observes, with peculiar 
applicabiHty to Minas, even gold may be bought too dear. 
Secondly, the mine was badly worked. Jacutinga was then an 
unknown formation, but English miners, especially Cornish men, 
have learned everything, and consequently they will brook no 
teaching. Those who do not judge them by their own standard 
are willing to grant that they have acquired by rule of thumb 

* To "fork," i« to reduce the water to the theochilite a dial, hciire " dial ling " is 

its proper level till the mouth of the pump applied to underground levels and surveys 

hose can be seen. from a fixed station. 

+ The sons of old Kcriiou used to call 

184 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BllAZlL. [chap. xix. 

sometliing of mineralogy, nothing of geology. But since the clays 
of Howel or Houol, " king of small Brittany," they have been 
heaven-born muiers with the airs of omniscience. Who can 
forget the naive speech of the Cornish gang-captain, who told 
Robert Stephenson that a north country could not possibly know 
anything about mining? I have seen the offer of a "practical 
Cornishman " to do for ^50,000 what a " theorist," that is to say a 
professional man, educated in the scientific schools, could not effect 
for £100,000. Mr. Practical was believed b}^ a practical public — 
in England still linger old superstitions about rule of thumb, 
which makes men easily take the bait — and the consequence was 
that the practical shareholders soon found themselves safe in 
Chancery. The fact is that Tre, Pol, and Pen are good men and 
true, but they must take to heart what was asserted a little 
farther west, namely, that — 

Joliu P. Robiusou, he 
Said they didu't know ev'rythiug down in Jiidee. 

'We shall trace these same two evils, reckless expenditure and 
want of exact knowledge, in the history of many other mining 
adventures. Hence it is that in this land of boundless mineral 
wealth, so man}' comi^anies have come to grief, and so man}- a 
mine has been, to use the technical word, " knocked." 

After a delightfully bracing night, we rose with the dawn ; 
again however the old white garron had strayed, the mules had 
followed, and the glorious morn had waxed hot before it saw us in 
the saddle. The bridle-path fell at once into the valley of the 
E,io da Plata, a baby brook m a sandy and gravelly cradle, a world 
too wide for its shrunken stream. Six times we forded the 
limpid waters Avhich ran north^vards, we cut the throat of two big 
bends, each with its drain from the west, swelling the main line, 
and we halted for breakfast under a fig tree, upon the banks of 
the Corrego do Ba9ao. The little Arraial of that name, rich in 
vegetables and fruit trees, was hard hj, and the miners came out 
of their huts to stare and chat. The valley, when we struck it 
once more, was floored with loose sand, and heaped as usual with 
" spoil-banks," and mounds of washed red clay. Another hard 
pull up the left buttress was enUvened by the beauty of the vege- 
tation, and our ears were refreshed by the under-murmur and the 
bubbling of abundant streams. The birds were more numerous 

rilAT. Xl\. 

10 COCHE U'AdTA. 185 

than usual ; the paricxiuets chattered from tree to tree, a noisy 
woodpecker* screamed in the bush, and hawks floated high in the 
mistless air. AVe then walked carefully down a hideous cause- 
wii}- of rock, paving stones, white earth and sandy dust which 
rose in suffocating clouds. A liollow lane of incipient sandstone 
and, here and there, dry walls, told us that we were apiu'oaching 
a settlement. 

After about four hours (jf actual riding we sighted " Jtabira do 
Campo " in a punch-bowl below us. The stream which divides 
it, running from east to west, is crossed by a tolerable stone 
bridge, and the banks are used as bleacliing-grounds, white with 
raiment and black with washerwomen. On the south of the 
"Freguezia" are the chapels of N^ S^ das Merces and Bom 
Jesus de Matosinhos ; to the west is the Rosario, whilst the 
body of the village contains the matriz of N'* S^ da Boa 
Viagem and S'<' Theresa. In fact the church accommodation 
would lodge the whole population, though hardly with comfort ; 
most of the buildings are in a ruinous condition. 

We breasted another steep slippery causew^ay, the entrance 
street ; here there were good houses, but all bore inscribed over 
their doors the Desolation of Dulness. The heat of the sun 
induced us to dismount at a shop in the square of Santa Thereza, 
whose steeple with its tiled roof and splayed eaves suggested a 
chapel in Switzerland. The people were exceedmgly obliging, 
and gave us coffee with the least possible delay; they had long 
tales to tell of pahny days, now set in night, when they esta- 
blished their sons, married their daughters to Englishmen, and 
enjoyed the excitements of loss and gain. " Itabira" throve with 
the " Cata Branca " mine, and it decayed when " she " was 
" knocked." The Itabii-enses linger on, barely supported by the 
Morro Vellio mai'ket, and the memories of better times hardly 
suffice to keep alive hope for the futiu'e. 

Though warned that Ave could hardly reach " Coche d'Agua " 
before nightfall, and well acquainted with the horrors of a Bra- 
zilian cross-cut after dark, and on an unknown line, we set out at 
1 P.M. Another causeway, a turn to the left, and we were again 
in the Valley of the Silver Stream. It was now a " hobble- 
dehoy " in the worst and most unmanageable phase, turbid, noisy, 

* Known as the Pioo cliao-cLSo. 

186 THE HIGHLANDS OF THP: BRAZIL. [chap. xix. 

and shallow. Six miles of unusually good road placed us at 
Mazagao,* the iron foundry of the Capitao Manoel Franca. 
From this place to our destination is only six miles, but the 
bridge was broken down, there is no road along the jn-ecipitous 
left bank, and we were driyen to a detour of a useless league and 
a half westward, north-westward and northward. 

Ladders of clay and rock led uj) the ascents of remarkably steep 
pitch ; the ground on both sides was clad in " dirty forest." A single 
house, with a little croft, belonging to one Pereira, Ayas the only 
proof that all was not a desert. We met but one party, pro- 
bably returning from some family festival, wedding or baptism. 
The girls rode on before their parents, as they are made to walk 
in the old-fashioned towns of Italy and the Brazil, Pa and Ma 
bringing up the rear, and marking down with four eyes eyery look 
given and received. One maiden, a pretty specimen with nut- 
brown skin, blue-black hair and roguish glance, Ayas seated in the 
manner masculine, a sensible practice now obsolete here, except 
amongst the Caipirasf, and the slaves. Yet I Ayould recommend it 
to Avomen Avho tempt the b3'eAyays of Brazil; here side-saddle and 
sku'ts are really dangerous to limb and life. 

Trotting over the table land, AA'hich Aye found much too short, 
we dropjDed by another long and tedious descent into the river 
valley. To the end of this march the hills are bluff soutliAyards, 
and fall in long gentle grassy slopes to the north. The path 

* This word lias over the Por- woods," opposed to Jurnpari, or Jurupeiy, 

tiigiiese colonies between the Brazil and the Devil. Evidently there is a confusion, 

Hindostan, where we wi-ite it " Maza- physical and metaphysical. Sr. J. d'Alencar 

ganm," as if it had any connection with explains Cnnipira by Curumim, a pappoose 

"Gaum," a village. The name is Moroo- or Indian child, and pira, bad; it was 

can, and commemorates the Christian vie- usually represented as a dwarfish imp. 

tories at the Port of "Mazagan." Jurupari is from Juru, a mouth, and apara, 

f In Sao Paulo "Caiplra" is prefeiTed ; crooked. In popular use Caipira is applied 
in Minas, "Caipora. " The " Caypor " of contemptuously to both sexes, and coiTes- 
Mr. Bates, i. 89, is, I presume, a misprint. ponds with our Essex Calves, Kentish Long- 
Both are corruptions of "Caa," a bush, tails, Yorkshire Tikes, and Norfolk Bump - 
and "-pora," who inhabits. Thus the kins. A man will facetiously use it to 
tei-m literally means " bushman," or himself or to his family, but others must 
savage. " Tapuya-Caapora" would be a not. The civil name for a backwoodsman, 
wild (brabo) Tapuya, " aba-caapora," a voyageur (Canada), a Coureur des Deserts, 
homme des bois. Amongst the Aborigines or Coureur des bois, is "Sertanejo," which 
"Caa-pora" (not Caypora) is a spirit or classical axithors write " Sertanista, " from 
demon that lives in the forest, a wood-imp Sertao, the backwoods, the Far West, a 
reputed to be malicious, and fond of rob- term which will be explained in its proper 
bing children, which he stores in a hollow place. Southey (Explorations, &c., iii. 
tree. In old authors we find Curupiora : 900) makes " Sei-tanejo " an inhabitant of 
the old Jesuit Simao de A''asconcellos in- the "Sertam," and "Sertanista," a per- 
terprets the word " dsemon of thought," son engaged in exploring the "Sertam." 
spirit of darkness; others, "spirit of the 

.HAP. xix.] TO (OOHE U'AGUA. 187 

Avas a zigzag of the worst kind ; again we liit the river, now a 
flood in hot Achillean youth. 

Impiger iracundas iuexorabilis acer. 
^\. swirling torrent, not exactly yellow, hut dark and flavous, 
hardly to he swum or forded. From the grassy slopes above, the 
rush of Avater was imposing, hanked with bluffs 300 feet high, and 
shaded with gigantic trees, hanging woods and wonderful virgin 
forests, a scene that would -surprise the admirers of poor little 
Dart, the wonder of Southern England. The bridge was un- 
sound, but it bore us across. I felt no little anxiety. The sun 
was already streaming his last rays over the mountain tops, three 
conspicuous knobs in the north, a kind of " Three Sisters," illu- 
minated by the reflection. Night follows sundown like a shot at 
this height, and in these low latitudes; the slope was desperately 
long, the mules were jaded, and in places holes twenty feet deep 
yawned across the path. 

At length, after much straining of the eyes, we descended the 
last pitch of road, and ere day was burnt out we entered, with 
no small satisfaction, Coche d'Agua. Here we found Mr. 
L'pool, who had hurried on, determined to be under cover before 

And here I venture to offer advice with the view of forming a 
" comfortable traveller." Let every thought be duly subordi- 
nate to self. Let no weak regard for sex or age deter you from 
taking, or at least from trying to take, the strongest beast, the best 
room, the superior cut, the last glass of sherry. When riding 
lead the way,, monopolise the path, and bump up against all who 
approach you — they will probably steer clear for the future. If a 
companion choose a horse, a saddle, or a bridle, endeavour to 
abstract it — he had evidently some reason for the choice. In the 
morning take care of No. 1 ; niuflle your head, wrap up your 
throat, stuft" your boots with cotton. As the sun rises gradually 
unshell yourself — " good people ai*e scarce " — open your umbrella 
and suck oranges, not omitting all the little contrivances of refec- 
tion which your ingenuity will suggest. Never go to a hotel if 
there be a private house within a league, and above all things 
keep the accounts. Finally, if you invite a man to dine, score up 
his liquor on the wall, staring him " in the face," so shall or may 
it deter him from the other bottle. And thus your trip will cost 
vou 123 milreis, when vour friend is minus 750 milreis a head. 



" Cultiva se em Minas precisamente como se cultivam no tempo dos Paulistas 
e dos Emboabas."— P/r.^. lifjjort of Minas Gvraesfor 1865, Appendix, p. 25. 

"A Vargem do Coclie d'Agoa"* — the River-rertcli of the 
Water-trough — himible name for a humbler si)ot, is so called from 
a stone cistern, still visible in the now ruined house of the late 
Lieut. Domingos Souares, a small "Creoulo"*f* i^lanter. Dr. 
Couto (1801), mentions it as a " sitio " and station on the old 
western road from Ouro Preto to the then Tejuco. Actually it is 
a scatter of some sixteen huts in a hollow which grows bad sugar- 
cane, good potatos, and plentiful fuel for the great English 

Jose Clemente Pereu-a, om* host, had been presented by his 
wife with twelve sons, and theii* increase was fifty grand j)lus five 
grandchildren; the family populates the place. This "creating 
souls" and breedmg citizens for the commonwealth, advances 
here as elsewhere in Minas, by geometrical rather than arith- 
metical i^rogression. I shall revert to the subject. We all 
intended to sleep hke hmnans who had earned their rest ; but the 
night air Avas raw and nipping, the poor great-grandmother had a 
bad cough, and Negra, my mastift'-j^uj), snored grimly, till made 
thoroughly intoxicated by cachaca, poured upon it with that 

And here let me exi)lain what cachaca is before we enter 

* Caklcleiigh (ii. 269), writes Coxo ile the Amazons tn Macao anil Jajiaii. The 

Agua, and the Almanak (Joxo d'Agua. elision of the letter terminating the geni- 

The reader wll have remarked before this tive sign is remarkably arbitrary, 
that tlie etymology of tlie remarkably + Creoulo, or Creolo in the Brazil, is 

rich Poiiuguese language is still uu- applied to negi'ocs and things grown in the 

settled. This is naturaUy the case with a country, and to persons either bora in the 

tongue spoken from the upper waters of Empire, but not of mixed blood. 

.iiAi'. XX.] TO Tin: (lOl.l) MINK OF MolIltO VKI.Ho. ]&9 

civilized houses, where the woid aiul the thing are equally abomi- 

" Cacha9a," or " Caxaca," the "cachass" of strangers, is the 
" tafia" of French writers, a pretty word wilfully thrown away, 
like the Spanish " tortilla," that means " scone." It is the korn- 
schnapps, the kwass of the P)razil. The commonest kind is dis- 
tilled from the refuse molasses and drippings of cla3'ed sugar, put 
into a retort-shaped still,* old as the hills, and rich in verdigris. 
The peculiar volatile oil or tiether is not removed from the surface ; 
the taste is of copper and smoke — not Glenlivet — in equal pro- 
portions, and when the " catinga " or fetor has tainted the spuits 
it cannot be removed.! Otherwise it would be as valuable to 
Europe as the corn brandy of Canada, and the potato brandy of 
Hamburg, from which is made the veritable Cognac. There are 
two kinds ; the common, made from the Cayenne! cane, and the 
" Creoulinha" or " Branquinha," the old Madeiran growth; the 
latter is preferred, as the "cooler" and less injui'ious. Brandy, 
said Dr. Johnson, is the drink of heroes, and here men drink 
their Cachaca heroically; the effect is " Uver," drojjsy, and death. 
Strangers are not readil}^ accustomed to the odour, but a man 
Avho once " takes to it," may reckon upon delirium tremens and 
an early grave. Its legitimate use is for bathing after insolation, 
or for washmg away the discomfort of insect bites. Your Bra- 
zilian host generally sends a bottle with the tub of hot water. 

The " Canninlia," in Spanish " Cana," is a superior article, 
made from the cane juice fermented in souring tubs ; it is our 
rum, and when kept for some years, especially underground, the 
flavour reminds one of Jamaica. Old travellers usually prefer 
this " Pinga " to the vitriolic gin and the alcoholic Cognacs which 
have found their way into the country ; as the bottle is sold 
for a penny to twopence, there is no object in adulterating 

* Archaically called Alaml)ifiuc. brought from " Otaheitc ; " about 1832 

t A more careful process would proljably this " Otaheite Cane " was introduced into 

obviate much of this evil. At present ini- Louisiana and Florida, which formerly had 

perfect heating and cooling of the rough the "Ribbon Cane," the Creoula of the 

machine, cause the iiTemediable empji-eu- Brazil. The author above mentioned tells 

watic taint. I never could light a spirit us tliat in his day the commonest kind was 

lamp with the second distillation, much less called " Agoa ardente de Canna " (ojiposed 

with the first. to the agoa ardente do reino, /. e. , rum, 

J "On a d'abord cultive dans lo canton gin, Cognac, &c.) ; when better distilled, 

la canne de Cayenne, mais tjuand on a "Agoa ardente de mel," and the best 

connu celle de Taitfe, on lui a donne la pre- " Cachaza " or " Cachassa," both -svrongly 

ference." (Prince Max. i. 83). Most writers spelled. These c.xpi'cssions are now quite 

declare the Cayenne (Caycna), to have been obsolete. 


the contents. Drunk in moderation, especially on raw mornings 
and wet evenings, it does more good than harm. The people 
have a prejudice against mixing it,* and prefer the style called 
"Kentucky drink," or "midshipman's grog;" they are loud in 
its jjraise, declaring that it cools the heat, heats the cold, dries 
the wet, and wets the dry. When did man ever want a pretext 
for a dram ? 

The "Restilo" is, as its name shows, a redistillation of either 
Cachaca or Canninha, and it removes the unpleasant odour of the 
molasses spiiit. This form is little known in Sao Paido ; in Minas 
it is the iDopvdar drink, and the planter calls it jocosely "Bra- 
zilian wine;" he prefers it, and justly, to the vile beverages im- 
ported at enormous prices from the " Peninsula." There is 
yet a thii-d distillation, " Lavado," or the washed. It is said to 
be so strong and anhydrous that if thrown up into the air it 
descends in a little spray, and almost evaporates. It is not, 
however, distilled over burnt lime, and thus it never becomes 
absolute alcohol, t 

The effects of this rum upon the population, and the frequency 
of the Cachacada or drunken quarrel, often ending in a shot or a 
stab, will be found noticed in the following pages. 

It was 5'15 A.M. on Saturday, June 19, 1867, the ninth stage 
from Barbacena, and the sixteenth day after our dejiartm-e from 
Rio de Janeu'o, when we were summoned to mount and to mea- 
sure our last march. A thick white mist blurred the moon's 
outline, here a sign of cold, not of rain. Our escoteiro, however, 
knev\^ ever}' inch of the road ; we followed liim with full confi- 
dence over a freshly repaired bridge, up and down hills like palm 
oil, and across sundry short levels, Avhere the River Yallev, which 
has now wound from east to north, widens out. Again I call by 
courtesy a valley this longitudinal furrow which splits the moun- 
tain range into two meridional chains ; on its right crowd the 
westernmost buttresses of the " Serra Grande," or "do Esjjin- 
hago," whilst the eastern flank of the chain connecting Itabira 
Peak with its brother apex Curral d'El-Rei, hems in the left. 

* Mr. 'Walsh (ii. 8), gravely cliroiiicle.s be a Ly no means contemptible beverage, 
concerning " Caxas ; " " Our informed f The Restilo is the best for pi-eserving 

me that it was a wholesome and excellent specimens, but it affects the delicate colours 

cordial when taken raw, but he warned me of the coral snakes for instance, and thus 

against mixing it with water." Despite eiToneous descriptions have become current, 

which sound advice the traveller presently If cachafa be used, the spirit must be 

tried it "hot with" and pronounced it to changed after a few days. 


As Lucifer sparkled aloft bet^Yeen the Crescent and the horizon, 
bright as should be the sun's herald in the Highlands of the 
Brazil, and the air became sensibl}' colder, and the pale brass}' 
dawn-light waxed faintly green ; when red reflections lined the 
fragments of cloud land, and the merry "Cardinal"* began to 
chirp his matins, we again saw on our left the baby brook, the 
hobbledeho}', the hot young torrent of yesterday, now become the 
Rio das Velhas, and stamped with the signet of middle age, a 
respectable fluviatile, progressing steadily three miles an hour, 
broad-waisted as the Richmond Thames, not ignorant of the 
canoe, and presently about to call for connection with and 
settlement by a steamer. Dr. Couto calls it O Vermelho Rio, 
showing that the banks were then much worked and washed for 
gold ; now it is of muddy yellow hue. 

An hour's ride, ending with a steep incline, placed us at the 
arraial and freguezia of " S'° Antonio do Rio das Yelhas." f Its 
birthday is unknown, the date was probably when the Batatal, I 
the Socco, the Engenho de Agua, and the PapamiDio Mines gave 
abundant golden 3-ields. In 1801 it had a hundred houses ; in 
1820 the population was numbered at 1200 ; in 1847, Sr. Silva 
Pinto § gave it 1086, and the Almanak (186-,) proposes 1300, 
an estimate based on 115 voters and three electors. At present 
it has some forty-five tenements, scattered about the river's 
right bank. We found it a village of the dead-asleep ; vainly the 
mules halted mibidden at the familiar venda, and the Company's 
private ranch. The little Matriz was silent, dumb, and so was 
its filial chapel — we had no desire to disturb then' echos. The 
village has shops and mechanics ; it breeds and it cultivates 
" some," but the price of transport smothers exportation. Sun- 
day, when the parish meets to discuss its scandal and to do its 
worship, galvanizes it into a manner of life, and at times a drunken 
miner from ]\Iorro Yelho performs a lively piece, ending with a 
" dance of all the characters." 

The next horn* lay over a mud which in the rains becomes the 
matrix of a small iron mine of mules' shoes. It was lateh' re- 

* A pretty red Tangara (.Tanagra epi.sco- of ]Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, means that 

pus ! ), locally called Cardeal. the gold nuggets found there were common 

+ Alias Santo Antonio do Rio Acima, as sweet potatos (batatas). 
" up-stream," thus distinguished from "S'° § This gentleman's work was promised 

Antonio do Rio AbaLxo," another village to me at Ouro Preto. Unfortunately the 

'' do\\Ti-stream." promiser forgot to keep his promise. 

J This name, common in the Provinces 


paired, and in parts newly laid by M. Gerber, C.E., of Ouro 
Preto. The "troopers," as usual, prefer the old familiar way, con- 
sequently both lines are abominable. The end of the league 
showed us, on the left bank, a little white-washed church, S^'' 
Rita, and in the stream were two piles, once a bridge built by 
men who ignored the art and mystery of pile driving. Beyond 
it lies the Morro da Gloria Mme, belonging to five proprietors ; 
the pyrites, finely crushed by six head of old Brazilian " ch^pas,"* 
yields per ton fths of an ounce of 21-carat gold. Here, too, is 
the "Morro de Santa Rita" Mine, once an "open cut," now 
fallen in, fast closed, and no longer exploited. 

S''** Rita is said to be one league from Morro Yellio ; if so it 
is the longest league I ever did ride. Opposite it, the Estala- 
gem, a big ranch, leads to tlie Santa Rita Mine, proprietrix 
D. Florisbella da Horta, a widoAV who has worked her property 
with the Brazilian energy of an earlier day. This " Lavra," or 
wasliing, which is still at times washed, is partially pj-ritic, and 
yields also brown auriferous oxide of iron with leaves of quartz ; 
it is quarried with an open face like a stone pit, then stamped 
and finally straked.f The loss of negroes was great ; Dr. Walker, 
third superintendent of Morro Yelho, informs us that in an 
exceptionally short time, twenty -four out of forty seasoned men 
died of dysenter}^ and inflammation of the chest. 

Here the river-bed is cumbered with grave-like mounds and 
masses of gi'avel, coarse and fine ; it is mostly grown Avitli thin 
vegetation, sown by the hand of Time since 1825, when all these 
diggings were in decay. The hard ferruginous material locally 
called Marumbe, t darkened the soil. Presently Ave turned sharp 
to the left from the Sahara road, and crossed the Rio das Velhas 
by the Santa Rita bridge. The footway is 270 feet long, with 
nine spans supported by trusses or trestles, the giixlers being 
stiffened and prevented from Avarping by diagonal chains. Built 
in 1853, it has frequently been repaired bj' the English Company; 
in 1859 Mr. Gordon gave it the last touch, since then two suj)- 
porting posts have given way, making an ugly sag. A bolster or 
felling-piece of wood placed over the cap-piece Avould remedy the 

* " Stamps," of wticli more hereafter. X Dr- Couto declares these Marumbes, 

+ This iise of the word may not be cor- or Manimbis, which he writes " Marom- 

rect ; but it is very convenient, and amply bes," to be copper ore of the ash-coloured 

deserves to be made a passed and accepted (cinzenta) species. But he certainly hatl 

verb. copper on the brain. 


defect ; but the municipality would take a year of Sundays to 
think and tallc over the matter. 

Beyond the bridge, northern energy and capital were seen to 
assert themselves. Here, three miles from Morro Vellio, begins 
the estate of '' Fernam Paes," bought in 1862 by the Great 
Company for 11,583L The mines, mostly pyritic, are those of 
Gaia, Guabiroba (valuable ground), Samambaia, Servico Novo, 
jNlato Yirgeni, and minor deposits. The new proprietors have 
cleared a twenty-feet road, have laid a tramway for bringmg the 
•ore to the stamping mills, and have cut a leat* through very hard 
ground; the stamp site has been excavated, the framework is 
being put up, so as to begin work at once, and the old manor- 
house on the right of the thoroughfare had been repaired for the 
English miners ; their sturdy northern voices greeted om- guide 
from afar. 

We ran for a short distance down the Kiver Valley, which 
bagged to the left, and showed signs here of a "tip-over," there 
of regular flooding, as far as the hill foot. Part of this ground 
belongs to the Company, part does not, — wliich, to speak mildly, 
must be a nuisance. We then toiled up a red clay ridge, crept 
down an incline of similar formation, and up another bad chine, 
justly called "Monte Video." t This Bella Vista shows the fii-st 
glimpse of our destination, and joys our hearts. High in front 
towers the peak-capped wall of Curral d'El-Kei, bearing its 
timber cross. On a nearer and a lower horizon rises Morro 
Velho, "the old mount," also cross-crowned, and supporting 
on its brown shoulders " Timbuctoo " and "Boa Vista," the 
white-washed and red-tiled negro quarters, t At om* feet is the 
pit filled by the little town Congonhas, whose site is an ii-re- 
gular mixture of bulge and hollow, sprinkled with church and 
villa, with garden and orchard, and beautified with its threading 
of silver stream. On the ridge to the right is the Bella Fania 
farm, where the Company keeps its " great troop " of mules, used 
to bring in stores and provisions. On the left are other ridges 
and other peaks, which we shall presently see to better advan- 

Nothmg can be more suave than this view on a fine clear 

■* Au artificial water-course, here called iiiouut." 

"llego." t Here oallcu liy the African uamc, 

+ NotlMoiite VWeo, Anglict) : the mlgar " Senzallas." 
(.Icrivation i.s Moiitem Video — "I see a 


morning ; but those who first descend it in a Monte Video fog, 
Avill shudder at the portal of a Brazilian Staffordshire, — a Black 
Country. The angle of the road is that of a roof, and set in the 
red clay is a dark slatey patch of finely pulverized or treacly- 
niuddy argile, whicli looks from afar like a vast pall. The 
colouring matter is a trifiing portion of cubical and unauriferous 
iron pyrites, the clay is useful for plmnbago -coloured pigments, 
and in Europe the mineral is made to yield sulphmic acid, and 
to serve many technological purposes. 

Bed ridge and black ridge might both be avoided by running, 
a road for 1'25 miles down the river-bed, below Santa Bita 
bridge, and then by hugging the Bibeirao do Morro Yellio.* The 
latter is the main drain, the natural zigzag, and the best approach 
to the great mine, which certainly deserves a carriage road in- 
stead of the present mule path. 

A deep hollow lane, with the rocky remnants of an antiquated 
ramp, a few huts, the little Bomfim chapel, and the large house 
of a charcoal contractor, lead into the town. We rumbled over 
the Bibeirao bridge, and thence Ave clattered over the slippery 
kidney stones, with their black capping of iron, that pave the 
sleepy little old settlement. It rarely opens its eyes before 8 
A.M., when a few hundred yards beyond it, hundreds of men are 
working night and day : those citizens who were awake were 
probabl}' but half awake, thej'" looked very cross, and not a 
slouched hat was fingered. 

"N^ S'' do Pilar de Congonhas de Sahara" — here names are 
long, apparently in direct inverse ratio of the importance of the 
place or person named — though very drowsy, is tolerably neat, 
and wears a kind of well-to -do -in-the -world look. The main 
square has some two-storied and ornamented houses, and the 
village dignitaries have taken the trouble to prop up that neces- 
sary of Brazilian town-life, t the theatre, decrepit though only 
fifteen years old. The Matriz, repaired by the late Fr. Fran- 
cisco de Coriolano, shows a three-windowed facade, and a cross- 
crested pediment ; the belfries have Swiss roofs, pig-tailed at the 
corners, and turned up after the mode of Chinese Macao ; pos- 

"* Formerly tlio lliljcirSo dc Congonhas, Uiinl of ilic population of England, has us 

vhich flowing from west to cast has been many theatres — 166. It will be time to 

diverted to work and drain the English abuse them when we have improved our 

mine. o\vu, 

t I believe that the Brazil, with about a 


sibly it is an unconscious deiivation from the image dearly 
beloved by the heathenry of Pomeco and Tlascalla. At the rail- 
ing door there is a quaint screen, quaintly painted with the 
Passion-events, whilst the ambulatory has fom'teen station-crosses 
nailed to the walls. 

Commerce flomishes in twenty shops, including a laboratorio 
and sundr}' pharmacies. The Inner Brazil, like the Western 
United States, and very unlike the Bananas* of the coast, still 
requires the dinner pill of our grandfathers and Dr. Ivitchener's 
"peristaltic persuaders." May not tl^s j)artly account for the 
sjurit so tenax propositi, with which both nations have waged 
wars for years, when we wax weary of fighting and j'earn for 
"home " after a few months' campaign? The apothecary in these 
parts is never a poor apothecary. 200Z. worth of bad drugs 
brings liim 2000/., and keeps liim for life ; strange to say, men 
who can be dosed gratis by the Company, prefer the "botica" 
and — quingenties. 

Congonhas has been cured of the "decadence et abandon" in 
which St. Hilau'e found it forty-seven years ago. Built by mming, 
it fell with mining, and by mining it has been "resurrected." 
In 1830 it lodged 1390 souls ; in 1840 about 2000, with three 
churches, one an unfinished ruin ; in 1847 (Sr. Pinto) 913, of 
course Morro Yellio not included ; in 1864, 6 electors, 211 voters, 
and 4000, allo^^dng 1000 miners. Since that time the number 
has certamly not fallen off. 

From the square we tiu'ned to the left, compulsed by an ugly 
stony climb, impudently rismg straight in front, and cutting 
over the ridge that separates the basin of Congonhas and Morro 
Velho. By the partially paved road there was a neat store and 
the Hotel Congonhense, where M. Gehrcke, an old English- 
speaking German employe of the Compan}', receives the destitute 
of introductoiy letters ; here also an Italian portrait-painter lives 
upon his art. High above us to the right is the Rosario Church, 
filled though it is no fete. The dark towerless front of the 
mouldering fane frowns in stone like a bit of bastion ; an un- 
finished croAvn of Portugal and a bald place for the " Quinas " 
beneath, tell their own tale. The nave and the high altar glare with 
whitewash, the ornamentation is pauper and gaudy — negro taste. 

* The Cockneys of Rio tie Jaueiio arc so called l^y the hardy Paulista.s. The 
extensive use of aloes in the interior is noticed by the " System." 



Lower to the right is the store of Messrs. Alexander and Sons, 
who brew their own "yel," called " Inkermann," which rapadura 
sugar makes a trifle more capitous than the pawkiest of Scotch 
barley braes, and which has rolled over many a stout fellow 
neatly as could a Kussian gun. Beer, which ancient Egypt, 
although she had no pale ale, sensibly preferred to the vine, 
should be heavily backed in Minas against spirits, especially 
Cachaca. Mr. Henry D. Cocking, of the Smiths' Department, 
brews at home ; he must, however, import his hops. To judge 
by the success of the Germans in western Sao Paulo, here also 
the fine tonic would flourish. Opposite Messrs. Alexander's is 
the large ranch of INIello and Co., where the black mmers make 
theii- purchases ; further on lies the old hospital, with its garden 
now occupied by the mining captain Andrew, and by Sr. 
Antonio Marcos da Rocha, once a servant of the Grongo Soco 
establishment, now "Ranger of Woods and Forests " at Morro 
Yellio. The road is protected by tree-trunks laid obliquely 
across it, and faced up with clay to serve as watercourses ; this 
is a common contrivance in the Highlands of the Brazil, and on 
some lines, especially in Sao Paulo, horses must step over a bole 
with ever}' second pace. 

Here the near view becomes passing pretty. The descent 
runs through an avenue of Coqueii'o palms, whose drupes, large 
as a score of grape bunches, hang about theii' necks. On either 
side is a meadow of " Angola grass " (Capim d'Angola, Panicum 
guineense), each rich green leaf eight inches long, by one and a 
half broad ; it is planted by joint-cuttings of the cane-like cuhn, 
and in the season it supplies per week three tons of sweet and 
succulent fodder. Unhappil}^ this fair site is the very centre of 
diphtheria. Above the meadow, and crowning a red yellow hill, 
is the Rev. Mr. Armstrong's parsonage, white and neat as his 
neck-tie. The wonderfully thin lancet windows, and a cross 
ultra-Rumic, distinguish the chapel amongst the scattered villas 
and rows of houses. 

To the right, on the near bank of the Ribeirao, heaps and 
banks of grey ore and crushed stone denote the "Praia AVorks."* 
A little tramway, 800 yards long, piercing tlie hillocks and 
crossing a pair of bridges, with one heavy filling and cuttings to 

* I shall rctui'n to these " Praia Works " iii Chapter 26. 


tlie extent of 788 cubic fathoms, connects them with head- 
quarters, and conveys from the spaling floors " i:)oor stuff"* to 
he worked shoukl an accident close the upper mines. Here also 
"launders"! or flumes with great fleet or inclination, bring 
down slimes and i-e fuse -tailings. The machinery which re-treats 
them consists of two wheels, and stam^js housed under a long tiled 

Ascending a dwarf hill — our last, let us be thankfid ! — we 
pass a neat Anglo-Indian bungalow, occupied by Mr. James 
Smyth, superintendent of the Negro department. On the other 
side of the Ribeirao gully are the brown tents denoting the 
" Mingu diggings," pj-ritiferous like the main lode. Further on 
are the large new Hospital and the medical quarters, where lodge 
Doctors M'Intyre and Weir. 

" Tranquillity House " has the prettiest of prospects ; but 
lovelier, ah! far lovelier, are the charms of "Galashiels," savs 
Dr. Weir, who with filial reverence hangs to his wall a print of 
the uncouth Scotch village. Still further on is the Catholic 
Chapel, literally all crosses ; outl3'ing crosses, inlying crosses, 
crosses in the air, — even the windows are crosses. To the 
primitive Christian what a scandal this would have been ! North 
of the valley is the " Morro Velho ; " a dark red scaur in its 
southern slope shows where the Brazilian owners hit their first 
gold, and where sundry huts were buried by a land-slip. The 
tall black cross was put up by Mr. Gordon, to ease the burden 
of his people ; formerly, on days ordered by the priest, they 
pilgrimaged over three rough miles, to the apex of the Curral 
d'El-Rei. The " Old Mount" gives a beautiful panorama, but 
in the " dirty bush" the King of the Carrap^tos holds his court, 
and he wiU hold it till ejected by Bahama grass, or some similar 
immigrant vegetation. 

Leaving to the left, on an eminence, the big white store of 
the Companj^ presided over by Messrs. George Morgan and 
]Matthew, we find the " Casa Grande," which must not be con- 
founded with the " Casas Grandes " of the Gila A^'alley. Here 
it is the Sui)erintendent's quarters, red tiled, painted with official 
yellow, vine-grown, and fronted by a verandah built to receive 

* " Mina Pobre. " 

+ Native miners call the launders "Mcanie," from "Inca," a spout. 


His Imperial Majesty. To the west, and facing at right angles, 
is the Sobrado, which acts " Guesten House," and where, 
although intending that our visit should last a week, we shall 
presently pass, on and off, a pleasant month of busy idleness, 
the ''best of all earthly blessings." This hospitable adjunct is 
found in all the old-fashioned establishments of the Brazil, and 
in the country towns, even now, a man Avill not take a tenement 
which wants the detached quarters where fiiends and strangers 
can be entertained. 

The scene strikes my unfamiliar e^ye as a mixture of Brazilian 
Petropohs and Neilgherry Ootacamund ; there is something 
English in the neat cottages, fronted by railed flower-beds, and 
the dark slatey stream ; with a savour of Switzerland in the 
high clear aii*, and the meshes of yellow pathways on both sides of 
the Piibeirao Gorge. But can we be within earshot of the Great 
Mine ? AVhere are the familiar features, the poisonous smoke, 
the vegetation " fuliginously green ? " AU around us are dot- 
tings of varied verdure, here a row of gigantic aloes, like the 
Socotrine, whose gold-green bands gain for them in the Brazil 
the title of " Independence Shrub." There we see a cedar, sole 
survivor of its ancient and noble race, proving that this valley 
was covered at one time, like the rest of the country, with virgin 
forest. The splendid snow-white trumpets of the Datm-a, popu- 
larly called Fig-tree of Hell,* depend from masses of verdure 
twelve feet high ; the fatal use of the seed, so common in India, 
where a caste of professional poisoners is called " Dhaturiyah," 
here belongs to negroes. The Melastomacese, of various species, 
varj^ in size from a mere bush to a tall tree : the Flor de 
Quaresma, or Lenten flower (Lasiandi-a mutabilis) t is beau- 
tiful in bloom of white, pink, and dark lilac, and the mauve- 
coloured bracts of the Brazilian Bougam\allea, here of unusual 
stature, are set off by the wild Fuchsia, brilliant with bloom 
of the richest scarlet, whilst the humbler growths of homely 
. England act foil to the gorgeousness and the sjolendour of 
the Tropics. 

* Figixeira do lufcnio." Tliis and It lias prohahly been introduced from Hin- 

" trombelleira" (trumpet-tree), are the dostan into Minas. 

general names for all varieties of the Da- t The bark of this tree is used as a black 

tura Estramonio, or Stramonium. The dye. 
common arbust is the Bi-ugmansia Candida. 


We have been riding four hours, we are hungry as hunters, 
and so, with another glance of admiration at externals, we bid an 
revo'ir to our good "master of the horse" and all his mules, we 
enter the hospitable house, and after the warmest of receptions, 
we suggest breakfast, which does not keep us waiting. 



" Quand la population sera plus considerable, et que les BresUiens sauront exploiter 
leurs mines d'une maniere reguliere, on en tirera des avantages qu'on ne prociirerait 
pas aujourd'hui sans faire d'imraenses sacrifices." — EscJuvege, Pluto, Bras. 7H. 

Sectiox I. 


Brazill\n travellers of the pre-Californian epoch, St. Hilaii'e* 
and Walsh for mstance, firmly believing that Dives must ever 
go to the Devil, were fond of exalting, a la Fenelon, those sill_y 
pseiulo-virtues,the golden mean. Frugality, Simplicity, Content, La 
Pauvrete, sa mission dans I'eglise, and so forth. They moralised, 
like St. Paul and Pliny, ad Vihitum upon the evils which gold does 
to mankind, and especially upon the evils which gold-digging has 
done to Minas and other places, by scratching up a vast extent of 
country, and by diverting industry from more profitable and 
enduring pursuits. Thej' adopted the sentimental view of the 
metal. Mammon still looked upon the trodden gold of Heaven's 
pavement. They remembered their " gold alone does passion 
move;" their "auri sacra fames," the "am'um ii-repertum," "etsic 
melius situm," the '*auri sanies," and "bane for the human race; " 

* " Gold mines discovered by audacious is to common sense what metaiiliysics are 

and enterprising men, swarms of adven- to physics. But the amiable author forgot 

turers settling upon riches announced with that Goyaz, a tyi)e of the inner Brazil, 

all the exaggeration of hope and desire ; a would have remained a luxuriant waste 

society formed in the midst of every crime, tenanted by cannibal "Indians "had not 

reduced into a semblance of order by mill- its mines attracted colonists. He ignored 

tary law, and softened l\v the burning sun the fact that the labours of these men have 

and the effeminate indolence of the climate ; laid the foundations for a vast superstruc- 

some moments of splendour and prodi- ture of iirogTess, by taming the ferocity of 

gality ; a melancholy decadence and ruins Nature, and by liberating posterity from 

— such is briefly the history of the Province the thraldom of mere animal wants. Thus 

of Goyaz ; such is the course of events in in our day desert California has become 

almost all gold-bearing countries." (St. under the gold-digger's hands the great 

Hil. III. i. 308 — 9). wine-gi'owing country of the West. 

Sentimentalisni is ^jcr se irrefutalile ; it 


whilst they forgot that the precious ore is a mere matter of traffic 
like timber, corn, and wine. The}' probably expected men to 
cultivate the miserable potato when their grounds grew guineas 
in diamonds and gold : they perhaps wished the peasant to throw 
back, on philanthropic principles, his gold and diamonds into the 
stream that yielded them. They instanced the decay of mining 
cities and villages, as though ruin were the result of disturbing 
the bowels of the earth — " a dispensation of Providence," as 
the_y call it who assume the pleasures and duties of directing the 
course of " Providence." Even the civilized Castelnau laments 
the " hochets de la vanite humaine," which prizes the diamond, 
ignoring the fact that it is a mere coin of higher value, an un- 
burnable bank-note. 

Far wiser in their generation were the Brazilian writers, who 
considered the miner, like the tiller of the ground, one of the 
State's twin-pillars. They justly attributed the decay of the 
mushroom mineral settlements to ignorance of physical science, 
and to the Avorkings of a destructive political system. They 
looked forward to the daj^s when " deep mining " will leave 
more land for agriculture, but they also knew that land is here a 
drug, and that mining soils are, as a rule, not worth cultivating. 
And they dismissed objections against mines of diamonds and 
gold as readily as if they had been levelled against mines of coal, 
copper, or lead. 

These chapters will show, I trust, that the exploitation of gold 
and diamonds has but just commenced in Minas Geraes, and indeed 
in all the Brazil. INIartim Alfonso de Souza, after touching at 
Pernambuco, Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro, cast anchor on August 
12, 1531, off the island of Cananea, now called Ilha do Abrigo — 
Isle of Shelter. There he found a certain Francisco de Chaves, 
known as the "Bacharel," who is said to have lived thirty years 
upon the seaboard, and who truly informed him that gold 
abounded in the near interior. The great voyager sent on 
September 1 of the same year a party of eighty men, com- 
manded by Pedro Lobo. This, the first Bandeira,* was destroyed 

* " Bandeira " is primarily a flag, Bandeira. " Martini AtTonso made an 

secondarily a troop under a flag ; the word unsuccessful expedition southward into the 

gained a wide significance in Sao Paulo, interior-, in search of mines, from which 

which, between 1550 and 175(), sent forth he returned with the loss of eighty Euro- 

thuse redoubtaljle Comandos which explored peans. " The great captain, who seems 

and conquered the interior. Southey(i. 43) never to have failed, sailed from Cananea 

has left a sadly garbled account of the first on Sept. 2t], 15.31, explored the Rio da 


b}' the barbarous Carijos and Tupj's ; a second set out to punish 
the savages, and thus tlie extraction speedily followed the discovery 
of the precious ore. Yet it may be truly said, that during these 
three centuries and a quarter, nothing has been done compared 
with what remains to be done. In California, we are told by 
Mr. J. W. Tajdor, that " notwithstanding the skilful application 
of hydraulic power and other improved machiner}', the production 
of gold by placer-mining* has diminished from sixty millions of 
dollars in 1853 to twenty millions in 186G." In most parts of 
Australia also, the sm-fxce -washings are exhausted, and the pick 
and pan men must make wa}" for companies with machinery and 
large means. The Brazil has still many an undiscovered 
" placer," but her great wealth lies deeply buried under ground. 

The gold-diggings of Minas Geraes, and especially those of 
Morro Velho, correct a popular scientific error. I remember 
how, a few years ago, a distinguished President of the Geological 
Societies used to show the gold formation with the wrist upturned 
and the fingers downwards, other metals being supposed to be 
deposited in the inverse way, little above and much below.t Dr. 
Couto's generalization is also, I believe, based on insufficient data, 
when he supports his favourite Lehmann's l^elief, + that the sun is 
the principal agent in the alchemy of gold, by asserting that mines 
here lie on the eastern slopes of mountains, rarely on other 
" rhumbs." On the other hand, here, as in Cornwall, the 
tendency to an east to west dii'ection of metalliferous veins has 
been remarked. It is popularly explained by the '' generally 
westerly direction of voltaic currents, connected with the general 
meridional direction of the magnetic needle." In the Brazil also 
the auriferous mountain chams are mostly meridional. Plin}- 
(xxxvii. 15) is right in asserting that the diamond, if his hexa- 
hedral " adamas " be not corundmn, but a true diamond, is 
mostly found in close proximity with gold. And we may remarlc 

Plata, and did not return northwards till " The Mining and Metallurgy of Gold and 

January, 1532. In the Discoiu-s prelimi- Silver," — I quote from a review). The 

naire prefixed by M. J. B. B. Eyi-ies same error, it appears, prevailed touching 

to " Jean Mawe," we read (p. xvi. ) "Ce the stanniferous deposits of Coi-nwall. 
fut en 1577 que Ton trouva les premieres + Art des Mines (i. 11). The theory in 

mines de ce m^tal." The popular error is the Brazil was that the soft yellow clay was 

that gold was first found in Jaragua, a moun- gradiaally dried, ripened, and "aurified." 
tain within sight of S. Paulo the city. t The faults and dislocations which in- 

* ' ' Grold ledges are not more liable than tersect and upheave metalliferous veins, and 

ordinary metalliferous veins to become im- which consequently are posterior in date, 

poverished in depth. " (Mr. J. A. Phillips, often intersect them at right angles. 



that, in this part of the Brazil at least, gold is invariahly 
accompanied l)y some form of iron. The same ma.y he said of 

The gold deposits of Minas Geraes may he divided into three 
formations, all the produce of primitive and metamorphic rocks,* 
These are : — 

1. Quartz or Cascalho gold;f 

2. Jacutinga; and 

3. Pyritic formations. 

All the specimens of quartz-gold shown to me at once sug- 
gested California and the Guinea Coast, and the works which I 
saw on the Sao Francisco Pdver were of the rudest description. 
Brazihans divide it into three kinds. The first is Ouro do Rio 
or da Corrego, *' stream ore" : it is either loose or embedded in 
pebbles, galettes, and kidneys of quartz, sandstone, granite, 
gneiss, " Itacolimiite," talcose-schist, or the conglomerate called 
Canga.t This gold, being deposited at different epochs by " rain 

* The auriferous quartz veins on tlie 
Pacific coast have proved that the deposits 
of ore are not confined to the Silurian 
epoch, as contended by Sir Roderick Mur- 
chison, but are also extended into the 
Jurassic period. I found no fossils which 
could mark the date of the Minas rocks. 

+ " Casc&Iho," or " Pedra de Cascalho," 
wlien large " Cascalhao," is a coarse gravel 
composed of many varieties of quartz, and 
supposed to be the matrix of gold and 
diamonds. I may suggest that it is tlie 
Spanish Segullo, the Segutilum of Pliny : 
the dictionaries, however, usually derive it 
fi'om " quassus " and " calcidus, " making 
it synonymoiis with " pedregulho, " or 
gi'avel. It is always rounded and water- 
rolled, opposed to the angular gurgulho — 
of which I shall presently speak. Some 
writers use the word, perhaps correctly, 
with gi-eat latitude. "0 Cascalho he com- 
pacto de fragmentos angulosos de quartzo 
e mineral de ferro argiloso, a que os 
mineiros chamao jicdra de Cawja " (Jose 
Bonifacio, Viagem Mineralogica, p. 9). So 
Southey (iii. 53) explains "Cascalho" to 
be ' ' hard gravelly soil in which the ore 
was embedded," and in another place 
(ii. 669) a " of earthy matter and 
gravel." Both definitions are equally in- 
eoiTect. The " Cascalho " may rest either 
upon the stone core which underlies the 
Neptunian fonnation, or upon the common 

clays of the country, or upon the loose 
sand called "Desmonte."^ There are 
minor divisions of "Cascalho" as "Cas- 
calho de Taboleiro," found on river banks 
and high lands : this is either rounded or 
angular. The " Cascalho do veio do rio " 
comes from the stream bed, and is always 
water-rolled. Again the ' ' Cascalho cor- 
rido " is that which is much worked by 
water, opposed to the "Cascalho Virgem" 
when it is pudding-stone shape. 

t The word must not be confounded 
with the Portuguese " Canga," a yoke. It 
is evidently a mutilation of " Acanga," in 
Tupy a head ; thus we find the names of 
places "Caia-Canga," monkey's head, and 
"Tapanhu 'acanga," nigger's head, from 
" Tapanh(ina " (vulgar corruption), a negro 
or negress. John Mawe (ii. 24) errone- 
ously writes this " Tapinhoa-Canga," and 
says " Conga est le nom de quartz ferrugi- 
neux." We have seen Jose Bonifacio give 
it to angular quartz fragments in argilla- 
ceous iron. It is a general term for any 
stone with an iron capping, and therefore 
called "Pedra de Capote" (cloaked stone) 
in Sao Paulo. Dr. Couto declares that it 
has often been applied to what is really 
ochraceous copper. 

Wo find in Pliny (xxxiii. 21) an allusion 
to these upper formations, the " gold 
that is thus found in the surface crust is 
knowTi to the Romans as ' talutium.' " 

^ For the latter the reader may see Ynl. 2, Chapter S. 

204 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [( hap. xxi. 

and livers," extended from the surface to twelve and even twenty 
feet below it. As a rule, liOAvever, it was soon exhausted. The 
second formation was known as " Ouro de Gupitira," gold of the 
roof, a term very variouslv explained.* Here the ore was mixed 
with the superficial clay, generally red, rarely black ; it was easily 
extracted and soon. The third kind of gold was termed " Ouro 
de Pedreiro," gold in stone, and was supposed to be supplied by 
little veins of quartz ramifying through rock. This, therefore, 
was the only true mine ; all the others were mere washings. 

In the Jacutinga, as in the quartz, the gold is visible and often 
free. But the precious ore is so minutely and mechanically 
disseminated in the p3"ritic formations, that it seems to be another 
metal. This is the natm-e of the Morro Velho mine, and this for 
ages to come will be the auriferous stone quarried in the Brazil. 
My account of it will be somewhat tedious. Deep gold-digging 
in arsenical and other pyrites is, however, so interesting, and the 
difficulty of separating the precious ore is so great, that every 
mite of information has its value. The description of the 
minerals will be mainly taken from the "Annual Assay Report 
for 1861," an able article bj'M. Ferdinand Dietzsch, the principal 
Reduction Officer of the Morro Velho Company. 

The auriferous ore delivered by this mine is composed of 
magnetic iron and arsenical pyrites, in a containmg rock of 
quartz. The specific gravity of the lode ranges between 3*8 
and 4*0. The composing minerals may be quoted in the following 
succession with respect to their metallic properties and relative 
value. It must be borne in mind that the formations pass into 
one another almost imperceptibl.y. 

* I believe tins word to lie a corruption Ijetter have said attached to the wall of 

of the Tupy " Copiara, explaiued hy the the dwelling-house. In Gardner we find 

Diet, as " alpendre, varanda, a shed or "copiara " corrupted to "copial," a ve- 

awning (verandah):" the people on the Sao randah ; but that good and 

Francisco River still use it for a tiled roof observant traveller gave little attention to 

supported by jjosts and without walls. languages. Burnieister prefers ' ' Grajii- 

Jose Bonifacio (yiagem 8) writes Guapiara ara," a common corruijtion in many parts 

(in which he is followed by Castelnan) and of the country. Mr. Harry Emanuel 

translates it " cascalho superficial," which (p. 56) explains " Grupiara " as "an 

follows conformably the irregularities of alluvial deposit whose surface shows it to 

the ground. St. Hilaire (I. i. 247) has be the xinused bed of a stream or river," 

rightly asserted, "on designe ce cascalho whereas it alhxdes to the eaves-like side 

par le mot de gupiara, a cause de la res- of a hill. I observe that that excellent 

semblance qu'oflrent la forme et la position scholar, Sr. J. de Alencar (in Iraeema, 

de sa couche avec les v^ritables gupiaras, p. 100, and other works) writes "Copiar," 

petits toits triangulaires qui s'avancent au- and Moraes (Diccionario da Lingua Por- 

dessus du pignon des maisons," — he had tugueza), "Gopiai-a. " 


1. iVi'seiiical p}T.-ites or niispickel* does not form a large pro- 
portion of the mineral, but it is the principal gold-bearer. Some 
specimens have yielded when assayed from twenty to forty oitavast 
per ton. More generally it is mixed with the magnetic pyriti- 
ferous matter, when it gives from sixteen to twenty oitavas of gold 
in assay, and from five to seventeen in reduction. It is the usual 
sihery-white or steel-coloured mineral, shining with metallic 
lustre, finely diffused in specks and dots, with a specific gravity 
when pure of 6'20. The Brazilian miner calls it " antimonio," a 
word explained by Dr. Couto to mean copper-pyrites, with iron and 
sulphur, cubical or hexahedral, well crystallized and coloured like 
pale gold. The country people declare " that there is much fii'e 
in it." It is evidently subject, when joined Avith other bodies, to 
combustion, as slioAvn b}' tlie old experiment of making artificial 
volcanoes by burying in the earth a paste composed of iron-filings 
and sulphur, kneaded together with Avater. 

2. Common iron (Martial) pyrites (Fe Su-), Marcasite or 
Mundic,! is more abundant than No. 1, but it is far inferior in 
auriferous yield. Almost pure specimens, with a sHght admix- 
ture of quartz, give eleven oitavas per ton, the yellow stone of the 
" West Quebra Panella Mine" gives only six, and when the grams 
of the larger crystals are embedded in quartz, the per-centage is 
even less. A superabundance of iron pyrites is almost as 
antagonistic to gold as a preponderance of the quartz leaven. 

* According to Berzclius (FeS- + Fe As"), or ^Fc S- + Fe As). The proiiortioas are 
variously stated, e.'j. 

Iron . . . . 36-04 36-00 

Arsenic . . . . 42-88 42-90 

Sulphur . . . . 21-08 21-10 

100-00 100-00 

+ The old Portuguese gold weights, still preserved, are, — 
2g gi-aius =: 1 \antem. 
5 vintens = 1 tostilo or tustao. 
32 vintens = 1 oitava ( = 1 Jg drachm avoirdupois). 
8 oitavas = 1 on9a or ounce. 
8 ounces — 1 niarco. 
2 marcos = 1 lb. 
The popular gold -weight is the oitava = the eighth pai-t of 8-6742 of our ounce Trov, 
and 104 oitava.s = 1 lb. Troy. 

I cannot understand w hy the English Mining Companies in the Brazil persist in sending 
iu large accounts calculated by oitav;i.s instead of ounces and pounds. What can be more 
ridiculous than such figures as 8 oitava.s ( = 1 oz.), 16 oitava.s, and so forth ? 

The oitava of course varies with the quality of gold and the rate of exchange. That of 
IVEorro Velho, averaging 19 carats, is now (July, 1867) = 3 | 454, and the ounce is 
27 $ 63-2. 

%. Comishmcn have stated that "luundic rides a good iu the Brazil as well as 
in Cornwall." This is true of many minerals, but not, I believe, of gold. 


A working miner compared the latter to the soil, the former to 
its manm-e. It is liable also to spontaneous combustion Avlien 
decomposed by contact Avitli moisture. The mineral has the 
noi'mal metallic lustre and brassy 3'ellow colour, it is found in 
minute dots of well diffused metal, in cubes and in crystallized 
masses, each face half an inch and more in breadth. Although 
it readily tarnishes, the ignorant often mistake it for gold, and it 
is scattered in large deposits about the valley of the Sao Francisco 
Biver, and in the Provinces of Minas and Sao Paulo. My dis- 
tinguished friends, the Commendador Jose Yergueii'o of Ybicaba, 
and the Deputy Antonio de Souza Prado D. C. L. of Sao Paulo, 
showed me specimens of it. The former fomid them upon his 
estate near Rio Claro, the proposed terminus of the Santos 
and Jundiahy Railway, and the latter brought them from the 
Cavern of Paranapanema, about eightj?^ direct miles Avest-south- 
west of Sao Paulo the city. 

8. Magnetic ii'on pyrites* or proto- sulphur et of iron, forms 
the largest yield of pyritic matter, but in assay it shoAvs small 
gold contents, rarely exceeding 1*50 to 2 oitavas per ton. It 
occurs in the usual hexagonal crystals, foliated, sometimes 
massive and of fine brassy lustre. 

4. The quartz matrix is mostly Avliite or greyish, sometimes 
smok}^, blue-black, and black. Pure and AA'ithout pyrites, it Avas 
formerly supposed never to contain gold ; but of late six pieces, 
some say tAVo or three pieces divided into six, have been found 
Avitli the precious ore embedded in them. Quartz is generally 
mixed Avith pyrites of the highest am-iferous qualities, and Avlien 
it forms the staple, as in the West Bahia and the Champion 
grounds, the AA'hole body yields a fair* average. It AA'as soon 
remarked that the ore often appears poor in pyrites, but that the 
pyritiferous matter produces as much as 3'66 oitavas per ton. 
In places the quartz is invaded by "capel," hard, AA'hite, and 
poor quartzose matter, gTeatly distorting the contiguous con- 
taining rock, and presenting in ca\ities magnetic iron pj-rites, 
spathose ii'on, and crystallized copper pyrites. 

* Tlic forimila io (Fc Su- + 6 Fc Su) or (Fc* Su^ + ii Pc Su) : tiic pioportioufj 
vary, e.y. 

Sulphur . . . 36-5 40-4 

Iron . . . . 63 "5 5D'G 

lUO-00 100.00 


5. Cliiy slate, sonietiines cliloritic (micaceous), mostly talcose 
(niaguesia and silicic acid), called by the English miner " Idllas." 
It is amorphous or laminated, generally of dull leaden colour, 
and exceedmgiy hard ; it traverses the containing rock in places 
and protrudes into the lode, "teeth" or small branches, "horses" 
or large masses, and " bars" or di\ddiiig walls. Much of it has 
no amiferous pyrites, and even the highly charged parts rarely 
afford more than two to three oitavas of gold in assay, or one 
half to three-quarters of an oitava at the works. The yield is 
pronounced bad when the killas and quartz exceed the pyrites, 
middling when they are nearly equal, and good when the pjTites 
is in excess.* This clay slate is separated as much as is possible 
from the ore before the latter is forwarded to the stamps, and 
thus the whole body of mmeral is brought up to a liigher 
standard than the bullv received from the mine. As the subjoined 
figures "s^ill show,t the large quantities of valueless stuff cause 
great delay in the " spalling floors;" and "killas" stamped 
together with rich stone, occasions a heavy loss in fine free gold. 

The gold daily treated in the Eeduction works is derived from 
an intimate mixture of these minerals. The rarer formations 
are — 

Calcareous spar, commonly called " pearl spar." This system 
of carbonate of lune is found in modified rhombohedra, hard but 
cleavable, usually white and crystalline, but sometimes of a 
delicate pink, with the appearance of marble. I saw a specimen 
of it adhering to the lode in its transition to Idllas. 

* Sometimes, however, the I'ichost oro does not contain more than fifty per cent, 
of pyrites. 

t About 300 tons of stuff, more in the wet .season, less in the dry weather, pay the 
daily expenses of the mine : 400 tons give a fair profit. 

During the six months, March to August, 1866, we have the following computation : — 

The mineral raised from the mine, a total of . . . . . 53,698 tons. 

During the previous six months ....... 46,029 ,, 

During the six months ending August, 1S05 . . ... 40,014 ,, 

The killas rejected at head-quarters, "1 

but re-treated at the Praia Works ^ 22,383 tons, or 40 per cent, on quantity raised, 
amounted to . . . • ■ J 

During the previous six months . 17,10S ,, 36'G ,, 

During the six months ending August, ),,,,- „„ . 

1865 i ^-'^ ' " "'^ 

The average jield of gold per ton raised w;is 5 "974 oitavas. 

During the previous six months ,....,. 6 '328 ,, 

Duiing the six months ending August, 1865 .... 4 '885 ,, 

The average yield of gold per ton stamped wa-: . . . . 11 "048 ,, 

During tlie previous six JHoiiths ....... 9 "988 ,, 

During the six months ending August, 1S65 . . ... 6 '458 ,, 


Spathic ironstone, or carbonate of ii'on. It apj^ears in obtuse 
rhombohecb-a, with faces often curvilinear. Some pieces, of a 
dirty yellow coloiu", stand erect, and resemble fisli scales. 

Chlorite is found in large lumps of a copperas-green colour ; 
it sometimes stains with a pretty, light glaucous tinge the 
adjacent rock-crystal. In Morro Velho it contains iron pyrites, 
but no gold ; this, however, is not the case throughout the 
Province of Minas. 

Arragonite, in white vesicular crystals. Curious specimens 
are shown with magnetic iron pyrites adhering to the sm'face. 

Traces of copper, crystalhzed and am()r})hous, have been 
found in the lode and the containing rock, but they have not 
been examined. 

Silver in Minas, as elsewhere, is the general alio}' of gold.* 
The mine which the Jesuits ancientl}^ worked near Sorocaba 
was, some say, this "electrum;" others believe it to have been 
galena highly argentiferous. The ore of ]\Iorro Velho contains 
silver in chemical combmation with other substances, and it is 
not extracted on the spot. A report once prevailed that silver 
attained the proportion of 16'50 per cent, of the lode. The bar, 
or ingot, contains 19^ to 20 per cent, of silver. 

Section II. 


Portugal, the western termmus of Rome's conquests, remains 
to the present day the most Roman of Latin countries. Her 
language ai)proaclies nearest to the speech of the ancient mis- 
tress of the world. Her people still preserve the stvu-diness and 
jjerseverance, often degenerating into dogged obstuiacy ; the tur- 
bulent love of liberty ; the materialism and unartistic spirit ; the 
conservatism and love of routine ; the superstition and the lust 
of " territorial aggrandisement," which distinguished the former 
conquerors of the world. Even in the present day, the traveller 
in Portugal sees with astonishment the domestic life of Rome, her 
poetry and hterature, her arts and sciences ; and the archaic 
form of civilization has extended even to the Brazil ; here, 

* "In all gold ore there is some silver, Pliuy aomew hat overstates the universality, 
in vaiying proportions : a tenth part in Init he errs only in degi-ee. 
home instances, an eighth in otlier«." 


although so far removed from its ethnic centre and mixed with 
a variety of jarring elements, it is easily recognized. 

The admirable old naturalist, Pliny, telling us how " gold is 
found," describes three dilierent ways. The first is by washing 
the sand of running waters for stream ore ; the second is by 
sinking shafts or seeking it among the debris of mountains ; and 
the third method of obtaining gold ("which surpasses the labours 
of the giants even") is by the aid of galleries driven to a long 
distance. The folloAving sketch of gold-mining in the Brazil 
will show how little the Roman system has been changed since 
A.D. 50. 

The fii'st exploitation was by simply pamiing the auriferous 
sand taken from the stream-beds, and this we shall see practised 
to the present day. The next method was the "lavra," or 
superficial w^ashing. The humus was stripped off with the hoe, 
and the red-gold clay, or the auriferous " cascalho " (gravel and 
sand) was cut into squares and lines b}' shallow trenches. The 
washers alwaj's chose an inclined plane, and a head stream was 
conducted to the cuttings by split bamboos or hollow trees. 
This simple " hydraulicking " carried down the free channel 
gold — the canaliciimi, or canaliense of Pliny — which was arrested 
by grass sods or blankets ; these were afterwards washed in a 
" coche," or trough ; the dust was then panned in a gamella, 
or carumbe,* and this eiuled the simple process. A slight 
improvement in these " stream works " was made by the 
*' canoa," an oblong of bricks, tiles, or rough planldng, which 
facilitated the washing of the " pay-dirt." In the Far West this 
industry still prevails ; it disappears with the exhaustion of 
those superficial deposits of gold which more or less have existed 
in every known coimtr}- of early formation. The effect of such 
washing was to leave the land a " caput mortuum of stubborn 
sterility " which can only be cured by manurmg,t an operation 
beyond the means of the actual Brazil. Other wild "washing" 

* The "Gamella" useil in golJ-wasliing t It Ls .suiJ that eveu iu these Lrick-likc 

is larger thau the " batea " (explaiiicii in soils coffee ami sugar, at any rate manioc 

Chap. 12), flat, round, ami lacking the and maize, can be grown in holes filled 

hollow i)oint in the centre. The " Ca- with a mixture of earth and manure. The 

mmbe," or " Carumbeia," is a .small pits arc dug at inten'als of .six feet, they 

gamella. According to St. Hil. it i.s the are one foot in diameter and about the 

"Indian" term for the "ecaille de tortuc." same depth. I have not had an oppor- 

In the country parts the doi-sal armour of tuuity of seeing a gold field thu.s treated, 
the aiTuadillo is still used ;vs a pouch or 


contrivances will be noticed in the following pages, as they 
present themselves on the river and the road. 

The "cata," or pit, has ah-eady been alluded to; from these 
holes gold in grain and nuggets — the pelagte and palacurnas of 
Plin}' — was extracted, after which the ground was supposed to 
be "worked out. This sj^stem, lilce the " lavra," was peculiarly 
the work of the " Garimpeiro,"* the contrabandist and free 
lance. The first improvement which required more hands, and 
especially slave-labour, w'as the open cut called " tallio aberto," 
or Socavao. Some of these works, the " Carapucuhu " at 
Jaragua, for instance, near Sao Paulo, are extensive ; but suffi- 
cient slope was not given to the banks, shoring up was not 
judged necessary, and the sides being Avell undermined, fell in. 
Thus a few negroes were crushed; their "almas," or ghosts — 
much dreaded in the Brazil — haunted the spot, and soon hunted 
away the stoutest hearts. 

The most enterprising tried the " Serrilho," which we trans- 
late " shaft ;" t it w-as, how'ever, generally an inclined plane, a 
mixture of shaft and gallery. The precious metal was attacked 
with charges half powder, half sawdust ; the slaves bore in 
buckets or wooden platters auriferous matter to a water-mill, 
working, perhajjs, a pair of iron-shod stamps upon a hard, flat 
stone. The operations were carried on under a shed, alwaj'S 
placed for better surveillance near the owner's house. AVlien the 
" batea " and " gamella " had done their work, a rude amalgam 
was sometimes tried, as in early California, and the loose mer- 
cury was recovered b}' squeezing through leather. They retorted 
it by placing the amalgam in a heated brass vessel, covered with 
green leaves. The latter, when parched, Avere removed Avitli the 
sublimated globules on the inner surface. But the Brazilian 

^ Sometimes written as pronounced, i>eails wliich have fallen from decayed piles 

" Grimpeiro : " it is the S])anish "Gam- of oystcrH into the sand, 
bnsino," made familiar liy M. Gustave f " Shaft " is liere used of wells or pits 

Aimard and Captain Mayne Eeid. The open to the surface, whether pei-pendicular 

" Garimpo " is the place where he works, or not, the "whin-shaft" raises the ore 

the word is still applied depreciatingly to to the surface : " sinkings " are downward 

any digging on a small scale. Garimpeiro excavations, " levels " when horizontal, or 

corresponds with our "night jossecker," nearly so, and "risings," those that ascend, 

men who employ tlie hours of darkne-ss in The "a<lit," or "adit-level," is the chief 

robbing rich holes of superficial gold. drainage tunnel cut to the surface at the 

According to the Dictionaries, which ignore lowest co7ivenient spot : " levels " gene- 

"Gai-impo," " Garimpeiro " is a Brazilian rally are horizontal galleries excavated in 

word : Moraes suggests that it is a coiTup- metalliferous veins, and "cross-cuts'" 

tion of Aripeirn, from Aripar, to collect those in non-metalliferous. 


miner was ever careless about timbering and walling ; lie little 
regarded lighting or ventilation ; the Davy and the Geordie were 
equalh' unknown to him ; he ignored pumping on a large scale, 
and thus, when his mine became Avatered, he was compelled to 
quit it. Rude, however, as was his system, we shall see that it 
has been adopted by all the best English miners of the present 
day, and that the latter have been satisfied with a few and 
unimportant improvements. 

Section III. 

The first English Company dates from 1824, and was known 
as the Gongo Soco, or " Imperial BraziHan Mining Association." 
The diggings, which we shall presently pass, were in S. lat. 
19° 58' 30'', and W. long. 43° 30',* about forty-eight miles north- 
west of Ouro Preto, and twenty-four miles south-east of INIorro 
Velho. Barometric measurements by the Austrian mining 
engineer, M. Virgil von Helmreichen, place it 3360 feet " above 
the sea at Eio de Janeiro." Gongo Soco was in the then muni- 
cipality of Caethe ; now in that of Santa Barbara. 

The first owner was a Coronel Manoel da Camara de Noronha, 
who dug about the middle of the last century.f His son Isi- 
doro, who died in poverty, sold it about 1808 for 9000 crusados 
to the Commendador and Capitao Mor Jose Alves da Cunha, a 
Portuguese, and to his nephew by marriage, the Barao de Catas 
Altas. The former, about 1818, pushed levels into the true 
lode, on the flanks of the " Tejuco Mount;" and it is said that 
l)efore 1824 he extracted in one month 480 lbs. of gold. The 
Baron inherited the property, bought out bj" private arrangement 
all others who had claims upon it, and offered it for sale. 

]Mr. Edward Oxenford, who had travelled in the Brazil as a 
Mascate, or itinerant merchant, returned to England, advocated 
the purchase, and was sent by the Association to examine the 
site, m comi)any with Mr. 'I'regoning, as chief mining captain. 

* The observations wei'o taken liv yU: Ldiidon, Edin., and Dul). Phil. Mag. and 

WilliaTii Jory Hen wood, F.R.S., F.(t.S. , Journal of Science, June, 1848. 
Chief Commissioner of the Gold Mines of f I\Ir. "Walsh is in error when he a.?Rerts 

Gongo Soco, Cata Preta, et«., et<'. : this that a Portuguese named Tdtturcourt, and 

scientific man is still, I believe, living. father of Isidoro, first worked the banks of 

His papers were printed in the Phil. Mag. the (iongo Kiver, 
1846, xxviii., pp. 3(54 — 6, and in the 

p 2 


The reports were favourable. The Baron parted with his rights 
for ^670,000 (others say ^£80,000), and the sanction of the 
Imperial Government was obtained on Sept. 16, 1824, on con- 
dition of receiving the annual " quinto," — curiously high, 
twenty-five per cent, of gold extracted. This was close upon 
the " all-speculating year, 1825," when one of 999 speculations 
was the " Potosi, La Paz, and Peruvian INIining Association." 
How little creditably to national honour ended that " grande et 
belle entreprise," the reader may see in the lively pages of 
Mr. Edmond Temple.* 

In 1825 Gongo Soco was visited by Caldcleugh, who could 
not enter the mine, the owner being absent. In March, 1827, 
the first superintendent, CVqitain Lyon, took command. This 
is Lieutenant Lyon, P.N.,f who travelled to the Fezzan, where 
Mr. Pitchie, chief of the mission, died of anxiet}- and bilious 
fever, on Nov. 20, 1819. He also bought the Morro Velho 
ground from its owner, Padre Freitas, and sold it to the " S. John 
Del Pey " Company. The speculation prospered. In December, 
1827, the quint paid at Ouro Preto was i£20,982. Gongo Soco 
had become an English village in the tropics, with its church 
and chaplain consecrated by the Bishop of London, and the 
forty original hands had increased to 180 Englishmen, assisted 
by 600 free labourers and blacks. I Mr. Walsh, who visited the 
place in 1828, draws a pleasant picture, and the ground is said 
to have already produced 736 lbs. of gold. 

In 1830 Captain Lyon was succeeded by Colonel Skerrett, who, 
by judicious military discijiline, kept the mine in " apple-pie 
order ; " he introduced the excellent system of making the 
negroes their own " feitors," or overseers. Colonel Skerrett 
left because his salary was not increased from i^2000 to £3000 ; 
the Company, as often happens, showed itself penny wise and 
pound foolish, and thus lost a valuable servant. The decline 
and fall of the establishment at once began. 

* "Travels in Tarious Parts of Peru, t During the first year, when the greatest 

including a Year's Residence iu Potosi," liy depth was three fathoms, the employes, 

Edmond Temple, Knight of the Koyal and including forty Englishmen, numhered 450. 

Distinguished Order of Charles 111. In The highest number was 217 Europeans, 

2 Vols. Colburn and Bentley, 1S30. The 200 Brazilians, and 500 slaves. When the 

nai-rative makes one blush for the Potosi mine was " broken " there were 14 Euro- 

&c. IMining Association. peans and 447 slaves. 
^ t Dr. Gardner calls him the " Korthem 
Yo'ager, " 


After Colonel Skerrett c-iiue Mr. George Vincent Duval, in 
1840-2. About this time it was visited by Dr. Gardner, who 
describes it as a thick stratum of ferruginous Itacolumite, with 
an inclination of 45°, and based upon clay slate, containing great 
masses of ironstone. Upon the Itacolumite lies a bed of auri- 
ferous Jacutinga, fifty fathoms thick, and upon this again is 
Itacolumite. About half a mile to the south of the mine he 
found a couch of crystallized and highly stratified limestone, 
cropping out at the same angle and in the same direction as the 
other rocks. He visited seven of the nine levels, each separated 
b}' seven fathoms, and thus he saw 294 of 378 feet. These 
galleries, pierced through the soft Jacutinga, were four to five 
feet wide and five to six feet high ; they were strongl}- lined with 
eighteen-inch timbers of the hardest Brazilian wood, yet the 
logs were broken and crushed by the weight. The chief vein ran 
east to west ; there were, however, many shoots or ramifications 
which gave gold in bunches — as much as 100 lbs. had been taken 
out in one day. The rich ore was washed and pounded in 
mortars. It was concentrated at fu'st by common panning, 
afterwards b}^ amalgamation ; the poorer stuff was sent to the 
stamping-mills, and then washed. Dr. Gardner found the 
machmery here inferior to that of Cocaes. 

But now appeared the truth of the Miner's axiom, " Better a 
low standard and high produce, than a high standard and low 
produce." From 1837 to 1847 the Brazilian Government libe- 
rally reduced its quinto to twenty per cent. Jacutinga is 
essential!}' a "weather-cock mine;" unlike those whose matrix 
is the rock, it may be rich to-daj', and worthless to-morrow. 
The deep running lines could not be followed, and the expense 
of posts and stanchions, walling every foot, was enormous. 
Mr. Henwood then assumed command, and was followed by a 
committee consisting of Mr. John Morgan (senior), Dr. Hood, 
and others. This republican rule ended the matter, and reads 
a valuable lesson. In 1850 the Government compassionately 
diminished its claims to ten per cent.; in 1853 to five per cent.; 
and in 1854 foreigners were placed on the same footing as 
national industry, and laboured untaxed. The large working 
capital — too large, indeed, at first — became insufficient, and 
between 1854-6 the Company expended the whole of a reserve 
fund which had accumulated for years. The water entered ; the 


liiatrix was sopj^ed to the foundations, and the workmen were 
drowned out, — the fault of nobody but of the drainage. In 
1S57 the Commendador Francisco de Paula Santos, to whom 
150 contos were owed b}' the propert}^ embargoed the negroes, 
as he had a right to do by Brazilian law, and presently 
became owner of the mming property. Gongo Soco died deeply 
regretted ; it had spread itself into the branch -mines of Boa 
"\"ista, Bananal or Agua Quente, Socorro, Campestre, Catas 
Altas, Cata Preta, and Inficionado ; it had fed and fee'd the 
country for thii'ty leagues aromid, and it had netted nearly 

FoUowed (AprU, 1830) the " S' John Del Key," of whose 
origin I have given an account. In 1835 it was transferred to 
Morro Velho, whilst still preserving the name which appeared 
in the Company's original contract. The misnomer sounds like 
the " Exeter Mine at Triu'o." I retaui, however, the compli- 
cated l:)arbarism, which distmguishes it fi'om another Sao Joao 
mine, merely remarldng that such hybrid words should be 
banished from all our maps. For ten years after its removal 
the " S^ John " did little, and often that little was in the wrong 
direction. In 1845 its royalty was lowered from ten to five per 
cent. ; in 1855 a reduction of one per cent, per annum was made 
till the extinction of the tax ; and after 1859 it was reheved of 
the onus. Dming that year it began to yield five oitavas per 
ton, where before it had given two ; the reader will presently see 
the reason why. 

In due succession came up the " Cata Branca" (1832-3), with 
the Morro das Almas, m the municipality of Ouro Preto ; the 
great Cocaes Company (1833-4), f in Santa Barbara, including 
its branches Cuiaba, Caethe, and Macahiibas, ^\ith its neighbour, 
Brucutu ; and the short-lived Serra da Candonga Company, in 
the Serro do Frio, which ended after two to three years. 

* Tlie figures usually given show a national benefit of some £333,180, thus ex- 
pressed : — 

Paid royalty to the treasury £310,777 } ^^t. Moraes, £338,180). 
,, export duty . . 22,403 ] > > . 

According to Lt. Aloraes this Company extracted 34,528,098 lbs. of gold (20 -car at 
thus laid out : — 

Expenses £1,013,253 

Income 1,388,416 

Profit £375,163 

+ Gardner, Cliap. 13. I have given some details in Chap. 41. 


Except Cocaes, -wliicli still lingers on, these associutions lasted 
till 1844-5 and 1850. The failures atlected the London market, 
and gold-mining in the Brazil was not looked upon with favour. 
Here, as elsewhere in South America, the vast treasures pro- 
mised by Montesquieu, Robertson, and Humboldt, were not 
realised, or rather were realised to a certain extent, and— 
diverted. Convey the wise it call. 

After 1859, when Morro Velho had "rehabilitated" speculation 
in the Brazil, — which bore blame when she deserved every praise, — 
other Companies cropped up. Minas had five : the " Este Del 
Rey," including the Lavras do Capao and the Papafarinha, near 
Sahara,* and the Paciencia and S. Vicente, near Ouro Preto ; the 
Norte Del Rey, in the Morro de Santa Anna, including the 
Maquine Mine;t the London and Brazilian Gold-Mining Com- 
pany (Limited), at Passagem, near Marianna ; t the " Rossa 
Grande Company," in the municipality of Caetlie,| and the 
Santa Barbara-cum-Pari, | in the municipality of that name. 
There is a sixth — the " Montes Aureos Gold-Mining Company 
(Limited)," establishment in Maranhao ; but I see that it is ah'eady 
in the market. The total capital of these estabhshments is 
usually set down at 5£600,000. Only two, the Morro Velho and 
the Maquine mines, have as j^et paid ; the Passagem Mine has 
not paid, but jirobably will pay, and the rest have been failures — 
a dozen and a-half losses to two and a-lialf successes. 

In the Brazil a gold mine may begin work economically 
enough. The owners of diggings which are supposed to be 
exhausted wiU generally sell cheap, and many would be contented 
with a fair per-centage on profits. The sum of i'4G,000 suffices 
for pm'chasing stock and rolling stock, for building, and for 
putting up one set of stamps, — say thiily-six head, which work, 
durmg the twelve hours, fifteen tons of ore, through grates of 
a sufficiently fine bore. Assuming the average yield of gold at 
five oitavas per ton, this Avould produce annually iilO,000 ; the 
mine might be put in proper stope within the thii'd year, when 
it should begin to pay. This easy effort of prudence would test 
its aptitude for good or evil, without seriously damaging the 
shareholders, so often victimised under the present reckless 
system, and without gi^ing to the country an undeserved bad 
reputation in the markets of Europe. 

« (Jha].. 41. t Chap. :J4. t C\u\>. 20. 


After reading a variety of reports,* I am able to describe the 
actual way of "getting up " an English Gold-mining Company, 
Limited (as to profits), in this section of the Brazilian California. 
A " chief commissioner," quasi self-created, one of the " Twenty- 
years-in-the-country-and-speak-the-language men," begins by 
laying before the British public a synopsis of advantages to 
be derived by the actionnaircs. His experience must tell the 
following flattering tale in seven chapters. My readers need not 
suppose from this Demoeritic treatment of the subject that I am 
not in earnest. So was old Rabelais when he wrote, "En 
ycelle bien cultre gouste trouuerez et doctrine i^lw^ absconce ; " 
and no one laments more than I do the dishonoiu" which such 
cliaiiatanism has brought upon the EngUsli name in the Brazil, 
to mention no other parts of South America. 

1. The mme to be is situated in a good central district, close 
to the capital and to other great cities — the " astu " here is a 
mere village in Europe. If not so placed by Nature, it can 
easily be made so by the simple process of subtracting distance. 

2. The pasture, the supply of timber and fuel, and especially 
the water, are abundant and of the best quahty. 

3. The ore, the lay of the lode, and the formation and the 
mineral characteristics generally, are similar to those of " St. 
John Del Bey." It may be well to invent some such high- 
sounding and well-known names as " West Del Bey" or " South 
Del Bej^," upon the same principle which till late years called 
all coal " Wall's End." If invidious comparisons are required, 
an allusion maj'' be made to the failures of Gongo Soco, Cocaes, 
and Cuiaba. 

4. The original Brazilian owner made a large fortune before 
the works fell in, and the miners were drowned out. Anything, 
however, can be " done by an English Compan}- and Cornish 

5. The lode is from ten to thirteen feet wide at grass ; it is 
at as shallow an horizon as possible, situated above some valle}', 
so that the facility of draining b}' adits and openings is "of no 
common order." 

6. The dwelling-houses are in a very dilapidated state, neces- 

* I can especially commend the Report yearly at the meeting of the Proprietors) : 
of the St. John Del Eey Mining Company, the system is excellent, and it gives at a 
(Tokenhouse Yard, now presented half- glance all the information required. 


sitating (luam i^t'lmuni a Casa Grande for Mr. Commissioner, and 
similar outla}'. 

7. This splendid field for mining operations mnst prove imme- 
diately remunerative to shareholders ; it is an " aftair of facts 
and figures " — an " investment rather than a speculation." 
Finally, if the pretensions are to be of the highest order, there 
must be diamonds and other deposits of which the reporter 
" abstains from speaking." 

Thus the Company will be formed ; money will be spent, 
nothing will be made, and, in due time, dissolution will be the 
denouement. Emi)hatic<illy true in modern Minas Geraes is the 
Spanish proverb : — 

" A silver mine brings misery, a gold mine ruin." 

Nothing is easier than to suggest a ready and efficient remedy 
for this undesirable state of affairs. The simplest exercise of 
induction and deduction of reason and experience shows the 
necessity of obtaining accurate knowledge before entering upon 
such speculations. There ought not to be any difficulty in 
finding a confidential man sufficiently versed in mming and 
mineralogy, and, to speak plam English, above taking the bribes 
Avhicli will assuredh' be off^ered to him. His report should be 
final, without any regard to the small fr}^ of local traders and 
shopkeepers, — all, of course, merchants and esquires — who, 
expecting to profit by the outlay, volunteer golden opinions 
touching the new mme. 

It is said that the Englishman going to India, left his con- 
science at the Cape, and forgot to take it up on his return. I 
know not where Europeans deposit these troublesome articles 
when bound for the Brazil, or whether they care to recover them 
when en route homewards. It is, however, a melancholy truth that, 
in this country, honesty seems to be the smallest item of the 
adventurer's stock-in-trade. In the mines, as in the railways of the 
Brazil, the fault, the cause of failure, lies, I repeat, not with the 
Brazilians, but at our door. There has been the grossest mis- 
management both at home and abroad. Private interests have 
been preferred to public ; in certain notorious cases a system of 
plunder has been organized ; impossible schemes have been floated 
through the market ; the merest speculators have Avaxed rich ; 
economy has been wholly neglected, and money has been buried 


as though it were expected to grow. The most lamentable result 
is the Mse conviction in Europe that the seed of capital cannot 
be sown profitably in the Brazil, when there is no country where, 
jjroperly husbanded, it would bear a better crop. 

The Morro Vellio Mine has opened a new chapter in provincial 
history, proving that, even under adverse circumstances, much 
may be effected b}" men of honesty and energy, combined with 
scientific and practical knowledge of their profession ; and I 
may end this sketch by expressmg my conviction that we have 
well-nigh killed the goose that lay the golden eggs, and that 
until the present process shall be radically changed, it is better 
to leave the gold in the bowels of the earth. 

On the other hand, I have something to say about the attitude 
of the Brazil in tliis matter. 

*' What does the mine pay to the State?" ask the well- 
educated. " These strangers carry all the gold out of our land," 
say the vulgar, who would see unmoved a shanty surmounting 
a gold moimtain. Lt. Moraes* speaks of seven English com- 
panies, " exploitant an profit de I'Angieterre les richesses incal- 
culables que la Nature a enfouies dans le sol bresilien." He 
calculates that between 1860-3 the Morro "N^elho Mine should 
have em-iched the Treasmy by "pres un milhon de francs." 

But in its highly liberal jiolicy the Brazilian Government was 
emphatically right. The educated and the vulgar, wdio look only 
to monies actually paid, and who fancy that enormous indirect 
benefits mean nothmg, are as emphatically wrong. Had the 
Imperial impost not been removed from the Morro Velho and 
other establishments these must have been ruined. Those in 
power happily had the com'age to assist their " Do ut des," in 
opposition to the " dog-in-the-manger " polic}', which is that of 
all half-civilised peoples. 

" Brazileirismo " in the Brazil, and Americanismo in the 
Hispano-American repubUcs, are never so rampant as when 
boasting of their country, a vanity even vainer than that of 
vaunting one's birth. The " torrao abencoado " (Heaven-blest 
soil) has past into the category of chaff. The sun, the moon, 

* Rapport partiel sur le Haut San- million of francs (400 contos or ^40,000). 

Francisco (Paris, Parent, 1866). This And he would have thrown it all away on 

officer calculates that between 1860 — 1863 a fanciful canal between the Eio Preto and 

(four years), the Morro Velho Mine should the Parnagua Lake, in order to imitate the 

have paid into the Brazilian Treasury one Hudson-Chaniplain. 


the stars, are subjects of popular braggadocio. "You have no 
such moon as that in France," I heard a Brazilian say to a 

" No," was the reply : " we have a poor old night-hght, well- 
nigh worn out ; but it is still good enough for us." 

Hence there is prodigiously *'tall talk" concerning the mag- 
nificent Empire, the wondrous Land of the Southern Cross, A\ath 
its mighty wealth and its splendid destiny. Whatever the latter 
may be, the riches are still in the ground, and the nation is 
undoubtedly poor. The capitalist will not, it is a truism to say, 
liazard money in a far country, Avhen it would make as much at 
home ; and the many risks to which he is exposed must raise 
his per-centage of profits. 

I conclude, therefore, that if the Brazilian Government listen 
to that bad adviser, the General Voice, it will not deserve better 
foi-tune than what has befallen English minmg and English 
railways in the Brazil. 

As yet, however, let me repeat, the Government in question 
has displayed exceptional sagacity. 



" The best time I can get for maturing a commercial scheme or planning a sea- 
voyage, is at church, while the preacher is preaching. Away from the care 
and bustle of business, under the soothing sounds of the sermon, I have 
nothing to disturb my meditations." — Frank Dodge, quoted in " The Model 
Preacher" hj the Bei: H, Taylor. 

My notes taken at the Queen of the Minas Geraes Mines will 
not, I hope, prove uninteresting. They show what is English 
life in the heart of the Brazil, and they supply some details ahout 
a place worth studying. 

The pretty site of the estabhshment is an irregularly shaped 
basin, about three-quarters of a mile long by half a mile in 
breadth. The narrow valley ends westward in an inqjasse — 
Voltaire forbids us to call it a ciil de sac — formed by high ground, 
and the sui-rounding hills rise 700 to 900 feet above the llibeirao. 
This stream, winding eastward, rolls a furious torrent dm-ing 
the rainy season, and in the dry half year the shallow water, 
thick with mundic and arsenical sUme, must have a deleterious 
effect. The land around has been all disforested, and the vege- 
tation is a mean second growth ; much of the humus has been 
drained off by the Eio das Velhas, and the often fine soil has 
been much impoverished. The romantic beauty of shape is still 
there, and on bright days the sun and air make the colouring a 
pleasure to look upon. 

To the north-west rises the Morro Velho, or Old Hill, that is 
to say, the place first worked, backed by the majestic Curral 
d'El-Rei, bearing 270° from the Casa Grande. To the north- 
west of the modern shafts are the first excavations made by the 
" antigos," and which duly fill in. About one mile east, and 
beyond the " Mingii Mount," is the " Morro Novo." The latter 
has a quartzose vein, bearing "south 60° east;" it was held to 
be poor, but it may still work well. Indeed, in most parts there 


is gold stone at a shallow liorizoii ; but the question is, will it 
repay exploitation ? Situated in a contracted, overcrowded space, 
the nucleus of the works is on the western slope of the valley ; 
here are the huge water-wheels ; the long, dark sheds covering 
spalling floors strewed with grey ore ; engine-houses, and small 
Avhitewashed kiosk-shaped buildings, where the brakesmen sit 
and control the hauling speed with hand gear. But there is no 
iron furnace blowing oft' sooty smoke by day and belching lurid 
flames by night ; the trees are not poisoned, and the lips do not 
taste of chemicals. The bustle and the rattle of the stamps 
is no unpleasant sound b}' day, and in the dark hours the song 
of the water-Avheels reminded me of the autumnal waves sporting 
and tumbling upon the Scheveringen shore. 

The buildings extend from the northern bank of the Ribeirao 
up the ridge-spur, to an altitude of about 450 feet : here are the 
highest negro quarters, " Timbuctoo" — gentle reminder of what 
may have been motherland, and here live the Cata Branca 
blacks. MidAvay up are the various grim entrances to the big 
mine, and below it spread the appurtenances, smith}-, si)allmg 
floors, and minmg oftice. This side of the stream is of somewhat 
easier slope than the other. A conspicuous whitewashed build- 
mg is the blacks' kitchen ; the eastern part is assigned to the 
Padre Petragiia. High up, and safely' placed, is the gunpowder 
house, and near it the cemetery where three Europeans were 
buried during our stay of one month. A little bridge (Amal- 
gamation House Bridge) crosses to the southern bank, where the 
Amalgamation House is ; a rocky ramp rises to the stables 
higher up, and at 60 to 65 feet of greater elevation is the " Casa 
Grande." The hill that backs the latter is occupied by the 
Company's store,* and beyond it, scattered over a mile or so, 
are the quarters occupied by most of the officers. The medical 
men, the assistant storekeeper, the Catholic chaplain, and the 
captain in charge of the mine, lodge on the northern bank. 

As a rule, the houses are comfortable, with broad verandahs, 
and similar tropical appurtenances. But the situation is un- 
M'holesome ; in front, the tall Morro Vellio, the "impasse" to 
the west, and the high ranges to the north and south, must 
impede circulation. The low-lying locality has a climate the 

* Pi-opcrly called tlic " Aimazcin " — popularly the " Venda," 

•222 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxii. 

reverse of what a climate here should he : the sun burns by day, 
the nights bring sudden chilliness, and, as the sojourners in the 
Highlands of the Brazil complain, the four seasons of Europe 
come and go in twenty-four hours. The head-quarters and the 
officers' bungalows might easil}' be removed to higher ground ; 
for instance, to the level a little above the Company's store. Many 
would doubtless declare that the place is too far from their work, 
but I hold this to be an advantage. All ovra that during the 
first months of residence they took regular exercise, and were in 
the best of health. Presently the Tropics asserted themselves ; 
the daily ride or walk became a bore, the northerners became 
" caseiros" — stay-at-homes — and the end of inertia in the Brazil 
is liver. Much moral courage is requii'ed for the daily solitary 
constitutional over a path whose every plant and pebble are 
familiar to the eye ; but the alternative may be thus laid doAvn — 
inevitable "liver," loss of energy, loss of memory, loss of neiwe, 
loss of health, and even loss of life. Equally difficult is the 
change of iilixce which I vainly proposed at Sierra Leone and 
Bathurst. In those pest-houses man is content to be " left 
alone" to die. He loathes the idea of change, as the queer pas- 
senger does fat bacon, or the elderly Enghshman a " new view of 
the subject ;" to propose am- alteration is personally offensive to 
him, and he duly hates the meddler who does it. 

Morro Yelho is sub-troi)ically situated in S. lat. 19° 58' 6"'7, 
and the approximate longitude is W. 43° 51' (Gr.).* The alti- 
tude is that of Sao Paulo, the city, a little over 2000 feet. Its 
dry season begins, according to the rule of the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, in April, and ends with October. During this period 
the thermometer ranges between 61° and 72° F., and the air 
contains from 0"811 to I'OOO of moisture (Mason's hyg.). "Water 
is seldom colder than 39° F. Hoar-frost, however, appears on 
boardings and on the gTass. Droughts would burn up the fields 
but for the dense morning fog, often thickening into a drizzle, 
which chills the body. The mist disappears first from the 
levels, lighted by the sun of 9 to 10 A.M.f Then comes a gresit 

'' The latitude was taken with a reflect- 3411 feet. I made the flonr of tlie 

ing circle by Sr. Henrique Dumont, C.E. " Guesteii House " 2233 feet (B. P. 208°, 

Dr. Walker with an Adie's sjTnpiesometer temp. 63''). 

made the altitude 2300 feet : Mr. Gordon + In Dr. Walker's Sanitary Report of 

2832, and another oliservation with the sym- 1850 we read that thei?e mists "cover 

piesometer (air reading 68% liquor in tube even the summits of the heights. " I believe 

59°, and attached thcnnomcter 72°), gave tins not to be the case. 

t iiAi'. xxii.] LIFE AT MOERO VELHO. 223 

<iii(l sudden change of tenipeniturc. Dr. Birt, whose acquaint- 
ance I made en passant at Bahia, found during the first two 
years of his service that the difference in the shade amounted to 
20° to 23° F. Dr. Walker's observations give during four months 
and a -half a minimum of 46°, and a maximum of 80°.* 

There are usually midsummer showers, called the Rains of St. 
John. The first fire-fly api)ears about the end of July, and the 
last in early jMay. August has a few heavy downfalls. In early 
September the peasant begins to bm-n his fields, the large South 
American swallow + appears, and the Sabia (Turdus Orpheus, 
Lin.), the koldla of the Golden Land, not, hoAvever, an " Ameri- 
can robin," ushers in the wet season ^^ith song. " About the 
same time," says Mr. Henwood, then of Gongo Soco, " the 
humming-bird ceases its low, monotonous cliaunt, which during 
the cold season may be heard from every low, sheltered bush in 
the open ground (campos) between Gongo and Catas Altas." 

Thunderstorms, here called " trovoadas," + sometimes accom- 
panied by heavy falls of hail, usher in the tropical rains, which 
set in with a will about early November. As usual in the Brazil, 
the discharge greatly varies. For ten years the average was 
68'28 inches; the smallest remembered was 51'57 in 1863; the 
average between 1864-6 was 63'00.§ 

About the end of Januar}', or in early February, is a fair- 
weather interval, Hke our St. Martin's summer ; it is called 
the " Yeranhico," little verao, or summer : during a fortnight 
or three weeks the rains cease, and there is cloudless sunshine. 
I travelled throuo]! the ]*rovince of Sao Paulo during the " Indian 

Max. 80° Adie's S\'mii. 27 "OO — 28-40 inches. 
,, 68° ,," 28*22 — 28-59 ,, 

,, 68° ., 28-17 — 28-60 ,, 

,, 72° ,, 28-40 — 28-66 ,, 

,, 70° ,, 28'56 — 28-75 ,, 

The sun is in aphelion, July 2ml — the coldest so;uson in these Highlands of the 
Pirazil. This temperature reminds lis of the results obtained by Dr. Blanc at Jlagdala in 

+ The "Andorinha." It is also known by its Tupy name, Tapera or Majoi. The 
foi-mer must not be confounded with Tapera, which the T. D. translates Aldeia Yellii, 
or Sitio Abandonado, and remarks that according to Pison it also means the 
" Andorinha," which it docs not. 

X These trovoadas must not be confounded with the African "tornado," our 
cnrrui)ted word applied to a very different meteor. 
§ The following arc llie figures for three yeai-s : — 

In 1864 fall = 61-98 inches. 
,, 1865 ,, = 61 -98 ,, 
,, 1866 ,, = 65-14 ,, 

^ For March 

Therm. : 

Min. 65° 

,, April 


,, May 



, , June 



For half Julv 



224 THE HIGHLANDS Oi^ THE BRAZIL. [chai'. xxu. 

summer" of 1867 ; overhead all was delightful ; under foot eveiy- 
thmg was detestable. 

The only pretty part of the Casa Grande is the outside. Its 
terreiro, or compound, is a flat space laid out with good gravel 
walks and with attempts at turf — an Angio-tropieal lawn. The 
edge of this grassy bank fronting north, and looking down upon 
the rivulet valle}', is adorned with oranges, limes, and the ever- 
brilliant Poinsettia. Eastward are earth-banks, once a heap of 
rubbish, noAV bright with coffee and bananas. Behind in a deej) 
gorge, Avith its irrigating stream, is the garden. The upper part 
shows foreign trees and flowers, which here suffer from two 
plagues. The "plantation ant," which the old Portuguese called 
the king of the Brazil, is a perfect " liberal," which here means a 
" know-nothing." It injures the produce of the country, but it 
" eats up " the stranger. The mistletoe-like " Herva de Passa- 
rmlio,"* Avith its yellow-red bunches, resembling currants, is 
more fatal to trees. The main climber from the root embraces 
the trunk, and puts forth tendrils which i^enetrate the bark and 
suck the life-blood. It is hard to kill ; if cut across it renews 
itself, they sa}-, and the seed is often deijosited upon the upper 
branches, especially by the "Bemtivi."f 

The kitchen garden, under Mr. Fitzpatrick, who is handy at 
all things, from killing a sheep to culling a bouquet, gives excel- 
lent salads and cabbages. The radishes are rather tough and 
woody, the potato does not thrive. For nine years Morro "S^elho 
has had a horticultural society, Avitli the requisite president, 
committee, and treasurer ; it meets in the first weeks of February 
and August, and useful articles are then given as prizes. Mrs. 
Gordon, who has lived in Jamaica, has introduced the " cas- 
sareep," and her " pejiper-pot " equals any curry, and far excels 
"palm-oil choji." Brazilians mostly throw away the juice of the 
poisonous manioc, of which so many uses may be made. Every 
old book has a chapter " wherein is declared how terrible is the 
water of Mandioca," and never fails to tell you that it produces 
large grubs with which the good Avives of the Indians, and — this 
is insinuated sotto rocc — even Avhite Avomen, have eased off their 
husbands. Yet, curious to say, the savages kneAv hoAv to evapo- 

* " Tlic lierb of the small bird. " ,saw you well," or " Wek-oiiic ! " is luen- 

f This amusing little wretch (Lanius tioned hy every Brazilian traveller. Prince 
pitangua), whose noisy cry expresses, "I Max. (i. 63) also gives the name Tectivi. 

0II.V1-. xxu.] LIFE AT MOUKO VELHO. 225 

rate the volatile acrid principle ; they concentrated the juice -with 
the C'runiari cumbari, or Cumari, the Capsicum friitescens, a wild 
" bird pepper," and they made Cassareep,* which they called 
" Ticui)i," or " Tucupe." t This "tempero," a sauce to be coni' 
pared with soy, is still known, I am told, to the backwoodsmen 
of the Northern Brazil. 

The Casa Grande is the old house of the Padre Antonio 
Freitas, of course altered and added to. Caldcleugh (ii. 275) 
describing the senior and his nephew, Padre Joaquim, remarks 
that the i)adre's wife was very beautiful, with black eyes, and 
"nice and fat." 1 The padre, after having the grace to settle 
1). Silveria in the neat little Fazenda de Santa Anna, on the 
Sahara Road, died at Congonhas, but during Lent he revisits his 
earthly home, and freely takes what he wants from the cupboard. 
So Pedro, his grey-headed slave, with simple African fetish 
faith, places meat upon the table, and often sees the "larva" 
]iassing from room to room. Uncharitable persons have opined 
that the good priest has been transferred to a locality where 
wallving exercise is not permissible, but tenets will differ upon 
so Aveighty and obscure a subject. 

The Superintendent's quarters, I repeat, should be changed. 
The situation is close to the stream — one of the hottest, the 
coldest, and the dampest of tenements. The Companj^'s store 
was once the Casa Grande ; it might return to that honour. 
Nothing is more injurious to the prosperity of the mme than a 
frequent change of commanding officers ; and the climate, com- 
bined with the peculiar influences of the place, requires that 

^' The following is the recijie for mak- vessel should lie a flattish pot of the most 

ing "Cassareep," and it is a good action to porous clay, which will easily imbibe the 

make it public : — (Japsiciue. 

" To 1 gallon of Ijrine from salted beef f The Tucuiii is still used in the Amazo- 

adil 2 galls, of (poisonous) manioc juice, nian regions where the " Red " l>lood 

which must be as fresh as possible. remains. I have heard that beasts which 

Simmer in earthen pot for six or seven take a long time to chew can with impu- 

houi-s. After the third hour add 1 lb. of nity eat manioc, whose poisonous juice 

unground black xjcpper corns, 4 1^'- o^ flows out of their mouths, 
allspice, \ lb. of mace, 4 nutmegs pounded J " Bem gorda : " fatness, amongst all 

in mortar, and 2 ounces of cloves. If not the Southern Litin race, including the 

hot enough add bird peppere whole. I'ass Brazilian, being equivalent to fairness, 

through a tine sieve, bottle and seal. Possibly the mixture of Moorish blood 

"Pepper-pot" is simply meat and vegetal lies causes the taste — who can forget Olapper- 

]iut into "Cassareep;" it must be sim- ton's widow Zuma, the "walking tun-butt ?" 

mered every day, whether used or not, and Ugly, old, thin, are the positive, comjjara- 

the wa.stage compensated for by adding as tive and superlative of contempt addressed 

much Cassareep (a wine-glass full or so) to the woman of the Mediterranean, 
and as many peppers as renuired. The 

220 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxii. 

every attention be paid to health. Having once got a vakiable 
man, keep him alive. 

To the north-east of the Superintendency, and half hid by 
shrubbery, is the " Station Library," as we should say in India, 
externally a little octagon, tiled and whitewashed. There are 
920 volumes, 800 for loan, and the rest for school purposes. 
The librarian is the chaplain, a clergyman licensed by the Bishop 
of London. The shelves show some good books of reference ; 
unfortunately, nearly all those of local interest, as Spix and 
IMartius, and Lyon's Journal, are missing. They should be 
found, and the delinquents fined. A few paces beyond the 
Library lead to the Company's offices. Here at 9 a.m. dailj- is 
held the officers' conference. I consider the system worse than 
a council of war. Here, too, on the first Saturday of every 
month, jiay is issued to the Brazilian miners and labourers, free . 
and unfree. The Europeans receive their money every two 
months, the day being appointed by notice. 

The only level walk in or about Morro Velho is along the 
" Rego de Cristaes," or Crystal Leat. Pvisking many a tic — 
doulom-eux — you ascend the Store Hill, and enter the " Iletiro" 
village, built upon a well-drained slope. Here whitewashed cot- 
tages of Brazilian aspect rise, row behind row, each fronted bj' 
its garden patch. These are the quarters of tlie English miners 
and their families. The rent varies from 0$500 to l$oOO per 
mensem. Others are i)laced at Mingu, behind the hospital ; 
three families (August, 1867) are living near the Praia Gateway, 
and some are close to Congonhas. The Company has built 
beyond the Ketii'o village cottages for the Brazilian and Gennan 
miners, but the house accommodation generally is poor, and 
might be improved with small outlay and great profit. 

Entering the gate we strike the Bego, along whose right bank 
Mr. Gordon has laid out a neat road. Hei'e in the hot evenings 
young Cornwall repairs to bathe. The water rises in the Cabe- 
ceiras Hills, nearly four miles distant along its course, from 
near the ridge leading to the Paraopeba* district. This part of 
the country is high. The south-western extremity of the " Morro 
das Quintas," alias " do Ramos," rises 1200 to 1300 feet above 

* The l'araoi)el)a l{i^■cl• ruu.s ou tlic otlici here the lay of the t\vo valley.'s is uearlj- 
s^ide of the ridge, about eleven leagues iiarallel. 
westward of the Rio das Velhas, and 


the stream, and on the south-east there is a still loftier block, 
the " jNIoito do Pii-es." Formerly the stream discharged through 
Congonhas ; it was bought by Captain Lyon, and was taken up 
at a level to command the mine. It is one of the many courses 
which collect the Avaters of the adjacent streandets. Undine is 
thus compelled to turn the huge wheels, to raise the ore, to Avasli 
it, and to deposit through flumes the tailings of the Praia. The 
process is costly, extending over twenty-nine miles, and the tents 
are continual!}' suffering from floods, earth-slips, and that riva 
miner, " parvula . . . magni formica laboris." The Cristaes 
crosses in launders the Eetiro Ravine, flows in a water-course 
round a hill to the receiving cistern, and then passes over by one 
of the finest Avorks in the establishment, the deep gorge known 
as the " Criminoso." Inverted iron syphons plunge into the 
depths, and deliver 2000 cubic feet per minute about 182 feet 
above the Pibeirao, Avhich finally drains off the water.* 

Returning from the Avalk, we pass the little Protestant chapel. 
As a rule, it is tolerably attended in dry weather, when the 
congregation may number 100 souls, although Tregeagh some- 
times does complahi that he has lost " all relish for his prayers." 
Tlie mechanics sit on the right side, the miners on the left. I 
found the singing to be that of the country church in Great 
Britain generally, suggesting the question, why should men who 
cannot sing a song, sing psalms and hymns ? After not hearing 
the English Litany for a length of days, we cannot but think of 
the dictum of Dr. Newman, the Oratorian, namely, that '' Pro- 
testantism is the dreariest of possible religions, and that the 
thought of the Anglican serA^ce makes man shudder." Surely it 
might be altered for the better, but is there any middle term 
betAveen the God-like gift of reason or the un-reason of Rome ? t 

On the next Sunday I tried the Padre Francisco Petraglia, 

'* Length of Oristae.s inverted pipes from cistern to cistern . 740 feet 5 inches. 
Height of framing from surface of water . , . . 81 ,, 6 ,, 

Difierence of level on the opposite sides . . . • 23 ,, 11 >, 
Height of pipes from the lowest part to Iho upper end of ) ,f,^ r, 

the discharge, about I^-'J .. m 

First set of pipes have internal diameter of . . .14 inches. 
Second ditto ,, ,, . . . . 12 ,, _ 

Thickness of iron in upper part ..... iJiths of inch. 

Ditto ,, lower ,, _ ith.s ,, 

Pressure on lowest part ahout 4.5 lbs. ))cr sipiarc inch. This highly civilized aiuc<Iuc' 
was put up by the head mechanic, Jlr. Kouse. 

t "The rational form of thought must necessarily be the last of all." M. CoiKiln 
Cours de 1828, p. 28. 

U 2 

228 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BP.AZIL. [chap. xxil. 

^vllo affects the other side of the Ribeiriio of Boa Vista. The chapel 
was Ucensed by the Most Eeverend the Bishop of Maiianiia. The 
first incumbent was a Portuguese ; in August, 1860, he was suc- 
ceeded by the present, a retired Garibahlian. My wife was much 
scandalised to hear that the altar lacked its stone ; but the church 
has not been consecrated, and there is such a thing as " commu- 
nier en blanc." The ornaments are not rich, the monstrance is 
merely a watch-case, with metal rays, and there is some want of 
" a vessel with hyssop for the aspersion of the church and to 
keep the holy Avater." The Padre does not disdain the early 
weed, and is much liked by all, except those who resent the 
immense sui)eriority of his fireworks over the national article. 

Mass was to be celebrated at 10'30 a.m., and we found a small 
crowd, mostly black, gathered about the chapel. A few Bra- 
zihans rode up ; the}' had probably sent or walked two or three 
miles to catch the horses which they had used for 200 or 300 
yards — thus far like the old jNlameluke Beys, who would not 
cross even a street on foot. Some delay was caused by collecting 
grist for candles, and fur the ecclesiastic mill generally. A table 
loaded with heaped coppers stood inside the western entrance, 
frontmg the huge altar. It had been pay-day, and each one, as 
he or she went in, knelt, kissed the offered stole, and delivered 
his or her mite. A bald-headed black sacristan directed, from 
his cunning e^'es, a probing look at every coin, and with sneer 
and leer, and indescribable gibe and jeer, corrected the feAv braves 
who would not " lend to the Lord," or who lent too prudently. 
The satii'ical Sr. Antonio Marcos declared that in every chapel 
roof there is a hole, througli whicli the drop *' percolates into the 
priestly j)ocket. 

This hardly decorous scene ended, we all entered, the whites 
taking station in front, the blacks behind; men standing and 
Avomen squatting on the floor. This old custom still prevails in 
countr}' i^laces : only the most civilized cities in Brazil afford 
benches. AU w-ere dressed in Sunday attu-e ; the chapel was a 
bed of tulips, with tall sable stamens and a few whitey-brown 
stigmas. The conduct of the flock was in every way creditable, 

_ ' The word used was "I'iugM," wlicuuc eliya-barncra, eta cstagnoio« hauteeatcra," 

l.s derived the veil) iiingar, to take a drop, Avarice having slain a man, took sanctuary 

oftcn used with Pitar, to touch one's pipe. in the Church, and since that time has 

The sentiment suggest** the Ba.squc proverb never left it. 
"On-gosscac guicnn Lat hilic inc« seguin 

f'HAP. xxn.] LIFE AT MORKM) VELHO. 229 

their singing was better in time- and tune, and there was more 
fervour than in the rival establishment. Perhaps the cause ma}' 
be that tlie service is short and the sermon is shorter ; yet in 
matters of homiletics the good ]Mr. Armstrong does not require 
a sermon-meter. Padre Petraglia inculcated very severely 
Faitli, Hoi)e, and C'liaritv, and demanded alms for a white 
porcelain St. Sebastian, who, grilled with arrows, occupied a 
table hard by : those who would not" down with the dust" were 
all "burros and cachorros " * — donkeys and dogs. This was 
suiting language to modified intelligence with a witness. Un- 
happily the Reverend has forgotten Italian and has not learned 
Portuguese — here a common phenomenon, and not a little 
puzzling to Hamitic comprehension. 

* The strange iirimncss ami "respect- a liorsc, not from " E([uus," but from Ga- 

ability " of the old Portuguese forbade lnUus, "anag. " 

them to pronounce the indelicate word cao A similar jirimness may be oliserved in 

(dog) on the same principle that a Maltese our "Philistine" English of the present 

peasant when speaking of his wife says century. Sketch, for instance, the figure 

"saving your ijresence. " He therefore feminine. She has a bosom but no breasts, 

preferred Cachorro, a low corruption of a stomach and a spleen, but no belly nor 

the Latin Catulus, and made "pnp," like kidneys. I believe that she has legs, but 

"post-boy" or "drummer-boy," do duty no thighs; she has certainly ankles, but 

for its senior. Tlius also all the Neo- she wants calves : and so forth. 
Latin tongues have taken the name of 



"Brazil does not contain any gold-naine."— Tre's Llctlonary, suh voce. 

The MoiTo Vellio Mine was first worked in 1725 by the father 
of Padre Freitas, who bought it with 150,000 criizados, .£600 
of our money, but in those days a very different sum. The 
Padre sold it, as has been said, to Captain Lyon, and the total 
cost of the estate has been s656,434 12s. 7d. 

Our earliest notice of it is in 1825, when Caldcleugh visited 
'' the gold mine of Congonhas da Sahara." He describes it as 
an immense " quebrada" or ravine, worked almost through the 
heart of a mountain, whose upper stratum, distiu'bed by the 
earlier miners, was a dehr'is of quartz, iron, and red earth. The 
lode was a highly-inclined mass of auriferous chlorite slate, 
intersected by quartz veins, where gold resided in ferruginous 
and arsenical ppites. The walls of the mine were encrusted 
with white acicular crystals, an impure sulphate of alumine. 
The Padre blasted his ore, and when short of powder he used the 
Hannibalian method of rock-splitting — with water, however, not 
vinegar. The metal was stamped in five mills made progressively 
powerful, and they produced 25 — 30 oitavas per diem of poorish 
gold, seldom exceeding 19 carats. The chief work was the 
"Vinagrado" lode, so called from the reddish colour of the stone, 
and it is said that the owner extracted from it in two months 
24: 000 $000. This was done with seventy slaves, each hand 
receiving 1^ oitava of gold per week. 

Gardner, memorably ill-received by Mr. Goodair, Superinten- 
dent of Cocaes, was welcomed to Morro Velho by Mr. Crickitt, 
Acting Chief Commissioner for Mr. Herring. The traveller 
spent a montli there in 1840, and has left an interesting account 
of the mine in its younger days. He found the auriferous vein 


occuniiig in greyish-coloured clay slate, and consisting of quartz- 
ose rock, mixed with carhonate of lime, and strongly impregnated 
with iron and pyrites of copper and arsenic. The lode, whose 
general direction ranged east to west, was ahout seven fathoms 
wide, a httle to the east of the central workings. Here it divided 
into two branches running to the westward, whilst two others 
Avhich had been more deeply mined, extended to the east. The 
ramifications gradually diverged, took a north-easterly direction, 
and then ran parallel to, and ahout 100 feet from, each other. 
The quantity raised varied from 1500 to 1600 tons per month, 
and each ton gave a mean of 3 — 4 oitavas, and a maximum of 7. 
The Tyrolese Zillerthal, a running amalgamation process of 
revolving-mills, had been tried at Gongo Soco, and had abolished 
the batea. Here they failed. The arsenic formed with the gold 
an alloy which rendered the operation difficult, and the waste of 
quicksilver was excessive. Roasting and calcining the ore had 
also been abandoned, the arsenical fumes having proved danger- 
ous, and it is said that a black was poisoned by them when treating 
the refuse sand. 

The early Reports of the present Company describe the main 
body of the metalliferous mass as occupying the southern flank of 
a high mountain, whose contour it follows in parallel hues : at 
the eastern extremity it bends north, and becomes too small to be 
worth pursumg. The mine consisted of three adjoinmg work- 
ings in the same lode. The easternmost was the "Arsenical," 
ten fathoms deep: in the centre was the principal open cut called 
the Bahu, or "box-hole,"* whilst westward, also ten fathoms 
deep, was tlie now deserted Quebra Panella, or break-pot, so 
termed from its uneven sui'face. 

Mr. Herring proceeded to push with all possible force an adit 
for unwatering the mine at a deeper level; to apply draining 
and stuff-liaulmg machinery, and to sink the lode and break it by 
stope-work. As a guard against falling, " letting arches remain " 
proved successful. He also set up " Arrastres " or triturators, + 
each of which worked in the twenty-four hours four tons of refuse 

* The " r.aliii," the French "Baliiit," posed to a " Cachoeira," ground where the 

a travelling tiiink. In the Brazil it is water falls over and does not sink. Hence 

applied to many features, such as a sqiiare many great mines have a Bahu and a 

rock rising from tlie water, or a cubical Cachoeira. 

block upon the summit of a mountain. In t In Chap. 20 I liave explained this 

mines it is the hollow where the drainage arrangement, 
gathers and forms a ^^■cll : thus it is op- 

"532 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxiit. 

sand. From an average of twenty-seven head of stamps, the yield 
in December, 1835, was 271b. 11 oz. of gold. In 1838 commu- 
nication was opened between the Bahu and Quebra Panella. Mr. 
Herring proposed to call them the " United Mines," bvit the old 
names were perforce retained. In Jvily, 1838, the former 
workings of the Gamba,* a northerl}" off- set from the main 
lode, and Mng to the eastward of the United Mines, Avere 
cleared out, and the " Vinagrado " was abandoned. At the same 
time, the " Cachoeira " or easternmost section of the great vein 
was opened. Presently was discovered the important fact that 
the whole mass of lode lies downward in nearly a true eastern 
direction, and the dip carries it forward some five feet ten inches 
for every six feet simk when stoping. 

In 1847, after his long service, INIr. Herring went home and 
died. Morro ^'elho has lost all her Commissioners in the prime 
of life. He was succeeded by Mr. George D. Keogh, formerly 
Secretary to the Company, an active energetic man, but without 
practical knowledge. In his day (1846) Mr. Thomas Treloar 
became the Head INIining-Captain, and the Company sent out a 
chaplain, the Reverend Charles Wright, who was sensibly di- 
rected not to trouble himself with conversion, but to ojDen a 
school for the children of their Eiu'opean emploj'es. In 1855 
Mr. Thomas WaUcer, M.D., became Superintendent. An amiable 
and honourable man, he dreaded responsibility, and he trusted 
much in others : thus, as the gold returns j^rove, his rule was not 
very successful. He also died, and in 1858 Mr. Gordon took 
charge. No more gold-weighing in private was allowed, and the 
boast that three Superintendents had been got rid of, and that the 
back of the fourth would soon be seen, was notably stultified. The 
prospects of the Mine presently improved, and the consequence 
was a dividend.! 

" Gramba, in French " Sarigue," is a Brazilian mai-supial which does the duties 
of a fox (Dedelphis caniivonis or Azaree). It is applied oi^probriously to a negi'o as 
well as to a mine. 

t The followng is'an abstract of the gold produced by the Mon-o Velho Mine under its 
several Suijerintendents : my information comes from the best .source — the Company's 
Annual Reports. 

Mr. HeiTing (1837—1847). 
In 1837 Morro Velho produced . . 41,861 oitavas of gold. 
,, 1838 ,, ,, . . . 60,472 

„ 1839 ,, „ . , 63,842 „ 

„ 1840 ,, ,, . . . 76,908 

,,1841 ,, „ . . 70,945 (= 68 lbs. 1 oz. Trov). 

,,1842 ,, „ . . . 92,744 oitavas of gold. 

,, 1B43 ,, ,, . . 127,834 

oiiAP. xxTit.] THE ST. JOHN DEL REY MINE. 2.3.1 

It is easy to superintend in England establishments which have 
been drilled for years, perhaps for generations ; far otherwise in 
these regions, where the weight rests on one "pair of shoulders." 
Directors of future Companies, if they would benefit shareholders 
rather than promote friends and relations, should be as careful 
in choosing a Superintendent as they have been in the selection 
of a reporting engineer. At the mine he should possess the 
absolute power of a colonel commanding a French, not an 
EngUsh regiment, and receive daily reports from his officers, 
instead of meeting them in consultation : he should be entitled to 
make and unmake all his subalterns, and should be expected to 
take upon himself all responsibility. The subaltern might be 
allowed to send him complaints against his superiors, and if 
iniable to substantiate them, he should at once be dismissed. 

It is pleasing to see the excellent arrangements of Morro 
Velho amongst a people so defective in the organising and ad- 
ministrative capacity as are the English — at least in the Brazil. 
T^et me cite, as an instance, a certain Anglo-BraziUan Railway, 

:Marcli 1, 1844 to February 28, 1845 IVIorro Yellio produced 124,432 oitavas of gold. 
1845,, ,, 1846 ,, ,, 128,515 ,, 

,, 1846,, ,, 1847 ,, ,, 154,584 

Mr. Keogh (1847—1855). 

•.Afarcli 1, 1847 to February 28, 1848 Morro Yellio produced 175,4.39 


,, ,, 270,488 



,, ,, 35.3,761 


„ „ 364,428 

Dr. Walker (1855— 1858\ 
March 11, 1855 to March 21, 1856 Morro Velho produced 346,031* 
,, 21, 1856 ,, ,, 20, 1857 ,, ,, 307,261 

,, 1857 ,, ,, 19, 1858 ,, ,, 261,247 

1848 ,, 

> J 


1849 ,, 


1850 ,, 


^h 10, 


11,1851 ,, 



1852 ,, 


1853 ,, 



1854 ,, 

„ 11, 



. Gordon 



20, 1858 to 


irch 18, 

1859 Morro Yell 

10 i)roduce 

d 285,615 

19, 18.59 ,, 





1860 ,, 

,',' 19, 




20, 1861 ,, 

,, 20, 








23, 1863 ,, 



, J 


1864 „ 




1865 „ 





* On Jlarch 7 about 170 tons fell in from the roof and .'south wall of the Bahii Mine, 
Ihe borers an<l kibble-fillers all es.aped. 

+ On February 13 a fall of killas took place in the West Cachoeini, and on April 19, 
ei"ht miners were killed in the Cadineira Works. 


wliicli consisted of four iiidepeiideiit kiiigdonilets. Mr. Superin- 
tendent was not allowed to give an order, and thus he superin- 
tended nothing. Mr. Chief Engineer commanded the road. 
Mr. Mechanical Engmeer was lord supreme over a few carriages 
and inclined planes, whilst INIr. Transport-Manager, who was also, 
curious to say, INIr. Storekeeper, ruled as absolutely as the chiefs, 
his neighbours. The Brazilian gazed with wonder. But Mr. 
Gordon is an Irishman, and the "individuality of the individual" 
is less bristly, less tyrannous in this section of the Keltic race than 
in the Anglo-Briton. 

"We have seen that the three great mines form a single con- 
tinuation of the same line of mineral. The Quebra Panella is 
Avesternmost ; next to it is a small aftair, the Champion ground, 
— so called from a person, and not used in the common mining 
sense; in the centre is the Bahvi, divided into east and west, 
whilst over the Bahii and easternmost lies the Cachoeira,* also 
having two sections. The "Box-hole " and the " Rapids " are in fact 
one mine. The early workers left a large wedge or bar of killas 
between them, but tliis, after due consideration, was removed in 

The breadth of the lode varies from four to sixty feet. The 
general direction where worked is west to east, with northerly 
shiftings. The dip is 45°, rising to a maximum of 46° 30', or 
47°. The strilie is from south 82° east to south 58° east. The 
cleavage planes of the killas are in some places transverse to, in 
others parallel with the lode. In certain sections of the mine-walls 
they bear north 36° east, but the average is more easterly. The 
direction is south 46° east, and then- dip is at angles varying from 
43° to 70°. Parts of the walls have been fomid to be bauUv and 
unsound, jointy and scaly, but in the early Reports the evils were 
greatly exaggerated. The underlay or underhe dip, or inclination 
of the mineral vein, is 6° in the Bahu and 8° in the Middle 
Cachoeira. Its dip varies from south 82° east to south 58° east, 

* In July, 1867, 

The vertical depth of the Cachoeira Sline was . .189 fathoms. 

,, depth on the dip of the lode . . . . 264 ,, 

,, length of excavation (E. and ^y. of the Siunp) . 66 ,, 
The width of the excavation varied from 6 to 45 feet, average 29 feet. 

The vertical depth of the Bah II is .... 170 fathoms. 
,, depth on the dip of the lode . . . . 2(i7 ,, 

,, length of the excavation (west of Sump, or lowest | ^.-, 

part of the shaft) | •" .. 

The width of the excavation ranged from 11 to 90 feet, with an average of 44 feet. 

ciiA!'. Will.] THE ST. JOllX DEL, HEY MINE, 235 

and the inclination IVoni 42° to 47°, but everywhere parallel with 
the strife. The richest part of the lode is still in the eastern Bahu. 
There may be good lody matter nestling to the south-east, and in 
that direction " dead works " are being carried on with zeal. 
Much had been expected from the western extremity, but a shaft 
sunk there gave very poor i-esults. 

During the half-year between September and March, 1866 — 
1867,* the net profit on the working of the mines had been 
£49,131. After making all reductions, there remained available 
for dividend =£54,434, and the Directors "had the satisfaction" of 
recommendmg the pajnnent of £4 5s. j)er share, free of income- 
tax, and independent of the 10 per cent, carried as usual to the 
reserve fund. In this prosperous state I left the mine. But 
shortly after, in the night of November 21, 1867, a fire broke out, 
and despite all eftbrts considerable damage was done. 

* The followiug are the figures between March 23 and September 21 of 18 60 ; — 

9 days in Maroli yielded . . . 19,627 oitavas. 

April 50,046 ,, 

May 60,454 ,, 

June ....... 52,076 ,, 

July 48,405 ,, 

August 52,016 ,, 

September (21 days) . . . . 32,028 ,, 

Total 314,652 

£ s. d. 

The net profit on the working was .... 50,566 9 8 

Interest on moneys unemployed . .... 1,570 

Balance of undivided pi-ofits . . . . . 743 11 4 

Total £52,880 1 

Deducting the London expenses . . . . 1,193 10 3 

Remain for dividend . ; . . £51,686 4 9 

During this half-year 7000 tons v.'ere raised in excess of the previous half-year, or 
53,698 to 46,029, and this is the greatest amount yet quarried. On the other hand it 
had 41 '6, and the latter only 36 "6 of the valueless killas. 


LIFE AT MORRO YELTLO—innifiinicd). 
" Ipsaque barbaries aliquid prcesentit lionesti." 

A PECULIAR sight, and very fit for a photograph, is the Eevista 
or muster of the BLicks, which takes place every second Sunday. 
AVhen we were there ahout 1100 out of 1452 attended in the 
*' Compound " fronting the " Casa Grande." Both sexes were 
bare-footed — ever_\"vvhere in the Brazil a token of slavery. The 
women, fronted by a j^icket of twelve young gii'ls, were ranged in 
columns of six companies. They were dressed in the " Sabbath " 
uniform, white cotton petticoats, with narrow red band round 
the lower third ; cotton shawls striped blue and white, and a 
bright kerchief, generally scarlet, bound round the wool. On the 
proper right, perpendicular to the column, are the " good-conduct 
women." The first 3'ear's badge is a broad red band round the 
white hem, and rei)laced by narrow red stripes, one for each year, 
till the mystic number seven * gives freedom. We saw ten women 
and as many men officially apply for the preliminaries to manu- 

Ranged behind the women, the men are clothed in white shirts, 
loose blue woollen pants, red caj^s — Turkish or Glengarry — and 
cotton trousers. The "jacket men," as tlie "good conducts" 
are called, stand on the proper left of, and at right angles with, 
the battalion of Amazons. They wear tailless coats of blue serge, 
bound with red cuffs and collars, white waistcoats, overalls with 
red stripes down the seams, and the usual bonnets ; each has a 
medal with the Morro Velho stamp, the badge of approaching 
freedom. Children of an age to attend the Revista are clad in 
the same decent comfortable way ; a great contrast they offer to 
the negrolings that sprawl about the land. 

* The cnstoiTiary period is 10 years, Init it lias lieen humanely reduced.- 


The slaves answer to the rolL-call made by the heads of the 
respective dei)artments. This done, the Superintendent, Ibhowed 
by the Manager and Assistant Manager of the Bhxcks, and the two 
medical officers, walks down the companies and minutely inspects 
each individual. I observed that almost all the " chattels " were 
country born ; there was only one Munjolo,* distinguished by 
the three scars of his race; the other "persons held to service" 
call him " Paj^agente " or man-eater. 

After inspection, a pay-table Avas spread before the door, and 
the girls and small children received their allowance of i)ay and 
soap. The three coppers (0$120) of former days have been 
raised to 6 — 8 for those employed on the spalling floor, and the 
stone carriers get 12 "dumps" of "obligation." By extra earr- 
ings and overtime, f the pay will increase to 16—20 coppers. 
Each takes per week half a pound of soap ; the cost of this article 
to the Company ranges between 300$ 000 and 400^000 a montli, 
or annually 360/. to 480/. Tlie men and married women are paid 
at the Public Office. Tlie Ibrmer ancientl}' received 4 coppers, 
now they get double, and by industry they may gain from 8 to 10 
patacas each of 8 coppers. The average of rewards and overtime 
paid to the blacks amounts to 1600$ 000 per fortnight, or about 
3840Z. per annum. 

Muster over, both sexes and all ages are marched off to church. 
The day is then then* own. The industrious will look after 
house and garden, pigs and poultry ; they will wash and sew, or 
fetch water, wood, or grass for sale. The idle and dissolute will 
keep the day holy in African fashion, lie in the sun, smoke, and if 
they can, drink and smoke hemp, like the half-reclaimed savages 
of " Sa Leone." Dinah here and elsewhere is proverbially fond of 
trinkets and fine rags. Parade over, she will doff her regimental 
attire and don a showy printed gown and a blazmg shawl, the 
envy of all beholders. 

Once the negroes showed us what in Hindostan is called "ta- 
masha," in Spain and Portugal a " folia," in Egypt and Morocco 
a " fantasiyah," and here a " Congada " or Congo-ry. A score 
of men, after promenadmg through the settlement, came to the 
Casa Grande. They were dressed, as they fondly imagined, after 

* A well-known race from the lumls animate with the inanini.itc machine. of the Congo regions. St. Hil. writes t Technically called " fazer horas." 

the word Jlonjolo, thus confounding the 

238 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxn'. 

the st^'le of the Agua-Rosada House,* descended from the great 
Manikongo and hereditaiy lords of Congo land. But the toilettes, 
though gorgeous with coloru'ed silks and satins, Avere purel}^ fan- 
ciful, and some Avore the Kanitar or plumed head-gear, and the 
Arasvia or Avaist fringe, and carried the Tacape or tomahaAvk be- 
longing to the red man. All AA-ere armed Avitli sA\'ord and shield, 
except the king, Avho, in sign of dignity, carried his sceptre, a 
stout and useful stick. The masked old man, Avith Avhite beard, 
trembling under-jaAA', cheA^rotante A'oice, and testy manner, Avas 
cleA^erly represented by a young black from Sahara. On his right 
sat the captain of Avar, the Premier ; on his left the young Prince, 
his son and heir, an uninteresting negrokin. Of course the buffoon 
of the Dahoman com-t Avas there, and the fun consisted in 
kicking and cuffing him as if he Avere one of our cloAvns or 

The "play" AA-as a representation of the scenes Avhich most 
delight that mild and amiable negro race, orders for a shiA-e hunt; 
the march, accompanied AA^ith much running about and clashing 
of sAvords, Avliich all handled like butchers' ImiA'es ; the surprise, 
dragging in prisoners, directions to put to death recreant ministers 
and AA^arriors, poisonings and administering antidotes — in fact, 
"saAage Africa." His Majesty freely used his staff, threshing 
eA'erA'body right regally. The speeches AA-ere deliA-ered in a sing- 
Bong tone ; the language AA'as Hamitico-Lusan, and there A\'as 
an attempt at cadence and rliyme. Slaughtering the foeman and 
drinking his blood Avere the faA'ourite topics, A-aried b}' arch 
allusions to the Superintendent and his guests. After half an 
hour they receiA'ed their bakshish and Avent to sIioav their finery 

The ceremonies of the Sunday ended Avith fiA'e coui)le bringing 
up as many neAA-ly baptised bits of black, to receiA^e the reAA'ard of 
fertility. Payment for progeny is a good idea; as a rule the 
Brazilian slave girl saySj "What has a captive t to do Avitli 

* It sonncls like " cliaftV tins rose- + "Oattivo "' (Cattiva, fern.), eupluiistic 

'V\ater title adopted liy full-blooded ue- for "csci-avo," or "escrava," which is 

gi-oes, biit it is pure history. An inte- opposed to " foiTO, " a freeman, the Arabic 

resting account of the dynasty, and a sketch -^ ,^ ^.^^■^^^. ^^^ ^^^.^ j^^. ^ , 

01 Is icolas, rrincc oi Congo, has been j^ •■ ~ 

lately given by M. A'aldcz. (Vol. II. slaves is "resgatar, " to ransom, because 

Chap. 2, ' ' Six Years of a Traveller's Life officially they are supposed to be thus 

in Western Afiica." London: Hui-st & saved from being muixlered by their hostile 

Ulackett. 1861.) captors. 


children?" At Morro Velho, on the contraiy, negresses desire 
issue because they are temporarily taken off work. Unfortunately, 
Avhen the second babe is to be born, the first is neglected, and 
the doctor is rarely sent for till death is at hand. It is an object 
to nurse only one child, and to be ready for bearhig another when 
required. Thus the hospital books* for the first six months of 
1867 show that the death-rate of negroes has doubled the birth- 
rate : with a total of 1452, 16 Avere born and 32 died.t 

The sires of ''occipital race" are in a state of wonderful grin — 
"patulis stant rietibus omnes." The mothers, in marvellous 
gold chains, are marshalled by a big black Meg Merrilies, who 
seems omnipotent over her sable flock. Each matron receives a 
mil-reis, a bottle of wine, and a bit of the best advice from the 
Superintendent. When the ceremony ends, the scamp of the 
party — he is ever foremost on such occasions — proposes three 
cheers, and a tiger for Mr. Gordon, and all depart in high 

A slave muster is also held daily in the great hall of the 
''Blacks' Ranch," which is lighted up during the dark season. 
The bell sounds at 5 a.u. ; half an hour afterwards, the Brazilian 
assistants, in presence of Mr. Smyth, call out the names, first of 
the men, then of the women, and lastly of the new comers, who, 
being sometimes rebelliousl}' inclined, are being broken to harness. 
Breakfast is cooked overnight, and each labourer carries off his 

I also visited the hospital, which is under the charge of Mrs. 
Holman, the matron, and inspected the reports, transmitted 
monthly and yearly to the directors. The building is as well 
situated as any other, and is clean and new, spacious and conve- 
nient ; Avhilst the medical men live close by. Yet the blacks 
have, lilve Sepoys, an aversion to it, and prefer to die in their 
own huts ; consequently many of them are brought in only Avhen 
moribund. There is a white ward, but Englishmen are usually 
treated at home, and they get sick leave, if absence from work be 
deemed necessaiy. 

The medical reports take, I think, rather too favourable a 

■" Since Deceinl>cr, 1866, Pr. Weir has ilcaths vcrc uot. 
kept a register of Births and Deaths of all t Castelnau (i. 184) is of opiniou that 
whites and negi-oes, free Brazilians, who the birth-rate does not balance the death- 
work in the establishment, not included. rate of slaves in the Brazil, and I quit'j 
Before that time births were registered, aLji'ce with him. 


view Avhen they declare tlie black population of Moito Vellio to 
be "as a rule liealtliy." Dr. Robert Monach remarked in 1848, 
"When we consider the constitution of the negroes, the modi- 
fied (?) texture of their skin, performing a greater extent of function 
than in the European, and recollect to what great and abrupt 
changes of temperature they are continually exposed, from a very 
variable climate,* theii- great carelessness, and the nature of their 
occupations, it must be granted that the mortality is small, a 
cii'cumstance which affords the best i)roof that every care is taken 
to preserve them in good health." In 1846 a "remarkable cir- 
cumstance" was observed, namely, that of the 14 deaths 1 only 
was from the English negroes of Cata Branca, 2 were of 244 
"Company's Blacks," and 4 were of 141 hired from Brazilians. 
It was suggested that the disproportion arose from good living 
after poor diet suddenly changed; and yet many have testified 
that the negroes improve ui flesh, colour, and personal appear- 
ance after a few months at Morro Vellio. In 1848 Dr. Birt 
remarks that "in England the per-centage of deaths, including 
the whole population, is not less than 3 per cent ; ours is a little 
more than 2|- per cent."! Dr. Thomas "Walker, "Physician to 
the Forces," Avho in 1850 reported upon the sanitary condition 
of the Morro Vellio blacks, found them decimated by pneumonia, 
a very common and treacherous malad}' in the Highlands of the 
Brazil. He regretted that he could not use more freely the 
lancet, from which the blacks seem instinctively to shrink, and 
thus sometimes they save their lives in the teeth of science, t 

From the I{ei)orts it appears that about every ten years there is 
abnormal mortality produced by the " nature of the climate and 
local situation, and by the social condition and peculiarities in 
the constitution of the blacks." Diseases of the brain and bowels 
are severe ; dysentery and pleuris}' carry off" many victims, whilst 
pneumonia is sometimes epidemic, and often latent, leading to a 
rapid development. Of the 90 men and women in hosi)itals, 
several sufl'ered from malignant ulcers of the extremities, aggra- 

* The drainage of tlie Central African Bao Paulo, 

plateau, or raised liasin, I have remarked + For the official average rate of mor- 

less regidar than that of the Brazil. In tality, see Appendix 1, Section A. 

other points the climates remarkably re- J His paper has been ])rinted in tiic 

.'■emble each other. I have often been Twenty-first Annual Report of the Coni- 

reuiindcd of Usagara on the Serra do Mar, pany. (London : R. Clay, Bread-street- 

and of Unyamwezi in Winas Geracs and hill.) 


vated perhaps by the mundic water, which is said to cause 
gangrene m wounds. The loathsome " bobas " or yaws, hardly 
known to northern Europe, except in marine hospitals, are here as 
common as on the Guinea Coast ; the people dread the disease, 
and declare of it " nao se pode dizer * tive bobas ' " — " no man can 
say 'I have had 3-aws.'" What Caldcleugh calls " atoa (or 
chance) connections"* amongst the slaves, are energetically re- 
pressed by the Superintendent, and the officers set an example of 
scrupulous good conduct: yet as at " Sa Leone," so here, the 
majority of cases are venereal, and even children are born with 
corona veneris. But such is the negTo everywhere out of his 
own country, and in it also where Europeans have made 

What T/ondrous scene the future theu shall view. 
The links, half human, ruling sea and strand, 

Feigned human by the philanthropic few. 
A monstrous, foul, deformed and fetid band. 

Males, bestial all, and females all untrue, 
Lust, perjury, superstition, taint the land : 

Such fortune, " Sa Leone," becomes thee well, 

Thou negro paradise, thou white man's hell ! t 

Women about to become mothers are taken off work and are sent 
to hospital in the fom'th month. After confinement they are 
relieved from hard labour, and they work sometimes for half a 
year in the sewing department. Those familiar with the con- 
dition of the Lancashire " bloomers," of the Cornish women who 
assist in di'essing the tin ores, and of the English agricultural 
labourers' wives generally, will own that the slave-mother is far 
better treated at the Morro Vellio mines. The young childi'en, 
tended by an elderly woman, play mider a large tiled shed in the 
great square of the Boa Vista Quarters. But the negro in the 
Brazil is an exotic, he is out of his proper ethnic centre ; it is 
difficult to keep hmi alive, as the next quarter century will prove, 
and when young he requii'es every attention from the parent, t 

* A word often misleading strangers in + Not in Camoens, Canto V. 12. Like 

the Brazil, and appearing as the name of my friend the author of ' ' Wanderings in 

plants and other things. It is properly AVest Africa," I have adopted the nigger 

a t6a, the literal meaning "by tugging," form "Sa Leone," which is merely a cor- 

or "towing;" the secondary signification niption of a word already con-upt. 

is " Sem goveruo," u.selessly, inconside- J Nothing can be more eiToneous than the 

ratelj', and the popular meaning is bad, assertion of St. Hil. (III. ii. 72, and other 

worthless, unimjJortaDt, uma cousa k tOa, jjlaces), that in the Brazil the negro race 

thus converting it into an adjei-tivc. " tend a so pcrfcctionucr. " Equally abroad 

VOL. I. n 

242 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxiv. 

The Brazilian planter who would not see the number of his slaves 
diminish, allows the eliildren to be with their mothers, and the 
latter to be off work for two and even for three years. 

One of the most interestmg visits at Morro Velho is to the 
cotton-spinning department in the Companj^'s store. The hands 
are negi'o girls, and mixed breeds, often free : they work by the 
task, and they feed and lodge themselves. They are paid at the 
end of each month, at the rate of 0$300 to 0$400 per lb. of spun 
yarn, and each averages 4 — 5 lbs. per week. The material is 
mostly brought from the dry regions lying west of the Diamantine 
district, and from the banks of the Rio das Vellias, esjiecially 
Santa Quiteria, in the municipalit}' of Cruvello. The plant, which 
the Indians called "Aminiiu," is the black-seeded, preferred in 
the old Brazil to the herbaceous. The lint is more easily sepa- 
rated b}' the simple bow of Hindostan, still used, whilst the fibre 
is believed to be stronger and more easily spun. An arroba 
(32 lbs.) of seed-cotton, worth 0$100 per lb., yields after whip- 
ping 7 — 8 lb. of clean fibre, whose value rises to 0$4:00 and 
$ 500. During the last three years prices have been raised by 
increased demand at Rio de Janeiro ; and, as the following images 
will prove, the Brazil, and especiall}' the Province of Minas, with 
her parent Sao Paulo, has, in her cotton lands, a mine of wealth 
which wants only machinerj' and lines of communication. 

The seed is removed from the Hnt by a charkha, a mere toj', 
two little c^-linders of smooth hard wood, about 1 foot long, of 
broom-stick thickness, set close together in a diminutive frame, 
and worked contrary wise by winches.* These are turned by two 
childi-en, whilst a third presents the cotton, which passes betAveen 
the rollers and comes out free. I afterwards saw an improvement 
upon this rude and venerable hand-machine : a water-vrheel worked 
by means of pulleys and bands, eight sets of cylinders, each 
served by a slave, who cleaned 96 lbs. per diem. By adding a 
hopper to supply the cotton, a whipper to remove, and a fan to 

was the learned and ecceutrio Dr. Knox. impossible not to notice the ciuious self- 

" From Santo Domingo he (the negro) drove contradiction of Dr. Knox, who threatened 

out the Celt ; from Jamaica he will expel vnth extinction the Anglo-American (not 

the Saxon ; and the expulsion of the Lusi- to mention others), because removed from 

tanian from Brazil is only an affair of time. " his proper habitat, and yet who promised 

As in the United States, emancipation will a mighty and productive future to the 

annihilate the African race, which, with African under the same circumstances, 
very rare exceptions, is viable as a slave * There are many varieties of the wheel, 

i-ecniited from home, not as a freeman in many have only one -nanch. 
lands occupied by higher blood. It is 


transport the lint, one pair of hands might do the work ol" 

In nothing does nationality display her ditierences and pecu- 
liarities more notably than in cotton-cleaning machinery. The 
Brazilian and the Hindu chieliy rely upon Nature's instruments, 
and the best of all instruments — the fingers. The English invent 
good, dear, solid articles, safe enough, but tedious, tardy unto 
impossibility — 

And the trail of the slow worm is over them all. 

The North-American contrivances, the popular saw-gins for 
instance, are cheaj?, poor, easy to manage, and work at railway 
si^eed, but they tear the fibre to pieces. I believe that the old 
cylinder of the Brazil w^ould with certain improvements become 
superior to any yet invented. 

Captain Joaquim Felizardo Eibeiro, whose mill is about three 
miles distant, contracts to supply at a fixed sum the Company 
with gunpowder, of which £200 worth per mensem is consumed 
in blasting. He finds the hard-wood charcoal ; he receives from 
England, at cost prices, the best sulphur and saltpetre ; and he 
prepares the article in the proportions required by the establish- 
ment. Mr. Gra}', an EngHshman, makes the safety-fuse, which 
is always charged ^nth gunpowder from home. The other fuses 
are worked by the black spinsters. Blasting-oil or nitro-giycerine 
has not yet, I believe, been tried. 

The Company's store also contains the theatre, which is always 
fully attended, and which deserves well of the moralist as a 
civilizmg agent — in fact, what Salt Lake City holds it to be. Mr. 
Wood, assistant pro ton. in the Reduction Office, and -Mr. White, 
jun., were the stars at the time of our visit. The "house" is 
a long room with two lines of benches ; on the left are the 
officers ; to the right sit the mechanics and miners, with their 
wives, and fronted by theii* cliildren. The stage is a boarded 
platform, opposite a raised orchestra at the other end ; we had 
all lands of fun, — nigger mmstrels, the Neiwes, and every latest 
comic song. After hearing the shouts of laughter which greeted 
every screaming farce, the author would have modified his old 

saw — 

Angiica geua, 
Optima flens, 
Pes-iiraa ridcn>=. 

244 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxiv. 

Sucli, reader, is life at Morro Velho, in the heart of the Brazil. 
We intended, I have said, to pass a week there ; such however 
Avas the cordiality with which oiu' countrymen received us, and 
such their kindness and hospitality, that we could not tear our- 
selves awav till the month was ended. 



At noon-day here 
'Tis twilight, and at sunset blackest night. 

Mr. Gordon made every aiTangement for our safe descent. 
Mrs. Gordon also, who had never before ventured under 
gi*ass, kmdly consented to accompany my wife. It was settled 
that Mr. L'pool and I should descend first, and receive the 
rest at the bottom of the pit. Mr. James Estlick, the captain in 
charge of the mine,* saw us properly clad in heavy boots for pro- 
tecting the ankles, and in stiif leather hats to guard the head 
from falling stones, and to carry a " dip" stuck on by a lump of 
clay; the rest of the toilette was " old clothes," for the wearing 
out of which my Hibernian cousin defined Rome to be a capital 
place. A small crowd of surface workmen accompanied us to the 
mouth of Walker's inclined plane, a hot and unpleasant hole, 
leading to the Caehoeira Mine. The negret Chico gave one 
glance at the deep dark pit, wrung his hands, and fled the Tophet, 
crying that nothing in the vdde, wide world would make him 
enter such an Inferno. He had lately been taught that he is 
a responsible being, with an " immortal soul," and he was 
beginnmg to believe it in a rough theoretical way : this certainly 
did not look like a place where the good niggers go. 

Mr. John AVhittaker, who reached Morro Velho just in time to 
be of the party, and the Superintendent, thought it infra dig. 
to descend otherwise than by the footway. f Yet even Geordy 
Stephenson did not alwaj'S despise the " corve." The miners 
run up and down like cats, much preferring the ladder, because 
here they depend upon themselves, not on the chain ; the stranger 

* The Superintendent iirefcrs not to and night work, 
have a head mining caiitain, and in this I t Meaning the ladders for ingress and 

think he is right. There are four captains, egress, including the space around tliem. 
who change every week in takin? the day 

lM6 the highlands OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxv. 

will take some four hours, and next clay or two his knees will 
remind him of the feat. I preferred, despite all the risks spoken 
of, the hig iron bucket which weighs nearly a ton, and carries 
some nineteen cwts. of ore ; the Cornishmen call it a " kibble," 
the Brazilians, a "ca^amba."* It hangs to a carriage, running 
on a shaft of iron-shod wood, descending at an angle of about 
46°, and it is lowered and raised by a haul-wheel worked by 
water-power. There are two breaks. Cornice " drags," in the 
traction machinery for arresting progress suddenly, and should 
the chain snap, there is a catch, to which, howeyer, one must not 
trust. The big tub careers helplessly forwards and downwards, 
''with a surge," till the strong rivets give way, and tlie affair 
becomes a ruin ; the fate of a man dashed into this apparently 
fathomless abyss of darkness may be imagined. When the 
kibble has reached the hauling station where the shaft ends, 
self-acting springs detach it from its carriage ; it then descends 
vertically and is filled with stone. 

Accidents have been exceptionally rare in the (Ireat jNIine ; few 
have required the epitaph — 

Here lies tlie body of Jan Trenow, 
Killed undei'groiind, we can't say hoAv. 

And there has been no loss of life between July 1, 1865, and 
November, 1867. The contingencies have arisen chiefly from the 
breaking of dishonestly made chains, which should last two years, 
but which have often struck work after six months. The links 
fail owing to defective welding of the scarf, the mere skin of 
outer surface soon wears through, and imminent danger is the 
result. At first wire-ropes Avere tried and failed ; improved 
manufacture and different conditions of application have now 
rendered them safe. Under any average circumstances, how- 
ever, a trip in the "kibble " is not more risky than to descend 
any one of the four terrible inclined planes, those glissades of 
death, which make the stranger " squirm " on the Santos and 
Sao Paulo Railway. 

Presently the bucket was suspended over the abyss, and we 
found in it a rough wooden seat, comfortable enough. We were 

This must not he confounded with the nullali, veiy common on the lower Sao 
Angolan word "Ca^iinba," meaning a pit Francisco, 
for water, sunk generally in the hed of a 

rirAP. XXV.] 



advised by the pitmen not to look downwards, as the glimmer 
of sparks and light-points moving about in the mighty obscure 
below, causes giddiness and sea-sickness. We did look down, 
however, and none of us suffered from the trial. More useful 
advice was to keep head and hands well within the bucket, 
especially when passing the up-going tub. We tijiped and 
tilted half over only once against a kibble way drum, placed to 
fend off the " Cacamba." Those Avho followed us had three 
such collisions, which made them catch at the chains, and 
describe them as " moments of fearful suspense ; " they had 
been lowered in a kibble with a superfluity of chain. A stout 
young fellow, Zachariah Williams, one of the " lads below," kept 
within hail of us, descending the footway as fast as we rattled 
down in oui* novel vehicle. 

I could not but marvel at the mighty timbering* which met 
the eye as it dilated in the darkness visible — timber in brackets, 
timber in hitches or holes ; timber in the footways and sollars 
or resting places ; and timber in the stuUs, platforms for de- 
positing ore, for strengthening tlie wall, and for defending the 
workmen. All was of the best and hardest wood, and it is 
hardly conceivable how in such damp air it could have caught 
lire. The immunitv of Brazilian cities and towns results mostly 
from the use of timber more like heart-of-oak than our deal- 
tinder. The sight suggested a vast underground forest, but 

* Woods of the fir.'it qnnlity ave- 

Brauna, Parda 
Do. Preta 

CyciipiiM (Sii'ii]pira) 

Cauella Vermellui 
Folha de Bolo 
Grongalo Aires 
.Tacai'anda, Taa 

Do. Cabiuna 

Amongst inferior growths are reckoned- 








Canella Amarella 
Do. Preta 
Do. Sassafras 
Do. Loura 


Coita (Agoital Cavallo 


The cost of 5 cubic feet of tirst quality is 2 $000 ; 
„ 50 „ „ 60$000 

.. loo ,, ,, 190$000 

,, 70 ,, „ — 




Paroba Verm ell i a 






Oleo Venuelho 

Pinheiro Vennelho 

Paroba Branca 


of second quality, 2 $000 

" 45 $000 



a forest torn up by terrible floods, and dashed about by cata- 
racts in all directions, with the wildest confusion. The mighty 
maze, it need hardly be said, Avas not without a plan, very 
palpable at the second look. Terrible was the thrust ; in places 
the vastest trunks of the Brazilian forest giants have been cloven 
or crushed. These are at once removed and replaced by others. 
The work is never allowed to get into arrears ; everything must 
be kept tidy as well as safe, and the masonry is as carefully 
watched as the timber. After a short delay one pomt becomes 
weak, another dangerous, the water comes in, the mine works 
flat, and i)resently something gives way. 

The sight explains why those who are jealous of the mme 
threaten it with exhaustion of Avood for fuel and propping. Of 
this, however, there is no present danger, the whole Paraopeba 
district is still vmtapped, and the Bio das Velhas will yield large 
sujDplies for many years. We shall pass charcoal on the way to 
Sahara, and quantities are to be found at INIacacos to the soutli of 
the Morro Yelho estate. 

In thi^ i)art of the Brazil, .young wood, and especially that 
of small girth, does not last, if cut during the rainy season. 
The people here fell it from May to August, preferring June, 
and avoiding, as they say, "months Avhich have no R's," as 
we shun oysters in months which have them. The rationale is 
easil}' understood ; in the cold season, when the " dries " have well 
set in, the sap leaves the bole and returns to the ground. It is not 
so easy to account for the general belief that wood cut during the 
moon's wane is not liable to the worm ;'"' even tlie Indians will not 
fell trees for their canoes when the satelhte is full. In England, 
I believe, our ancestors who did not wish to be bald, objected to 
their hair being cut while the moon was waxing. Lunar action, 
despite northern scepticism, is everj'where in the Tropics a 
matter of faith. "We may treat it like mesmerism, as the efl'ect 
of latent electricity, or bhnd sympathy of some unknown force, 
or, best of all, with De Quincy's Uttoxv, or suspended judgment. 

* "He que cumiire nos minguantes may be said on both sides. Witli resiDect 
serem deiTiibadas." Silva, Lisboa Annaes, to its pernicious action upon sleepers, we 
iii. 153. I am pleased to see that the are now told that the "moon's rays con- 
question of lunar influence has of late tain polarised light, which cai-bonises, and 
years been considered unsettled. Dr. is therefore antagonistic to tlie sun's rays, 
Winslow adduces evidence to prove that as which oxygenate." 
reg:ivds its cfTect upon the insane, much 


The timbering does honour to Mr. John Jackson, the cap- 
tain in charge. It is Avorked mostly by contract, at so much 
per log. The men who undertake the job receive no pay, 
but are supplied with candles, and each pan- has a negro gang 
of 30 — 40 head. If they " tip " the slaves it is on the principle — 
or want of it — which makes us tip the railway guard. And here 
a white man striking a black is very properly fined. 

We made an easy descent through this timber avenue of 
monstrous grandeur, and a bit of lighted tow tied to the bucket- 
chain showed us all its features. There was no "rattle his bones 
over the stones," and the trip lasted fifteen minutes. At the 
bottom the kibble stood still, began to roll like a boat, and 
descended perpendicularly till we were received by Mr. Andrew, 
the stopes captain, now on duty. To-night Mr. "Williams will 
relieve him. Our eyes being here unaccustomed to the new 
gloom, we applied them to the unwatering system, as we stood 
in the " sump," which to collect the drainage was a little sunk 
below the deepest workings. There are two pumps, one in the 
Cachoeii-a, the other in Balm, each with five sets of plungers, 
worked by water power. The rods of the Bahii are 649 feet 
2 inches from the centre of the crank nij^ple pin to the middle 
of the pin at the surface bob. A hose from the stope-bottom is 
filled by a " lift" or suction-pump, which feeds a cistern above ; 
higher up the process is carried on by plunger-bolts, imtil 
the water is conveyed through the sump-shaft to the surface. 
This is a decided improvement upon the Brazihan " bomba " 
and"macacu," which perpetuates the old " hund " or " liund- 
slauf" of the Frej'berg miners. 

Presently Mrs. Gordon and my wife, habited in brown-holland 
trowsers, belted blouses, and mmer's caps, came down dehghted 
with the "kibble" travelling. The hands did everything to 
banish alarm ; showed lights at the stulls ; spoke and cheered as 
they passed, and were attentive as if in a drawing-room. They 
were received with friendly welcomes to the mines, and loud 
" vivas." "SVe were then joined by Messrs. Gordon and Whittaker, 
who will suffer from what the Permian miners call " Macolca."* 
When our eA'esight had become somewhat feline, we threw a general 
glance around. Once more the enormous timbering under the 

* A painful soreness of the muscles, particularly in the fore ]iart of the thigh. 

250 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZII,. [chap. xxv. 

bar, or to the east of the shaft, called to it everyone's atten- 

The mine was utterly new to me, and most unlike the dirty 
labyrinths of low drifts and stifling galleries, down which I haye 
often crawled like one of the reptilia or the quadrumana. The 
vertical height, 1134 feet, and the 108 feet of breadth, mipa- 
ralleled in the annals of mining, suggested a cavern, a huge stone 
quarry, a mammoth cave raised from the horizontal to the per- 
pendicular. Looking eastward, where the lode is slo^jed and 
bends up a trifle northwai'ds, before us arises a black ascent, 
besprinkled with lights, glittering like glow-worms upon a tall 
embankment ; some scattered over the lower levels, some fixed 
higher up, with their lamps of Ricinus * oil dimmed by distance. 
Candle-biu'ning, the usual test, detected nothing abnormal in the 
atmosphere ; the air was free, the ventilation Avas excellent, and 
sulphuretted hydrogen can be found only after blasting. Eight 
pleasant to the shareholder's ear would have been the merry 
song of the stope-cutter and the boisterous mirth of the borer. 
Presently they were silenced, the Superintendent made a short 
speech, and proposed the A-isitors ; this was received with loud 
vivas and cheers that sounded strange in the abysm, in the bowels 
of the earth. Of course our feet were " wiped," and physically 
speaking they wanted wipmg. The floor was wet, the mud Avas 
slippery, and locomotion seemed like an ascent of the Pyramids, 
although the ground was j^retty level considering. 

Then turning to the west we ascended a stope or two leading from 
the Cachoeira to the Balm Mine ; here was a trickhng streamlet 
which in a few days Avould have drowned out the old men.f The 
water is slightly ferruginous, perhaps from contact with the iron 
tools ; it does not, however, much oxydise or corrode metals. 
Testing its temperature at various successive horizons, Mr. 
Gordon found the water at the bottom of the mme colder than 
that on the surface. He carefully rejected the elements of error 
nrismg from animal temperature, lights, fires, and the higher 
temperature VA-ithin the sumps. Many observations have induced 
him to question the existence of that inexplicable and indeed 
Inconceivable caloric formerly located by M. Cordier and others 

* lu tliis mine all the works under the preceded the gi-andfathers or the gi-eat- 
surface are lighted with Ricinus oil. gi-andfathers of the present race. 

+ " Os Antigos," as they call those who 


at the centre of the earth.* It is always a i)leasure to see the 
old, the highly respectahle, the "time-honoured truths" of oiu' 
childhood shattered and cast to the winds. It is satisfactory to 
learn that we do not know everything about the solar parallax ; and 
that we have even something to explore about the moon. It is a 
treat to unlearn that, despite the teachings of Artesian wells and 
of volcanoes, of earthquakes and of thermal springs, we are 
inhabiting a kind of mundane egg-shell, a solid crust, an orange 
skin of badly conducting matter, a bomb stuffed with impos- 
sible contents. Mr. Glaisher's adventurous balloon ascents have 
severely damaged Humboldt's ratio of thermal decrement in 
elevation. Let us hope that IMr. Gordon may unmask that pre- 
tentious caloric, lend aid to the solid rockj-^ skeleton theory, and 
thus light up another dark place for the rational eye.! 

As we went forwards the roof of the Cachoeira, especially about 
the sump and at the middle section, seemed to impend consider- 
ably, with protuberances which excited astonishment. Of late, 
part of the northern hanging wall has been somewhat baulk and 
unsound, whilst much killas has appeared in the southern side ; 
thus the lode has somewhat contracted and diminished. Yet the 
inherent strength of the roof is judged to need little artificial 
support, and we were shown the remnant of the bar or tongue of 
killas slate which separated the two great mines, and which was 
long left as a prop. For the future the capel and other valueless 
matter will be left in the " Cachoeira," thus avoiding the trouble 

* The gradual increment of lieat is sup- 20°'65 (Cent.), and tliis gives — 

posed greatly to vai^ according to the Temp. 7 metres below surface. 20°'65 (C.) 

nature of the rock. The difference in fact ,, at bottom of mine . . 27°"22 (C.) 

has been stated to be as much as 12 to .35 

metres per 1° (Cent.). We may assume Difference . . . 6°'57 (C.) 

ilie average of 1° Fahr. = | Centigi-ade The depth being then 264^ '6 (i.e., 271"' 

at 70 feet— 54 feet (Ansted), to 9 O' feet —6 or 7) gives 1° (C.) to 40'" "27 of 

(Herschel). A mile of depth usually re- depth. 

presents 117° (F.) = 65° C. ; at two miles f Mr. Gordon is, I imderstand, about 

water boils, at 2700 metres it becomes to publish the results of his labours, 

steam, at -3000 metres sulphur would be ]\Ieanwhile, he kindly gave me leave to use 

fused, at 6500 metres lead woixld be melted, an extract, which will be found in Appen- 

at 9 miles all substances arc red-hot, and dix 1 (Section B). The figures sliow great 

at 30—40 miles all matter is in fu.sion or irregularity both in the water and in the air. 

incandescence. What then can there be Dr. Julius Schvarez, the Hungarian an- 

300— 3000 miles below the surface ? thropologist, has also, I believe, attacked 

According to Lt. Moraes (p. 42), the "internal heat," and has supplanted the 

surface temperature of Morro Velho is doctrine of a central fire by an entirely 

75° (F. ), and at the bottom 81° (F. ), and new argument. (Anthrop. Review, .Tuly 

he remarks that the general opinion repre- — October, 1867, p. 372.) The skeleton 

sents it to be veiy hot. He makes the theory, with pores and cavities containing 

mean annual temperature of Moito Velho fiery fluid, is, I believe, gaining ground. 


and expense of raising it, and utilizing it in i^arts of the excava-= 
tion, where liitherto for safety much tiinher has been expended. 

And now looking west, the huge Palace of Darkness, dim in 
long perspective, wears a tremendous aspect ; above us there 
seemed to be a skj^ without an atmosphere. The walls were 
either black as the grave or reflected slender raj-s of light glancing 
from the polished Avatery surface, or were broken into monstrous 
projections, half revealing and half concealing the cavernous gloomy 
recesses. Despite the lamps, the night pressed upon us, as it 
were, with a weight, and the only measure of distance was a spark 
here and there, glimmering like a single star. Distinctly Dan- 
tesque was tlie gulf between the huge mountain sides, apparently 
threatening every moment to fall. Everything, even the accents 
of a familiar voice, seemed changed, the ear was struck by the 
sharp click and dull thud of the hammer upon the boring iron, 
and this upon the stone ; each blow invariably struck so as to 
keep time with the wild chaunt of the borer. The other definite 
sounds, cmiously compHcated by an echo, which seemed to be 
within reach, were the slush of water on the subterranean path, 
the rattling of the gold stone thrown into the kibbles, and the 
crash of chain and bucket. Through this Inferno gnomes and 
kobolds glided about in ghostly fashion, half-naked figures 
muffled by the mist. Here dark bodies, gleaming with beaded 
heat-drops, hung by chains in what seemed frightful positions ; 
there they swung like Leotard from place to place ; there they 
swarmed up loose ropes like the Troglodytes ; there they moved 
over scaffolds, which, even to look ixp at, would make a nervous 
temperament dizzy. This one view amply repaid us. It was a 
place — 

'\^niere thonghts were many, and where words were few: 

but the effect will remain upon tlie mental retina as long as our 
brains do their duty. 

At the end of two hours we left this cathedral'd cavern of 
thick-ribbed gold, and we were safely got like ore to grass. 



Ambages, sed sumnia seqixar fastigia rerum. 

We have just seen the stone sent up hy the kibble fillers. 
The whole process between the lode and the ingot will now be 
under the charge of the Reduction Officer, Mr. Dietsch, whose 
department employs some 550 hands. We will accompany 
that " Good Lord deliver us," and witness the birth of the babe. 

The embryo is placed in the tram-waggons connecting the 
mines witli the spalling-fioors. The latter are four in number, 
long airy sheds, completely guarded from rain and sea. Here 
begins the fu'st process of mechanical pulverization. To each 
floor is allotted a feitor or overseer, and under him the sledgers 
break the larger pieces to the size of a man's fist. The women, 
who are four to one man, then reduce it to the size of moderate 
macadam, about 1 j inch square, small enough to pass through the 
hoppers feeding the stamp coffers. Their hammers are long- 
handled, with lozenge-shaped steel heads, weighing 1| lb., and a 
first-class woman breaks a ton and a-lialf a da}-. They easily 
learn to "pick," to separate the rich from the poor ore: the 
latter has no metaUic lustre, no iridescence. An over-abundance 
of slate and quartz at times causes delay, which is employed in 
rest. Each spaller must fill up one or two wooden fmmels, con- 
taining 16 cubic feet, and during the six days a supply for the 
seventh is accmnulated. The men labour only whilst it is light ; 
the industrious can finish theii* tasks on Friday evening, and thus 
they have the Saturday for themselves. AVomen and fresh hands 
are spared, and they can usually "knock off," if they please, at 
2 P.M. They suffer from the stone dust, but this could be easily 
remedied with fans. 

254 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxvi. 

At fii'st sight 350 hands engaged iu ispalhng seems a sad waste 
of j)ower. But it is not easy to imj)rove upon the system, which 
has lasted smce 1767. The roads, it has been shown, are unfit 
to bear heavy machmery. The use of steam has been rejected, 
water being by no means j^lentiful. " Bagg's steam spalling 
hammer" was tried, and failed. Now the Superintendent is about 
to set up another labour-saving contrivance, "Blake's stone 
crushing machine,"* of wliich we saw a portion in the square, 

For fm-ther pulverization the sj)alled stone must be stamped. I 
The amount treated at head-quarters is 200 — 210 tons per diem, 
more in the rains, less in the dry season. Half an ounce of gold 
per ton pays, and the present rate, nearly one ounce per ton, is 
highly remunerative. Also, I have said, to clear off expenses 
(■100/.) 300 tons of stuff must every da}^ be raised from the mine, 
and to give dividends, 400. This gives a fair view of the work 

The poor ore, as we have seen, goes by a tramway to the 
Praia. The rich si^alled stuff is thrown into a row of wooden 
funnels, which, opening below, discharge into tram-waggons 
working in a timnel. These carts are shunted uj) to the Stamp 
Passes, and are tipped over into enclosed sHdes of wood, each a 
general reseiToii-, which, assisted by a central "lifter," feeds all 
its stamps for a day and a fraction. The Passes are regulated b}- 
hoppers, with weighted arms acting as springs. The stamps, 
divided into sections of three heads each, are worked by the 
simj)le old water-wheel t and horizontal axle, whose cogs or cams 
raise, 60 to 78 times per minute, upright shafts ranged in row 
like capstan bars, or the pestles of an African housewife. Each 

■■ The Brazilians call it ' • Cuuiedoi-, " or Praia. At head-quarters there are 6 sets 

stoue-eater, on account of its moveable (or 135 heads), named the Addison, Her- 

limb or jaw. ring, Powles, Lyon, Cutesworth, and Sii- 

+ The ore stamped between Mai'ch and saunah. At the Praia are 2 batteries (i><> 

August, 1866, amounted to 29,037 tons. heads). Thus the total is 191 heads, dis- 

During the 6 preceding months, 29,542 tributed into 61 batteries, 
tons. The Praia has 2 large "pressed wheels," 

During the 6 months ending August, upon whose centre the water impinges. 

1865, 30,268 tons. The larger, 32 feet in diameter, and 9 feet 

In June, 1867, some 6020 tons were 1 inch wide, drives the Hocking stamps, 

stamped. 32 heads and 2 triturators ; the smaller, 

+ The wheels vary from 35 to 50 feet in 26 feet x 7 feet 8 inches, works the 

diameter. There are 10 at head-quai-ters, Illingsworth, of 24 heads and 4 aiTastres. 

viz., 6 for the stamps, 1 for the tritura- The Praia stamps arc not self -feeding, 

tors, and 1 for amalgamation. The stamps )nanual labour docs the hojtper's work, 
arc iu batteries of ?, each, and 4 at the'. XXVI.] THE BIRTH UF THE BABE. 255 

"lifter" has a "head" of country iron weighing when new live to 
six arrobas ; the rest of the instrument gives a total weight of 
234—288 lbs., and each head costs 26$000 to 27 $000. After 
three months or so they become much worn, and are transferred, 
like the short breeches of the elder brother, to the Cadet at the 
Praia. The Superintendent has imported steel heads from 
England; each one valued at 106 $300, and not one lasted out 
the common "chapas de ferro" of Minas iron. 

The "cotter" or rectangular trough in which the stamps work 
is a wooden box lined with iron to receive a blow of 380 lbs. ; it 
is 26 to 30 inches long by 1 foot to 18 inches wide. All are protected 
fore and aft by cojjper grates, with 6000 to 10,000 holes to the 
square inch, and raised 20 to 23 inches above the coft'er, to 
prevent the fine powder passing away: from a short distance you 
see the grey dust and water surging up around the stamp head. 
A horizontal trough drops tln-ough a hole above the grating suffi- 
cient water to keep the charge wet in each battery ; once a week 
the grates, which are liable to clogging, must be removed, and 
the gold sand washed out. The stamp laboiu-ers are divided into 
two gangs, working day and night by alternate weeks. 

This system of stamping loses free gold, which, when finely 
laminated, is too light to sink, and fioats off with the slimes. 
Mr. Thos. Treloar, whose experience at Cocaes, Gougo Soco, and 
other places, entitles his opinion to respect, has declared that 7 
— 8 per cent, of this thin plate gold disappears. Evidently the 
sole remedy is to re-treat till deposition takes place. 

Now commences the concentration process. The cofier-sup- 
ph'ing trough also gives water enough to wash the stamped and 
pulverized matter down the strakes. These substitutes for the 
earth trenches and " canoas," are wooden planes 26 feet long, 
divided by ribs into shallow compartments, 3 feet long by 14 
inches wide, with an angle of inclination of 1 inch per foot. Each 
compartment is floored with an oblong of partially tanned bullock's 
skin, or blanket when hide fails : it takes the place of the old 
Brazilian grass sod. The tanner}- is near to and north of the 
Ribeirao Bridge. 

The principle is that the heavy but invisible gold in the slaty 
sand adheres to the skin, whilst the lighter earthy i)articles are 
washed away. The hau' is against the course of the water, but the 
little transverse lines of wrinkle, which time and use trace upon the 

256 THE HiGHLANi)S OF IKE BRAZIL. [chap. xxvi. 

surface, are of more importance. Each ton of ore passing over 
the skins, leaves from one -third to one -half of a cubic foot of rich 
sand, and each cuhic foot produces on an average 2 ounces of 


For the most part women attend the strakes and do the light 
work of watching the machinery, trimming the skins, and regu- 
lating the water ; if tliis be neglected, the sand becomes clogged, 
and the gold floats over. The skins are divided into three upper 
or head skins, two middles, and two tails. The former, being the 
richest, are washed every two hours in one of the seven head sand 
boxes, whose keys are kept by the feitors. The large chest is 
divided into three compartments : the liides are first washed in the 
two side chambers ; they are then drawn through the " swim- 
box " or middle space ; and finally they are restored to the 
strakes. The middle and tail skins are washed every four hours, 
and the latter must be re-straked * before the}' are rich enough to 
be amalgamated with the head-skins. 

Thus the finer sand is ready for amalgamation. But the 
coarser stuft' that passes over the strake-skins still contains some 
30 per cent, of gold. It is carried doAvn b}^ the launders to an 
ingenious self-acting apparatus, called a separator or classificator, 
adopted about four years ago, and much preferred to the old 
" concentrating ties." It is a wooden trough 12 feet long hj 2^ 
wide, with four funnels perforated below : in these the stuff to be 
washed is gradually deposited ; the heaviest particles settle in the 
first, wdiere there is most watershed ; the lightest in the last, 
where there is least, and the residue of inijDalpable slime runs 
tlu'ough an open trapeze-shai^ed trough into the common di-ain, 
the Eibeirao. 

The four tunnels discharge their contents into grinding circles 
of wood, stone paved, and about 8 feet in diameter. These are 
the " arrastres " or triturators, f protected by their sheds. A 
water-wheel works two horizontal arms, which drag by strong 

* Tliey are couceutratetl in ' ' tailing- only to triturate. There are three sets, the 

boxes," large troughs filled with water ; Routh, which receive the washings of the 

these, when the bottoms are opened, wash Addison and Herring stamps ; this is a 

the sands down the hides once more. The small building to the south-west of the 

boxes are in \>a.\vs, one being closed for main spalling floor. There ai-e also the 

washing the hides whilst the other dis- saw-mill arrastres in a lower detached 

charges the sand. building ; they re-work the sand only when 

t Drag stones, from "anastrar," to not employed in plank-cutting. The thii-d 

draw. In IMexico the rude contrivance arc the amalgamation aiTastrcs, attachcil 

was Tised for amalgamation, here it serves to the amalgamation wheel. 


chains four stones, each weighing a ton : the lode-stone is preferred 
for this purjiose, as quartz does not grind well. After a 
thorough trituration the sand passes over the arrastres-strakes, is 
collected into tailing boxes, and is then prepared for the Amalga- 
mation House. 

But even after this second process it was found necessary 
further to reduce the refuse containing disseminated gold : 
this till 1855 was throAvn into the stream: in 1856 the "Praia 
Works " were begun, and in 1858 they were ready for use. 
A dam Avas thrown across the Bibeirao to give a fall of water. 
The Arrastres sand was run along the right bank in a flume 
500 feet long, 1 foot A^ide, and 9 inches deep. It was then 
taken up by a leat i^assing through a tunnel in the hill upon 
which stands Mr. Smyth's bungalow, and finally it is carried 
by launders to the lower works. Here it falls in a series 
of concentrating ties that separate the coarse from the fine 
stuft", and from 160 to 170 cubic feet of sand-water are de- 
livered per minute. The sand is now re-stamped with a 
harder substance to assist the grinding. Formerly Cascallio- 
gTavel — which contains quartz and iron — sand and alluvial 
dei)osits from the Bibeirao, were employed. Now they use quartz 
and Idllas in pieces about 2 inches long, and they find the 
unjjyritic quartz the best. 

At the main works the rich " head sand," which we have seen 
partially disentangled from the stone matrix, enters uj)on another 
phase. It is carefully kept moist, and defended from the atmos- 
phere in wash tanks under w^ater ; thus the flouring and 
powdering of the mercury are prevented. It is carried down from 
the boxes to the Amalgamation House in wooden bowls : the 
carriers are usually about twenty, with a reinforcement on 
^Mondays. This is wholesome work in the open air ; but in the 
further process the youngest and stoutest hands are used, as 
" washing" doubtless affects the health. Inclined planes for con- 
veying the sand and other economical processes have been 
proposed ; the Supermtendent, however, sensibly cares most 
to show a good balance-sheet, and has little inducement to try 
expensive and precarious experiments. 

The head sand is first deposited for measurement in boxes, 
each holding 16 cubic feet. Of these there are 16, and each 
connects by a funnel with its Freyberg or amalgamating barrel, 

VOL. I. S 

258 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chai-. xxvi. 

whose contents are tlie same.* The sand is watered, and a small 
wheel causes the barrel to revolve for half an hour at the rate of 
13 — 14 revolutions per minute. The " Freyberg " is then opened : 
if the paste be too wet the mercury will not mix well with the 
sand ; the other extreme will divide the quicksilver too finely. 
When the mass is of proper consistenc}', 50 — 60 lbs. of mercury t 
are added to each barrel, wliich is expected to contain 32 oimces 
of gold. 

Formerly the barrel process was continued 48 hours before the 
disengaged particles of concentrated sand were brought into com- 
plete contact with the mercmy. Now the average is from 24 to 26 
hours : the shorter time is in the hotter weather, and the richest 
gold requires the most work. After 24 hours a sample from the 
barrel is washed in the batea to see if any free gold remains. In 
Brazilian mines the first " bateada " is always given for good luck 
to strangers. 

When amalgamated, the muddy and partially liquid mixture is 
discharged from the barrel into the receiving trough placed imme- 
diately below, and here it sinks, freemg itself from the water. 
The object is now gradually to separate the mercury and amalgam 
from the mineral residue, the sand and the other impurities. 
The mass is washed down into a ''lavadero"- or " saxe," a 
machine composed of 10 troughs, each 16 inches long and 17 
deep, reciprocating and working in wheels with a to-and-fro 
horizontal motion. Each compartment is charged with a bed of 
mercury, from 340 to 460 lbs., forming a stratum about 1 inch in 
depth. Two or three inches above the quicksilver is a passage 
through which the residuary sand and water are expelled by the 
movement. The free mercury rises and may be drawn off for use, 
whilst the amalgam sinks by its greater specific weight. Each 
compartment will separate in 8 hours its 16 cubic feet.t 

The fourth operation is " cleaning up," or sex^arating the gold 

* Some six different modes — iron pans, ciibic foot. Tlie price of quicksilver at 

dolly-tubs, &c., liave been tried, but the !Morro Velho is only 1$500 jier lb., and it 

revolving barrel has finally been preferred ; is cheaijer to throw away the sick stuff 

the others gave inferior results, with a than to treat it with sodium, 
greater loss of mercury. + The sand washed out of the last saxe 

+ In 1846, the monthly loss of quick- compartment runs over strakes, and here 

silver was 35 — 70 lbs. In 1866, the con- the hides arrest stray portions of amalgam 

sumption was 1091 lbs., or 39 ozs. per and "liss;" the latter is composed of 

cubic foot of sand amalgamated. In May, various oxides and pearlish mercury, finely 

1867, 5200 lbs. have been used in amalgam, divided by the sulphate of the iron per- 

giving a loss of 95 lbs., or '41 lbs. per oxide and the free sulphuric acid. 


from the amalgain : this is done three times each month 
after " divisions," longer or shorter periods of 10 to 12 
days. The upper part of the saxe is removed, boiling 
water is poured into each compartment, and thus the metal is 
more easily separated. Then the surface of the amalgam is 
covered ^ith a stratum of coarse sand, from ^ to ^ an inch thick. 
After the hot water has been thrown out the sand is easily 
skimmed off, and the quicksilver becomes clean. The amalgam 
is then by strong twisting filtered through canvas cones of the 
stoutest Russian linen like coifee stramers, with stout iron rings 
round the mouths : the bags are subsequently treated to recover 
a nttle gold. The liquid quicksilver is thus forced out into a 
vessel readj' prepared : the metal is considered pure, but minute 
inspection shows finely diffused gold. That which remains behind 
is still impm'e with mineral sand. Portions of the paste weigh- 
ing 1-1 — 15 lbs. are rubbed in Wedgewood mortars Avith boiling 
water, which softens the mercurial alloy, and with native soap, 
which removes the impurities. Mercury is then added, the fluid 
amalgam is poured from pan to pan, both being of ii'on heated, 
and the surface dross or scum thus thrown up to the surface is 
removed. Boihng water and soap are reapplied till impmities 
disappear, and the metal looks bright with a silvery lustre. 

Now balls of the pasty amalgam, weighing 15 ounces to 2 lbs., are 
kneaded into the shape of eggs, and are squeezed, wrung, and 
beaten in chamois leather till no free metal appears. The residue 
is a solid containing 42 per cent, of argentiferous gold * and 
57 — 58 per cent, of mercur}^, with some impure matter, chiefly 
mineral sand. After this the baUs, carefully weighed, are re- 
torted in the usual manner ; the operation is completed after six 
or seven hours. 

But the gold is still impure with iron and arsenic, nor has it 
tlie proper shape. It calls for the fifth form of treatment — the 

The precious ore is now melted in crucibles of refractory clay 
made by M. Payen of Paris. Each is charged with 12^^ lbs. of 
alloy, and ^ lb. of flux, borax, and bicarbonate of soda in equal 
proportions. It is then placed in an air furnace t heated by 

* A few years ago the proportion of tlie (furnos altos) of good solidity, lined with 

precious metal was only 37 to 62 — 63. cast-iron plates, two cupel furnaces of 

+ In 18(32 a small laboratory and an assay masoniy, one dry bath, one gold melting 

office were built near the Amalgamation room, and one wcighiug-room, separate. 
House. They contain two ■wind-furnaces 

260 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxvi. 

charcoal, and a chimney or stack 26 feet high secures the degrees 
of temiierature required. Complete fusion is effected in about 
45 minutes. The crucible * is taken up with tongs, and the 
golden fluid is poured like a bar of soap into an oblong mould 
of cast iron previously warmed to expel moisture, and slightly 

Thus the babe is born and cradled. 

It is born, however, with a caul. The sldn is black with the 
slag of the fused salts, which have dissolved the impure matter of 
the golden charge. Tliis surface is knocked off with the hammer, 
and the bar is found to have lost, from the crucible and other 
causes, from 6 to 8 oitavas, or J per cent, of its original weight. 
The ingots are cast three times per month, and 14 per diem 
is fair work. Each weighs 1600 oitavas, and assuming this at 
7s. per oitava, the value will be 5601 A 

And now the birth must be sent home. After each second 
month the bars are taken to the Company's office, and are 
there weighed by the Reduction officer m the presence of the 
Superintendent. The}' are then screwed down in small solid 
boxes of the fine hard yellow wood " vinliatico," each case 
containing tlu'ee bars, and sealed with the Comjianj-'s seal. 
The small packages are stowed away in as many mail-trunks, 
and are committed to the " Gold Troop." This is com- 
manded by Mr. George Morgan, Jun., an experienced tra- 
veller, for whose kindness to my wife, on her return, I am 
most grateful. She would not have hesitated to travel 
accompanied only by unarmed blacks : there are few places 

* After 3 — 4 meltings the cracihles are bath, and a charge of two ozs. is weighed 

worn out, they are then crushed, and the off. It then receives tlie flux (fundente), 

gold in the little cracks of the material, 500 grs. of red oxide of lead, two ozs. 

and the fine globules on the surface of the bicarbonate of soda, one oz. borax, one oz. 

porous clay, are recovered. common salt, and a little charcoal powder. 

t The dry way is used in the carefully Fusion is effected in an earthen crucible, 

conducted assays necessary to discover the with a small iron rod, that causes the lead 

"loss in i>rocess," and the value of the to remain ductile, and the arsenic to 

ore treated during the divisions. The first separate from the sulphur, and collect at the 

step is to "sample," a delicate and im- top. The operation is always checked by 

portant matter, unjustifiably neglected by a second sample. When its contents have 

the unscientific Cornish miner. Three been liquified in the fusion furnace, they 

times a day, with intervals of four hours, 20 are poured into an iron mould, where the 

cubic inches of stuff, taken from each coffer, scorite of the flux and the metalloids and 

are placed iii the barrels till the mineral minerals, arsenic, sulphur, iron, alumi- 

particles deposit themselves. The " sepa- nium, silicium, and others, separate them- 

rations," or specimens of the different lodes, selves. Finally, the cupel (cadinha) and 

are inspected at the assay oflice after every mufile are used, and the button (culote) of 

division. The sample is dried in a sand- argentifercnis gold is the sample requii-ed. 


where this can be done with perfect safety, even in civilized 

Mr. Morgan is armed, and is escorted by two Tropeiro-guards, 
who have permission to carry pistols ; the rest are drivers, with 
no weapons but their knives. Nothing could be easier than to 
scatter the little escort ; a few shots from any hill-side would 
throw all the mules into confusion, and much treasure might be 
taken without bloodshed. That no such attempt has ever been 
made to plunder speaks very highly of Mineiro honesty, espe- 
cially in a country where the police is merely nominal. It is 
related that, many years ago, a highwajonan was captm'ed after a 
short, successful career of bandittism ; he was sent to Pdo de 
Janeiro, ostensibly for judgment, but he was accidentally shot on 
the road. His death produced an excellent effect ; had he 
reached Eio he would have escaped upon the same principle that 
causes Big Elk or Spotted Dog, after scalping a few dozen whites, 
to be feted and flunkeyed at Washington. 

Thus housed, the babe embarks for England. It had better 
far have remained in the Brazil, where such small population is 
much wanted. 



" No flourishing and in'osi^erous community of the different races of the European 
family has ever existed in a lower latitude than 3G°." — J/?-. Cran-fitrd, Trans. 
Etlino. Soc, vol. i., part 2, p. 3G-1:. 

It may be said with truth that as a field for the white man no 
comitry equals the Brazil. In colonial days the pride of the 
people gave away their daughters to the Portuguese paupers, 
pedihus qui venerat albis, but who could prove gentility. In later 
times Eiu'ojDean clerks and mechanics have intermarried as a rule 
with the " first families." In this most democratic of empii'es, 
in tliis " monarchy fenced round \ai\\ democratic institutions," 
this "republic disguised as an empire," all white men, not all 
free men, are equals, socially as well as politically. All are, to 
use the Spanish saying, "as noble gentlemen as the king, but 
not so rich." The aristocracy of the sldn is so strong — despite 
the governmental apophthegm " all men are equal" — that nothing 
can make U2) for its absence.* Every "branco" is as good as 
his neighbour, upon the same principle that every scion of 
Basque-land has an equal title to " gentlemanship." Tliis 
naturally, ine\itably results from the presence of an inferior 
race and a servile caste. And thus it comes that society knows 
two divisions, and two onl}-, free man and slave, or synonymously 
white man f and black man. Hence here, as in the United States, 
we observe the unnecessary insolence with which the proletaire 
from Europe delights to assert his independence. I have been 
addressed by a runaway English seaman whom I had never seen, 
simply thus, " Burtin," &c., kc. 

Tlie race in tlie Brazil being greatly pure white Llood are proud of it beyond 

mixed, allusions to colour in general society measure. 

are considered to be bad taste. Strangers, f "Men branco "— my white— is tlie 

however, will soon remark that families of civil address used by Indians and Africans. 


111 the great Atlantic cities of the Brazil, and these only are, 
as a rule, known to foreigners, there are sections of the labour 
market where competition flourishes, and where, thanks to the 
Liberal partj^^, there is a great and increasing jealousy of strangers. 
Not so in the interior and in the small towns. Nowhere can an 
honest hardworkmg man get on so well with such a minimum 
of money or abiht3^ The services of a useful hand, whatever 
be liis specialty or trick, vnll be bid for at once, and at the 
highest possible value, and wall always remain in demand ; and 
it is simply his own fault if employment does not lead on to 
fortune, and to what we may call rank. Convinced of this fact, 
whenever I hear a foreigner complain that he has failed in the 
Brazil, and rail against the people and their mstitutions, it is 
proof positive to me that the countr}' has every right to complain 
of hun — in fact that he is a ''ne'er do weel," that he drinks, or he 
is an idler ; he is incorrigibly dishonest ; or finally, to be chari- 
table, that he is an impossible man. This is unhappily far from 
being the usual belief;* but my personal experience of nearly 
three years, diu'ing which I have studied every phase of society 
between the palace and the cottage, entitles me to form an inde- 
pendent opinion. 

MoiTO Yelho alone will supply many instances of men who 
came out as simple miners and mechanics, and Tvho by industry, 
sobriety, and good conduct, unaided by education or talent, have 
risen to positions which in an older country could not be achieved 
in a single generation. Some have gone forth from it to become 
superintendents of mining companies ; others are local capitalists, 
and there are many instances of success on a smaller scale. 

At the great mine, besides the oflicers, there are (June, 1867) 
eighty-six English miners, and fifty-five workmen and mechanics ; 
the grand total of whites, including families, is 343. f Contracts 
are made in England, usually for six years, renewable by consent 
of both contracting parties. The wages of miners and mechanics 
vary fi'om £S to ^GIO per month of twenty-five worldng days ; 
men of superior sldll command more. The outward passage, 

* Strangers are disposed, naturally few fewer, than in tlie Brazil. Trades 
enough, to exaggerate the jealousy of the unions, and other rank groT\i,hs of over- 
people, and to complain of a combination population, are of coui-se here unknown, 
against them. But let the complainers try + In Appendix 1, Section C, the reader 
any European country, and they v.-ill find, I will find a "General Summaiy of Station 
am convinced, more obstacles in many, in List " for June, 1867. 

<2{H 'I'lll^ IIHJI1I,\MM (tl' 'nil', IU!\/.II, |. inr, NNvii 

roHlillfj; I'ViH I (In., in |iiinl |py I lit' ( 'tiiiipiiiiy . hiiiiii;', I lie lirnl 
llll'ri" \('iil'M llli'I'c ill nil ilicrcHSr of \\ii;m';i, tli'|irliilili;', 1I|M)|| jmhmI 
I'oImIiK I. ol t'l |>rl IIIClllU'lll. 'I'llC lllrll Mr(< l'lirii|M'M<.<V(l to liiko 

("uiili'iit'lM. mill " ih> lU'o^i't'HH tin |>ii_v," HcciircM (Imililt' llif iiiiiokiiI. 
ol' work tiniii' nil " owiit'r'M iiccomil." 'I'licy t'lmil) iiivtml IIkmi' 
Mlivill^'lii III trii lit roiiili'cii |)i'r it'iil.; Ilicy rciiiil iiioiicy willnMil 
cuMt III Kio (|i< JiiiKMro, mill in llir IniiiKi llicri' lU'c niiiiu< I'ilSOO 
of IIIIImII ri'iiliiiniiivi. 

I'lncli iniiii'r im IhmiiuI hi ii |irniill\ ul I'.iO, winrli hiul ln'liiiviuiii' 
rmriMln. mill (I im driliirli'tl uimillilv li'i' llif "|i('iiiilly liuiil." 
I''.i;'lil iiliilliiij'ii |M'r ini'iisi'lii iil'c ImIm'II IiM' llir cuiil itij-iMn y ol' 
llio icllini |»llMMn|-;'t', wllirll comIm I'VU* ; wlirll, linwrvt'l', II iiimi 

I'iiIIk nirlv licrnic llii> i'S|iiriil iiMi ol lii-t rii|-\ii|M'iiiriil , Hit' <'i>iii|>miy 
IMiVM lor liiti iioiiKMVMi'd joiinicy, mid liiM HMlmy t'cnMCH iVoiii llir 
diiy ol' liiM l(Miviii;j tli(< iiiiiic 'I'liiti tilioiild lii< I'ciuiiM'cd roiii 
jitdMory iipoii nil I'liii'iisli iissoriiil ioiiM in llii< Uni/il, mid lliiis 
\V(« (diould iivoid llic d('|.*rMdi»lioii of Ht'ciii;; oiir Irllow toinilry- 
iiit'ii, iil'lcr Ix'ihf^' diMiiiiMMt'd l»y moimc |>(>lly onicini, \vtintlt«riiij^' 
iilmiil lioiiMidt'MM, iViiMidlcMM, iiMi'td'ooli'tl, mill in ni,",s. In ni\ ilii\ 
\vt< wiM't* not idiowi'd lo Inko lioiuc ii mdivi" scrvtuil iVoiii hidiu 
wiliioid di>|toMiliu)^ lilt" \iduo ol' Ium iclmn |tiiMMn^<' ; ("illicr woin(> 
(uniiliir Imw nIioiiIiI lir iniidi' l)\ onr Iniprruil rmlimiu'iil , or I lii< 
dirdt'ivist'd nrili;di ImidMiicn ;iiioidil ln' trcnlcd m> " distrcsstMl 
Ht«ium>n." ■* 

\\ lirn luiiitM's linn;', oiil llirir rmnilii"-! lo Mono N'rllio, liicft* 
ill no lolilnu"! lor llir rliddirn, w lios<> lillioiir lllMS ludoM^;H lo 
llu' |iill'('Mlri. Tin* iir\\l\ miiM'd ^\o{ iM'tMJil id tilt' sloi'i" of 
M«>MMVH. Alt'MiniIrr mid i'o., mid, km Iuim lit>t'M sliown. lioiis»» 
I'tMil muoiinlM (o M li^w HitilliMi-^M n yt'iir. 'I'iir limul, iis ti culc, 
|>rt'M(M'vtvi luH I'.iij^lisii lnNlt<M, wllirll M. I'lnnriiltdli mitl tdlicrs 
ij^jiioi't' ; lio disdains olirnp Hon|>-., In* miciM'm iit llio i'iildiii;;i" sImIK, 
li(> idVtM'lM diu'K'i mid liiilviNM, |>orl mid nIu'itn . In liis own 
Imif^MUfM' ho wiiiil'; llio l>r'.| ol t'vci'N I Inn;;, mid |dt>nly id' il ; 

'*' I bIioIiIiI IMMIHWO llll\t< tlV(>U «»(>« (lis- lonkoil ll|tl>ll HM 1(11 Ol|IU>l, lUul I'VOII nH'oivOll 

tuiHHKil itif III tMiuilui't mIiiuiIiI I>o HOiit Itoiiio l\v lliiiuK III whiuii in KiihIiuhI Ii<< mkuM 

ul llio ii\|n<»mi ol' \\iiui>iuilii« Itiid luvvii oi(» (inu'li IiIb liitl on Iho imhiI niiln, Aooin>l 

|>lo\i>il tliiMK, 'V\\i» woulil luml III moiHi inal.v In' wtivt* " liun(|>liiiii»," ho "v'hookM" 

i'lt\'nn\B|>oi'Uon In ontji»(ili\« mocvuhIm will* ItU Mn|ioi'iiii', iinil liol'oii< ln< Iikn lonrnoil lln< 

noml i'oi'liili>i\lo«. \n h inlo llio ICntjlUU lHn|in;»j;i< oi llio \\i«,v lo (luivo, ln> Im hirnoil 

>i|io\'ullvo " lowo* UU InMttl " iliuinn IiIm low onl, iiol to mImiao IIioco in no Mlncviim in 

tlcMt tnonlliN In Oio llmtil, llo lutM (mou)>oiI (ln< Hiivnil l>nl to oiil (lio ln>i>,>t<l olf W^- 

\\\\ oIh»n ilUlinvtlonx, Ini llnilH iiiinnoll' ^i>r,v, lo >h'ink, nml i>imI>«1«I,v to roll, 

nur, wMi |iiii: wiiii'i; Mi\i;i; amii'III'; iii;o\vn minI';i;. 


Iir ii:i|iii'i'!i l() " H|)riiil Willi llir itiMt," iiliil lio durii lici wili*. 
Ill ('MH(t <il' lriillH^M'(<HHill^' ui'ilci'M III- JM lor llitt Itllllllln- olVrllccH 

iiiiiIcIimI, I'iu' IIm« |^n'iMiti<i' (liMiiiiHiu'il. Till' iniioiinl <•!' I'iikm Im 

Hi'lllcil 111 llic iliiily "(Xlicei'H' ('iinrcici ," itinl llic |iii|iir iit 

|>u:,|i'(| III llii' liihj"!'. I liiivc ;;i'i'li ii mii"Ii' iiiiilrl iif I'll ,'t.>i. ; 

lliri i;i hue liiiiiiiiiiil \ , ii;i il \\\n\ Mivr llic ('IiI|>mI limn Ilir Ihmm 
til iiii I'xci'lli'iil. " lii'i'l II." 

i I <'■'<' I III' I'!ii"IinIi III I II III I'd' (IIII ill I mill, 11(1111 I w < I I lind . Id I Ill'('(l• 
^l||||-Ill;i III' lii:i liiiriiiiilliltilv III i'liil'(i|M' ; III' liiiM III 11(1 iiiiiliiiiil liiliiiiii', 
mill lliii rmirti'i'ii lo Iwciil y iiiiiici'H wlm iirc iiT lliii hiiiiki liiiir lirlow 
^'.I'oitiKJ, iiKKilly iicl MM ;iii|>i'i'\ iiiitni, iiinl iiiiii'L or nii'iiiiiiii' \\>\- llic 
iiliH'K'i. 'I'lic <liiy i.'i <'i|-',lil. Ii(iiir:i, iiinl (Hily I'vrry lliinl wccK iit 

llii'lll Wnl'L. 

Till' l'',ii;'li;>liiiiiiii, ;ii'liri'iilly ;.|ii'iiL iiij', Ihtii IuiiKii well, iiml 
tnjt'nilily lii'iillliy, willimil, Ihiwi'MT, tilmwiii,", lln' cnldiii' iiml llic 
IIi'hIi wliirli III' liiiti III. Iiiiiiic. 'i'lin Ui'ii/.il IM liy I'm' llic iiidiil, 

t(llllllll'i(Ml;l (if I l'ii|ili'lll I'lillllll.l'M, MM I'lir MM IllCttC lire KiKiWIl Id 
llic: mid llic iii:iii\ |iiiliii(iiim'y |iiilii'iil:i wlm, i ( hiiIciiiih d Id 
dciilli li\ llic dtx'l.di' III l'liii'd|ic, liiid'ciij'lli mid \\( II |iciii<>, 
will ddiilil li'HK ii|i[l'i'ii Willi nil'. I'liil llii' riilMi;;r iiimi id llic 
'i'('iii|M'riilc:( i'c(|iiii'cH iii'cliliiiilj/iil KHi, mid lie link. Iliiil |irc|id|i 
ili'l'iilico <d' llic iici'Viiil;! Ieiii|ii'riiiiiciil wlinli will lie llic |idi'|idii 
of Itin cliildieii. 

< )iic Wdiild ;,ii|i|id;;c Mini Mdi'i'd NcIIki i:< ii |im'iiili;:e Idi' IIkimc 
will) liiivc led ill i'iiijdiilid llie liiii'd li\i';i id' |iiliiicii. l>nl llimiyli 
till' Illlidlll'rrM lire lliniitly, I lielieve, Miilitil'lcd , il \'a ikiI hi Iiiiiiiiiii 
lull lire, c;;|ie('iiilly ill lil'iliili liiiiiiiiii liiiliiie, lo iiVdid I'l'lllillilill),^ 

III, Ilie t.niiiMiridii ii'diii " lii-i'Hil, hurley, mid hniliMJ l,iii'iii|iH," l,o 
lieermid |iiilill|-y. 'rinic iil'i' ciiKetH of llolIKi iHicklieilH, MM l'!llf.',liHll • 
uoiiimi |iiiied iiwiiy mid dud id' iidsliiji'in diii'iii,'^ niir viiiil. In iJie 
liiiiir, mid il. wii;t |ird|id:,ei| Id Heiid jim'k In Iht iiiiliil leim 

lUKll.llcr W III) Hi'Cllled likely In clld ill IJlli HllllieUliy. I h'llllKelllieKU 
Ih i'iiiii|im'iil i\ ejy rni'e, |ii'mid\ mid <',iii me liiii'ill\' iililmiiiddc, mid 
ilie lini|i|ltel, nf llie I'liliil ciiclnicii dele|';( liiiiliy IVniil l.lie ilmi|.^e|'. 

neiiijj; iiiithlly I'l'diii line ciiiinly, llie nieii |»ienervo (licir |ie(iiliiir 

licrelll,, mid iml ll lew id llieir |j||ie|'!il ilJuHH. " I )oWHillf-^," Cur 

iiiHt.micc, iiiiH <-i'oHHi'(l llie Atlmilic, iilllidii,'di llm )nt/i<| lined in llic 
('nniisli litnii (if rliiilMJiiiiimiey duci iml, yd, ('row in (lie Hni/ij. 

I liiivc iidwlieie ill llie I'.i'ii/il i'diiiid llie l'lll|/li^dl iiiiiii ;id lliriviii(.^ 
MH id, MdlTU N'cllld ; l.lie \vrel,('lic(| lilllc Cdldiiic;! id' (icniimi'., mid 

266 THE HIGHLANDS OP THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxvii. 

others dispersed about the Empire, shoukl take the hint and 
prefer one settlement of 3000 to ten of 300 souls. The apathy 
that haunts the Anglo- Scandinavian in tropical climates, is here 
exchanged for an amount of energy inferior only to that of his 
normal home-condition ; liis dipsomania is modified, if not cured, 
by occupation and society, excitement and discipline ; and, 
finally, he is as a rule tolerably contented with his exile, because 
he is making money, and he may reasonably talk of revisiting the 
old country". At any rate he knows that he can go home. Of 
course, if he be a wise man,* his home for life will be in the 
Brazil, and if he be a good man, he will bring out as many of his 
friends as he can aftbrd to bring. The man who fails in the 
Brazil suggests to me the grey-headed " full private" — the fault 
must be with some person, and it is probably to be found in him. 
And now to the Brown Miner of "frontal race." 
At fii'st the free Brazilian showed a decided indis])osition to 
work at Morro Vellio ; he had never known a regular emploj-er 
or regular pay, without Avhich no labour market can exist. He 
disliked the work of boring, being- accustomed only to desultory 
agriculture, if indeed he had energy or inducement to attempt 
even that. In 1846 the proportion of this class was 20*23 ; in 
1852 it had risen to 112*79. It Avas soon found out that a week's 
work meant a week's wage, that the labour and the remuneration 
were in constant relation ; then houses were built for them upon 
the Company's grounds, and lodging was to be had for 0$500 per 
mensem, where a labourer here averages 1 $ 500 per diem. The 
class increased rapidl}^ to a total of 786, namel}', 734 men and 
52 women, who receive a little less pay ; a few children, despite 
the provmcial authorities who in their blindness resisted it, are 
employed in light work, such as collecting the tools for reshari^- 
ening. The station list for June shows a grtind total of 906 
souls, t They are employed in the mechanical, the reduction 
and other departments, and the borers are now almost exclusively 
free Brazilians. Like tlieii* white brethren, the}' may work over- 

* Especially a wise Cornishman, wLo + The ratio may be judged by tlie fol- 

knows the depressed state of his county, lowing figui'es : — 

where extensive emigi-ation to more hopeful Officers ... 22 

lands has caused marriage to diminish, the European labourers . . 143 

birth -rate to decline, and mortality to in- Native ,, . . 906 

crease. Kegi'O ,, . . 1450 

Total . . 2521 


time, the day's task being eight hours, which reminds us of the 
four eights, the modern modification of the Sunday fowl in the 

" pot-au-feu." 

Eight hovu's' work and eight hours' play, 
Eight hours' sleep and eight shillings a day. 

From one -half to two-thii'ds of them make one or two extra 
days' pay in the week. The task is two holes per diem, after 
which the}'' are their own masters ; the average depth is four 
palms, but this may be modified by the captain on duty according 
to the nature of the rock. They work in paii's, assisted by a 
boy; the latter holds the "boyer" or borer, an iron varying in 
length from one to four feet. They use the hammer dexterousl}', 
and accidents to the hand are rare. 

The free laboiu'ers work with much more energy and intel- 
ligence than the slaves. The emploj-ers' chief complaint is their 
ii'regularity ; on Sundays, fete days and Samts' daj^s, or nearty a 
third of the jeav, they do nothing but ride about the countrj^, 
gamble hard, and "hunt"* women. Among this class drinking 
has of late 3'ears greatly inci'eased, and for more reasons than 
one, marriage should be encouraged. 

It is not to be expected that the desultory habits of a life and 
the customs inherited from generations, can be totally changed 
in a few years. There is ample evidence of progress in the fact 
that neither mines nor railways in the Brazil can complain that 
labour is wanting, t Moreover, a race of skilled and practised 
hands is growing up, and it takes " comfortably" to the work as 
young men in the tin districts of Cornwall. And the " extra- 
ordinary dormant mineral wealth" of the country, once exploited 
b}' its possessors, will perpetuate and increase the class. Nothing 
now is wanted but a civilised School of Mines. 

* " Ca5ar " is the slang Brazilian term. comprehend Ms real position Letter. One 
■f I am pleased to see that my energetic told the other how the case was, how the 
friend, Mr. J. J. Aubertin, Superiuteudent remuneration for his toil really glittered in 
of tlie Sao Paulo couatiy, has, after a resi- his hand on pay-day, and how he really 
dence of eight years, come to exactly tlie earned his bread and independence ; and 
same conclusion. "Now on our own rail- very soon disinclination gave place to willing- 
way we cannot truly say that we liave ever ness, and all wanted to come and learn to 
felt the want of labour ; yet when we first work, and get their money as their friends 
began there certainly was an indisposition, were doing" (p. 5. "Eleven Days' Jour- 
generally speaking, to work. But, Ijy and ney in the Province of Sao Paulo. London, 
by, when one and the other found out that a 1866). Similarly on the Bahia and S. 
week's laliour really meant a week's money, Francisco Railway, where at times between 
and that the work was there, and the con- 1858 and 1866 from 3000 to 4000 men were 
stant master there too, to pay the money employed, free labour was rendered neces- 
for the work, then the laliourer began to sary l)y tlie tenns of the concession. 

263 THE HiaHLAXD3 OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxvii. 

And here we see distinctly before us the extinction of slavery 
in this magnificent Empire. The imj^orted negro, the captive, 
the outcast, the criminal from Africa, has greatly improved his 
o^\'n lot by crossing the sea. But to the higher race which 
admitted him he has done incalculable injury, in many waj'S, 
moral as well as physical, chiefly by prepossessing it against all 
labour, and mostly against the best of all labour in a 3'oung 
country — agriculture. Where blacks work all work becomes 
servile, consequently the people has no " bold peasantry, its 
coTintry's pride." Thus in all lands where the moribund " msti- 
tution" still Ungers, there is a class known in the Southern 
Union as " mean whites," and in the Brazil called " Vadios," or 
" Cappadocios" — idlers, vagabonds. I am aware that the North 
American " mean white" has often been represented meaner than 
he is, and that the imj^ortance of his class has been for party 
purposes greatly exaggerated, but nothing too strong can be said 
against the Vadio family. It lives sometimes upon the indus- 
trious, whose humanitarian and Catholic sentiments vdll not 
drive a vagrant from the door ; more frequently the professional 
ne'er-do-weel can unfortunately command the laboui* of one, two, 
or a few slaves, male and female. He is thus a consumer, not a 
producer, and whilst he increases the population he introduces 
into it the mp'iad evils of mixed blood. Some of these mulatto 
households disgrace humanitv.* 

But the day is fast approaching wlien the Vadio will be 
compelled to work like other freemen. Ah'eady in the Brazil 
there are important branches of material industry in which the 
slave is used only as a hard necessity. As specimens I may 
quote the mining of diamonds and gold, the navigation of the 
great rivers of the interior, and the cattle breeding, which every 
3'ear becomes more important, especially to the Euroj^ean 
emigrant. In the present phase, I venture to state, the negro is 
absolutely requii-ed for agricultiu'e only, and even then he is 
merely provisional till immigration from Europe shall have set 
in with steady and copious flood. The great proprietors, some 
owning 3000 and 4000 head, look with horror at any sudden and 
premature measure that will desolate their immense plantations 

* Those who deem this language too timony of a liigh Brazilian officer, and 
severe will consult St. Hil. (III. ii. 242 — 4). though he WTOte in 1820, the picture is still 
That excellent a\xthor speaks upon the tes- true to life. 


of coffee and cane, of tobacco and cotton. They are not 
reassured b}^ the accounts which reach them from the Southern 
United States, and their importance secures to them the con- 
sideration of the country. Their attitude is legitimate, but this 
highly intelligent class will be the first to hail the arrival of the 
white hand. 

The employment of free labour on a large scale will do much 
to remedy an evil which dates in the Brazil from three centuries. 
The great soldier and statesman, Martim Affonso de Souza, with 
wonderful political prescience, issued in 1532 an order that " not 
even to rescue* Indians should white men penetrate into the 
interior, without express permission from him or from his 
lieutenants ; and that such permission should be given with 
great circumspection, and only to persons of good repute." 
This embargo was unwisely taken off on February 11, 1544, 
whilst he was serving in Hindostan, by his wife Donna Anna 
Pimental. The consequence was an immediate dispersion of the 
colonists, who scattered themselves over the country between the 
Atlantic and the roots of the Andes, from the Plata to the 
.Amazons, anniliilated the aborigines instead of training them to 
labour, and brought in so many slaves that many a house in Sao 
Paulo could number 500 to 1000 head. The good results were 
wonderful additions to geography, and immense discoveries of 
treasure. On the other hand, the white settlers were decen- 
tralised to an extent that semi-barbarism was the consequence, 
and the backwoodsman who would not hear the sound of a neigh- 
bour's gun, left the wealth of the maritime regions wholly unex- 
ploited. Even to this day the " Serra do Mar," within sight of 
the ocean, is mostly covered with virgin forests ; it is known to 
contain extensive mineral deposits, but in rare cases has any 
part of them been worked. In the present state of the Empire, 
centralisation round commanding points, and upon great Imes of 
communication, both of river and rail, will be a national benefit. 

* Resgatai-, in plain English to buy as dc S. Vicente," by the celebrated Fr. 
a slave. I have quoted from p. 70 of the Gaspar Madre de Deos. 
' ' !Meniorias para a Historia da Capitania 



" As the Indian is killed by the approach of civilisation, which he resists in vain, 
so the black man perishes by that culture to which ho serves as a humble 
instrument." — Count Oscar lieicTienhach. 

I WILL not (Tela}' to consider whether race or clmiate,* religion, 
or state of society, or the three combined, give rise to the 
exceptionally humane treatment of the slave in the Brazil : but I 
can pledge myseK to the fact that nowhere, even in oriental 
countries, has the "bitter draught" so little of gall in it. My 
experience has never shown me a case of cruelt}' practised upon 
slaves, and I have only heard of one severe flogging. On the 
other hand I know many awful consequences of over-lenity. But 
lately, at Ai'araquara, in the Province of Sao Paulo, Benedicto, a 
negi'o, was to be hanged for the barbarous murder of his master ; 
the hangman refused to act, and the criminal has been simply 
shifted from the gallows and consigned to the galleys. I often 
meet in the chain-gang, literall}- no penalty, a neighbour's slave, 
who, working himself into a ^mssion, causelessly stabbed to death 
a black, to him miknown, and in presence of many witnesses, 
drank, vampire like, his victim's blood : he is accompanied by a 
brother assassin, who by way of freak Idlled the helpless old 
Prior of the Carmo. It is therefore with some regret and much 
astonishment that I read these lines, traced by so well informed 

* One of Humboldt's good generalizations, those who inhabit neighbouring latitudes 

amongst many bad, is that ' ' the facility of mix as a nde more intimately, and when 

being acclimated seems to be in the inverse abroad are more at home than peoples 

ratio of the difference that exists between whose foci are further removed. The Eng- 

the mean temperature of the torrid zone, lish slaveholder mostly held himself aloof 

and that of the native country of the tra- from the African : the Brazilian, like his 

veller or colonist who changes his climate. " forefather the Portuguese, admitted him 

(Travels, i. chap. 3.) The distance may to far greater familiai-ity, and the result 

be extended in a moral sense to races : was deplorable. 

CH.V1'. xxviii.] THE BLACK MINEE. 271 

a pen : * " Vii'giiiia was a paradise compared with Cuba and Brazil. 
Some touch of softness in the lord, some gleam of pity in the 
mistress, had sufficed to keep the very worst planters of English 
blood free from the brutalities which Avere daily practised in the 
Spanish and Portuguese cities farther south." From obsolete 
consular reports, from the pages of old travellers, and from the 
writings of men who ran through the country, believed everything 
they heard, and, like M. Jacquemont, described " apres une 
relache de douze jours," in a region eight times larger than 
France, its capital, its navy, its coasting trade, its commerce, its 
finances, its government, its society, its servile condition, many 
cases might doubtless be collected. t But the relations between 
master and slave are modified by public opuiion, and essentially by 
the progress of civihzation. In the present day the Brazilian 
negro need not envy the starving liberty of the poor in most parts 
of the civilized world. 

The slave in the Brazil has, by the unwritten law, many of the 
rights of a freeman. He may educate himself, and he is urged to 
do so. He is regularly catechized, and in all large plantations 
there is a dail}' religious service. If assailed in life or limb he 
may defend himself against his master, or any white man, and an 
over-harsh proprietor or overseer alv/ays runs considerable risk 
of not dying in bed. He is legally married, and the chastity of 
his wife is defended against his owner. He has little fear of being 
separated from his family : the humane instincts and the religious 
tenets of the people are strongly opposed to this act of barbarity. 
He has every chance of becoming a free man : manumission is 
held to be a Catholic duty, priestly communities are ashamed of 
holding slaves, and whenever there is a war the African is bought 
and sent to fight by the side of white recruits. Old usage allows 

* "New America," vol. ii. chap. 31. editor called liim, to be extensively read, 

Has the learned author studied the Black believed, trusted ; and this increases the 

Code or the Provincial Laws of the Eng- measure of his offence. The crudities and 

lish slave islands ? Even in 1815 Prince alxsurdities of an untravelled man, who. 

Max could say of the slaves in the Brazil, after a sedentary life, and a month in the 

" on les traite generalement assez douce- New World, had the audacity to ^vl-ite a 

ment. " chapter (No. 4) headed "Brazil: Crime — 

t In this way one of the greatest of- Political Economy — Colonization — Sla- 

fenders was the late Mr. Cliarles B. Mans- very — Commerce," have been ably answered 

field (" esquire and JI.A. of Clare Hall, in an Ensaio Critico by Sr.A. D. de Pascual, 

Cambridge"); his liveliness, his trenchant Rio de Janeiro, Laemmert, 1861. But of 

style, his John Bullism, and the ample evi- the thousands who imbibe the poison how 

dence of good intention in all the harm he few will oven see or hear of the antidote ? 
did, caused the "noble worker," as his 

272 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxviii. 

him to purchase his liherty b}' his labour, and to invest his 
l^ropert}' in manumitting his wife and children. 

I have scanty space for so important and far leading a subject 
as slavery in the Brazil.* But it may be briefly remarked that 
there is hardly an educated man in the country who would not 
right willingly see it abolished if he could find for it a substitute. 
All look forward to the great day of immigration and free labour. 
All, too, are aware of the fact that immigration and slavery can 
hardly co-exist. It is the same with Englishmen who, through- 
out the Empii'e, except in the great cities where they can hire 
servants, buy, and hold, and let, and hire slaves, despite the late 
venerable Lord Brougham's absui'd Act of 1843. t And for the 
benefit of the wretches with oxidised skins, doomed by philan- 
thropy to die in thousands at Ashanti, Dahome and Benin, not 
to mention a hundred other African Aceldamas and Golgothas, I 
venture to hope that the black continent may also be admitted to 
the boon of immigration. Under all circumstances the negro 
" coolie " temporarily engaged in the Brazil will benefit himself: 
confined to field work, not admitted to the house, and looked 
upon as a stranger in the land, he will benefit others. 

Some years ago, when the "NegTo's Complaint" still haunted 

* The curious reader will find an excel- f It surprises me to read in Prince Max 
lent paper on "the Extinction of Slavery (i. 220) the cool way in which he recounts 
in Brazil," from a practical point of view, how M. Freyress buys and carries oflF an 
written by Sr. A. M. Perdigao Malheiro, Indian boy. This was really a vile act to 
translated by my friend Mr. Kichard enslave one born free. "It is a startling 
Austin, F.A.S.L., and imblished in the and deplorable fact, and one that is calcu- 
Anthropological Review, No. 20, Jan. 1868. lated to lower our opinion of human nature, 
The author, whose studies entitle his views to witness the rapid adoption by those 
to the greatest respect, estimates the slaves Euroijeans who leave their own country 
to number between the extremes 1,400,000 animated with the best and most generous 
and 2,500,000, in 1864. In 1850 the principles respecting their fellow creatures, 
number w;is 4,000,000. These figures of the maxims and practices of hardened 
ought effectually to lay the angry spirit of slaveholders." (Notes on the Slave Trade, 
emancipation. If, however, the negroes by W. G-. Oiiseley, London, 1850.) It is 
must be killed off, why, then set them at more philosophical to seek and explain the 
once free. The measiu-es at present to be cause than to be startled at or to deplore 
adopted are to liberate all the slaves be- facts— simply signs that we do not read 
longing to ecclesiastics, to tax heavily all them aright. For my part, whenever I see 
city slaves and vagrants, to prevent large a man leave England for the first time 
slaveholders being employed in high posi- filled with the normal superlative and 
tions under government, and to satisfy transcendental principles about holding 
Europe by fixing a definite time for the jjersons to service, I expect a reaction to 
final solution of the problem. Lastly, we set in, and that his negroes will soon com- 
may observe that Messrs. Kidder and Flet- plain of his remarkable and um-easonable 
cher calculate an emancipation of one mil- cruelty. For this cause, partly, the slave- 
lion of slaves in the fifteen years between holder in Soiith Carolina did not like the 
1850 and 1806, whilst the ijroductions of "Yankee" overseer, 
the country have increased at the rate of 
30 per cent. 

CHAr. xxviii.] THE BLACK MINER. 273 

the public ear, when " bhack brother " was a mere catch-word and 
catch-pence in England, when the negro of sentiment and theory- 
had worsted and ousted the negro of reason and practice, and when 
on this point, and perhaps on this point only, blatant Ignorance 
would not allow Knowledge to open her lips, sundry grossly 
impudent and infamous fabrications were circulated about all the 
English mining establishments in the Brazil.* The benevolent 
slanderer who wished to puff his own name, and the dismissed 
employe who would gratify his revenge, pandered to the popular 
prejudice, and dwelt unctuously iipon the " adynamic condition" 
of the negro labourer, and his "cruel and murderous treatment" 
by the white. This was carried to such an extent that the 
Directors of the Great Mine were obliged to send out Dr. Walker, 
whose able report set the question at rest. But even to the 
present day, whenever an officer is " sacked " for insubordinacy 
or incapacity, the first threat he utters is something about 
" slaveholders." 

I proceed now to give my account of the black miner as I 
found him at Morro Velho. 

AVithout including 130 children of liii-ed blacks, and who are 
not under contract, the establishment consists of 1450 head, thus 
distributed : 

Company's blacks, 254 (109 men, 93 women, and 52 children) ; 
Cata Branca blacks, 245 (96 men, 87 women and G2 children) ; 
blacks hii'ed under contract, 951. 

In these numbers we may see a modification of Saint Hilaire's 
statement, " le service des mines ne convient pas aux femmes ; " t 
this might have been true under the old system, it is not so now. 
Oenerally in the Brazil men are preferred upon the sugar planta- 
tions, women on those that grow coffee, and as they are wanted 
for domestic purposes it is not so easy to hire them. 

The " Company's Blacks " consider themselves the aristocracy, 
and look down upon all their brethren. Both they and the Cata 
Brancas are laiown by the numbers on their clothing ; the hired 

* See an "Introductory Letter to Sir assumes the deepest dye of venom and 
Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart. , on the Fright- bloodthii-stiness. " Witness the doubtless 
fulHorrorsof Modern Shivery as practised by well-intentioned crowd which collected to 
the Imperial Brazilian Association in their call for the blood of Governor Eyre. 
Mines at Gongo Soco." "I have some- f Travels, III. i. 321). He h;is over- 
times thought," says Mr. Trollope, with drawn the case. In hiring blacks the 
great truth, "that there is no being so Superintendent warns owners that women 
venomous, so bloodthirsty, as a professed must be accompanied by a gi-eater number 
Ijhilanthropist, and tliat when the philan- of men, and so we find that of the 9jl 
thropist's ardour lies negro-WcU'ds, it then h;i-ed, 002 are male and 349 arc female. 

VOL. T. T 


negroes wear also M. V. marked on tlieii- shirts. The estahlish- 
ment expends per mens. ^£1400 upon contracts : I need hardly 
remark what a benefit this must be to the large proprietors of the 
neighbom-hood. Thus the Commendador Francisco de Paula 
Santos lets under contract a total of 269 (including 173 
children), his son-in-law Sr. Dumont 145 (97 adults and 48 
children), and the Cocaes or National Brazilian Mining Associa- 
tion contributes 142 negroes and 13 children. 

The figures given below will show the average of hire :* clothing, 
food, and medical treatment are at the Company's expense. 
Usuall}^ the agreement is for three to five years, during which 
period the slave cannot be manumitted. As a rule the Super- 
intendent employs only robust men who have passed a medical 
examination, but he will take in doubtful lives under annual 
contract. The slave is insured by a deduction of 10 $000 to 
20 $000 per annum for a fixed period; and if he die before the 
lease has expired the owner still receives his money — there are 
actually eighty-nine cases of this kind. Pay ceases only if the 
negro runs away: it is issued every thu'd or sixth month, and 
the contractors can obtain one year's advance, at a discount of 
ten per cent. 

As regards labour, all are classified according to their strength 
into first, second, and third-rate blacks. In 1847 permission to 
work overtime, that is to say, beyond nme hours forty-five 
minutes, was given to the first-rates. There is another division 
into surface and underground blacks. The former are smiths and 
mechanics, especially" carpenters and masons, who w^ork between 
6 A.M. and 5 p.m., with one hour forty-five minutes of intermission 
for meals. The oldest and least robust are turned into gardeners, 
wood-fetchers, and grass-cutters. The regular working day at 
Morro Velho is as follows — 

5 A.M. Eeveille sounded b}' the gong, and half an hour after- 
wards the Eeview. 

6 A.M. Work. 

8.15 A.M. Breakfast. 
9 A.M. AVork. 
12.30 P.M. Dinner. 

* Annual liire of first-class slaves , . . men 220 $ 000 women 100 $ 000 

Not paying in case of death or flight . . ,, 230 $ 000 ,, 110 $ 000 

Annualliire of second-class slaves . . . ,, 150 $000 ,, 75 $ 000 

Not paying in case of death or flight . . ,, 160 $000 „ 75 $ 000 


1.15 r.M. "Work. 

2 p.:\r. Change guard. Blasting in tlie mine. 

5.30 P.M. Mechanics' work ended. 

8.30 P.M. Eeturn to quarters. The sh\ves cook their own 
meals and eat supper at home. Saturday is a half-holiday : they 
leave off work at 2.30 p.m., and retire at 9 p.m. 

The underground labourers are borers, stope cleaners, tram- 
mers who push the waggons, kibble-fillers, and timber-men : 
they are divided into three corps, who enter the mine at C a.m., 
2 p.m., and 10 p.m. On Sunday the gangs shift places, so that 
only one week in three is night work. A rough estunate makes 
the number of the gang in the mine at the same time 620, 
includmg all hands. Yv'hen work is over they proceed to the 
changing-house, and find a tepid bath at all hours. They put on 
their surface-clothes, and leave the mme suits either to be dried 
in the open air, or by flues during the rains. The precaution is 
absolutely necessary, though very difficult and troublesome to be 
enforced: the English miners shirk it, and the free Brazilians 
are the most restive, though they are well aware how fatal are wet 

The blacks lodge in the two villages situated half-way between 
the bottom of the river valley and the Morro Velho hill. Thus, 
while they escape malaria they are saved fatigue when going to, 
or coming from, work. They begin the day with coffee or 
Congonhas tea. Their weekly allowance, besides salt and vege- 
tables, comprises 9 lb. of maize meal, 4|-^5 lb. of beans, 13| 
oz. of lard, and 21b. of fresh beef. Meat of the best quality here 
averages 3 $ 000 per arroba, or twopence a pound, and the labourers 
purchase, at cost prices, the heads and hoofs, the livers and 
internals of the bullocks killed for the use of the establishment. 
The industrious have theii- gardens and clearings: they keep 
poultry and pigs, fattened with bran, which they receive gratis. 
Part they eat, the rest they sell to procure finery and small 
luxuries. " Carne Seca " and farinha are issued when the doctor 
orders. Xm'sing women have something added to the six- 
tenths of a plate of meal, one quarter of beans, and two ounces of 
lard, and children when weaned claim half rations. All the 
articles are of good quality, and if not a report is made to the 
Manager of Blacks. 

Drinlv is not issued every day, nor may it be brought into the 

276 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxviii. 

establishment. A well-conducted negro can obtain a dram once 
per diem with permission of the chief feitor or overseer. Each 
head of a department has a supply of " restiho," which he can 
distribute at discretion, and the mine captain can give a *' tot " 
to any negro coming wet from duty. It is, however, difficult to 
correct the African's extreme fondness for distilled liquors, which 
in this light and exciting air readily affect his head, and soon 
prove fatal to him. He delights also in " Pango," here called 
Ariri, the well-known Bhang (Cannabis sativa) of India, and of 
the east and west coast of Africa. He will readily pay as much 
as 1$000 for a handful of this poison. 

I never saw negroes so well dressed. The men have two suits 
per annum — sliu-t, and overalls of cotton for the hot, and of 
woollen for the cold season; the "undergrounds" receive, 
besides these, a stout woollen shirt, and a strong hat to protect 
the head. Each has a cotton blanket, renewed yearl}-^, and if his 
dress be worn or torn, the manager supplies another. The 
women work in shifts of thin Avoollen stuff, and petticoats of 
stronger material ; they usually wear kerchiefs round their neck, 
thus covering the bosom, and one shoulder, after the fashion of 
African " Minas," * is left bare. In winter capes of red broad- 
cloth are added to the Review costume. 

The slave labourer is rewarded with gifts of money; he is 
allowed leave out of bounds, even to Sahara ; he is promoted to 
offices of trust and of increased pay ; he is made an overseer or 
a captam over his own people ; at the Review he wears stripes 
and badges of distinction, and he looks forward to liberty.! 

* I have explained this in Chap. 7. 

+ I was allowed to inspect the official list of black candidates for manumission (according 
to the Regulations issued by the Directors, January, 1845), and fi-om it the following figures 
are borrowed : — 

Mr. Keogh placed on the Manumission List — • 

In 1848 negi-oes and negresses . . 4 > 

„ 1849 „ 

„ 1851 „ 

n 1852 „ 

„ 1853 „ 

„ 1854 ., 

A total of 16. 

Dr. Walker. 

In 1855 negroes and negresses . • 2 ) 

;; isS ;: :: ■ .■ : l[ T.t.i lo, 

„ 1868 .. 4 1 


The chief punishments are fines, which negroes, Hke Hindus, 
especiall}' hate ; the penalties, which now amount to 400$000, liave 
been transferred to charitable purposes, and swell a small reserved 
trust-fund, intended to support the old and infirm. Other pains 
are, not being alloAved to sell pigs, poultiy, and vegetables ; arrest 
within the establishment or confinement in a dr}' cell, with 
boards like a soldier's guard-room ; fugitives are put in ii'ons. 
Formerl}' the manager and the head captain, who required 
implicit obedience from the 500 hands of the underground 
department, could order a flogging. This was aboHshed, not, 

1 believe, with good effect. Every head of a department can still 
prescribe the " Palmatorio," * but he must note and rei:)ort the 
punishment to the Superintendent. Only the latter can administer 
a flogging with the Brazilian cat of split liide ; and tliis is re- 
served for confirmed drunkenness, disobedience of orders, mutmv, 
or robbing fellow-workmen. The punishment list is sent in 
every fortnight, and as a rule is small. I especially noticed the 
civil and respectful demeanour of the Morro Yelho blacks, who 
invariably touch their hats to a white stranger, and extend their 
hands for a blessing. The}^ are neither impudent, nor cringing, 
nor surly, and, in my opinion, there is no better proof that they 
are Avell and humanely treated. I would here formall}- retract an 
opinion which I once thoughtlessly adopted upon the worst of 
grounds, " general accexJtation." The negro cannot live in the 
presence of the civilized man : the Brazil proves that unless 
recruited from home the black population is not more viable than 
the " Red Indian." His rule and *' manifest destiny " are those 
of all savages, t 

Mr. Gordon. 
In 1859 negroes and negresses . .10 

„ 1860 „ „ ... 16 

„ 1862 „ „ . . 5 

,, 1863 ,, „ . . . 5 \ Total 92. 

,, 1864 ,, ,, . . 2 ' 

,, 1865 ,, ,, ... 41 

,, 1866 „ ,, . . 18 

Of these 6 lost the boon by intoxication, hand of the negro it can hardlj' take the 

2 were killed in the mine, and 14 died. eifect of that rattan which my old tutor, 
* The first " jialmatorio " seen by me in Mr. (irilchrist, was so fond of applying to 

the Brazil was at the house of an Eng- his pupils' pink and white palms, 

lishman. It is a " paddle " of hard black + By the excess of deaths over births, 

wood, somewhat like that used at "knurr the negro population in the whole of the 

and spell," with a handle almost a foot English Antilles undergoes every year a 

long, and a flat circle about the size of a diminution of 4 in 1000 : in Tobago the 

large oyster at the usefid end, which is annual decrease is 16 to 1000. Colonel 

drilled "with holes. Upon the goriUa-like Tulloch remark.*, "Before a century the 

278 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxviii. 

Briefly to sum up the statistics of Moito Vellio, in these its 
gi'eatest goklen days. The Comi:)any has outlived the thirty- 
seventh year, and during the hist six it has paid upwards of 
i£10,000 income-tax to the British Exchequer. The present 
outlay of the establishment is, in round numbers, j6146,000 per 
annum, and the income s£230,000. As a mine it has no parallel 
in the Brazil ; the excavation has descended to zones unreached 
by other works, and, as has been seen, its breadth is without a 
parallel. It dii'ectly employs 2521 souls ; indirectly double that 

Besides the 343 EngHsh at Morro Velho there are at least 500 
of our own countrymen scattered about the Province of Minas. 
All are destitute of protection ; their marriages are to be con- 
tested in civil courts,* the nearest consulate for registration 
is that of Rio de Janeiro, and the cost of a journey to the coast 
and back would not be less than ^50. There is the same 
difficulty touchmg wills and inheritances, especially in the case of 
the Company's officers, and the English medical men who live in 
the remoter parts of the Province. The French, Spanish, and 
Portuguese Governments have vice-consuls or consular agents at 
Barbacena and Om-o Preto, although none save the latter have 
many constituents. We shall probably see fit to follow their 

And now adieu to Morro Velho, a place where I found, wonder- 
ful to relate, work carried on by night and by day in the heat of 
the Tropics, and in the heart of the Brazil. 

negro race will be nearly extinct in tlie Yellio in Brazil," and "to be cited for all 

English colonies of the West Indies." (An- purposes as 'the Morro Velho Marriage 

thropological Review, August, 1864, p. 169). Act, 1867,' " remedies part of the inconve- 

A bill entitled "An Act to legalise nience, but some kind of representation 

certain marriages solemnized at Morro would remedy all. 



Paiz de gentes e de prodig-ios chcio 
Da America feliz por9ao mala rica. 

Caramw'u, G, 49. 

Mr. Gordon had obligingly offered to show me a seam of 
combustible matter of disputed substance. He organised every- 
thing for the trip : the animals were ten, allowing to each of us a 
change; our " Camarada," t or head man, was one Joaquim 
Borges; and " Miguel," now an old acquaintance, was assisted by 
a sturdy and very black black, Joao Paraox^eba, named like Lord 
Clyde from the nearest river. The Superintendent was followed 

* The following is an approximative itinerary from Morro Velho to Ouro Preto : — 

Jlorro Velho to Raposos . 

,, Morro Yermelho 
,, Gongo Soco 

1 hr. 

3 ,',' 

45 : 




5 miles 
10 „ 

' 1 14 miles. 1 Total 1st day's 
> march 28 miles 
14 miles. ) in 8 h. 45 m. 

, , Fabbrica 

1 M 

) J 




Fabbrica to S. Joao do MoiTO 
,, Bnimado . 
,, Catas Altas 

1 ,, 
1 „ 
3 ,, 



/ Total 2nd day, 17 miles in 
( 5 houi's. 

Catas Altas to Agua Qiiente 

,, Fonseca . . , 
,, Inficionado 

3 ,, 
3 „ 





) Total 3rd day, 26 miles in 
I 6 hours 45 minutes. 

Inficionado to Bento Rodriguez . 

1 „ 




{ Total 4th day, 20 miles in 
I 5 hours 45 minutes. 

,, Camargos 


) J 




,, MoiTode Santa Anna 2 ,, 





, , Marianna . . . 







Marianna to Passagem 







5th day. 

Passagem to Ouro Preto . . 

1 „ 

J J 




6th day. 

Ouro Preto to Casa Branca 

3 „ 






) Total 7th day, 23 miles in 

Casa Branca to Rio das Pedras . 

4 „ 





\ 7 hours 20 minutes. 

Rio das Pedras to S"». Antonio . 

3 „ 






Total 8th day, 13 miles in 

S'o. Antonio to Moito Velho 

• 1 „ 






4 hours 45 minutes. 


41 hr 

. 50 


+ Properly a Camarado or Companion. . lamps, he vnW style himself "Camarada 

In Portugal it is mostly given to an orderly da luz " — help of the light. The Cama- 

(soldier) servant. In parts of the Brazil it rada, whose name reminds us of the " com- 

is a familiar address to a friend, "my good radeship," or brotherhood of the old bucca- 

fellow ;" generally the name is assumed by neers, is a very important, and an exceed- 

every free man who condescends to " help, " ingly troublesome personage in Brazilian 

as New England says, not to serve you. travel. 
Thus, if employed in lighting the town 

280 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BEAZIL. [chap. xxix. 

by his servant Antonio, gorgeous in the usnal lively Minas 
livery, tall glazed hat and top-boots, turned up with gamboge- 
3'ellow; a large silver goblet, venerable article of luxury and 
ostentation, hung b}' a cham over his shoulder. Mr. L'pool 
accompanied us, and the journey was to last eleven daj'S. 

On July 10, 1867, we set out at 9 a.m., which may be called 
family-travelling hoiu' at this season — and striking eastward 
passed the quarter known as the Praia de Bom Sera. It con- 
sists of six lines of huts, with stays sunk in the ground, support- 
ting a tiled roof upon a timber framework : thus the top is often 
finished, and the doors and window-frames are put up, before the 
side walls appear. The next process is to make the latter with 
wattle, and the clay is puddled in. This curious form of build- 
ing is called "pao a pique," or parede de miio, "hand wall," 
from the dabbing required. AYhere the adobe or the pise is 
known it takes the place of sticks and cla}'. Here live the free 
Brazilian borers, who, like a certain mining population further 
east, get screwed at times, and though they do not heave half a 
brickbat at, they wildly hoot with blue -red lips the passing 

We then crossed bj' an unimj)ortant bridge the Ribeii'ao, whose 
bed here widens, and ever^-where shows signs of working : a 
peculiar white efflorescence, said to appear phosphorescent at 
night, frosts the dark refuse heaps. This was examined by Dr. 
Walker, who "found it to be nothing but sulphate of u'on, which 
becomes white when deprived of its water of crystallization." Dr. 
Birt also reported that it was an " impure sulphuret of iron, or 
the white copperas of commerce, as gallic acid fully shows by 
converting it, when mixed, into ink." But Mr. Eeay extracted a 
large proportion of arsenical pyrites from the ore generall}-, and 
especially from the Bahu. The " white stuff" is in fact a subli- 
mate of arsenic, and, as will be seen, the boatmen pretend to trace 
it all along to the Pdo das Yelhas. Fm'ther down the Praia are the 
works belongmg to the Messrs. Vaz of Sahara : formerl}^ they 
had many head of stamps, now reduced to a dozen, and a few 
Arrastres. They retreat the waste sand from the Great Mine, 
and the " Cascalho " hereabouts is said to be auriferous. Beyond 
them again are other Brazilian works, called " California." 

We then ascended a steep rough hill, where there is a charming 
view of the settlement : the yellow soil is very mean, except in 

cu.vr. XXIX.] TO "ROSSA GRANDE." 281 

bottoms, and these are " cold " and flooded. On the left is the 
" Herring ride," Avhicli embalms the name of the first Superin- 
tendent ; it is a pleasant wav}' line circling round the hills, and 
coming out above the level of " Timbuctoo." Wheeling to the 
right we descended a stiff slope, rough and stony, sighting below 
us the basin of the Piio das Velhas ; the stream was invisible, and 
the hollow looked like a vast cauldron wliose seething lacked 
motion. The Rego dos Raposos * or Fox's Leap was then 
crossed, and near it lie the gold-crushing mill and the dwelling- 
house of the Capitao Jose Gomes de Araujo — a fixmily which 
ma}^ be called tlie old lairds of Raposos. The formation is of 
pyritic matter, and partially decomposed quartz ; there are 
veins and lodes, both auriferous, but none have yet been found 
to pay. 

The slope ended in the usual abominable old Cal9ada ; here, 
as in Sao Paulo, 3'ou know the approach to cit}', town, or 
village, by the extra vileness of the road. The reason is evident — 
the yvays are more trodden and are not more mended. Over the 
heights around us were scattered a little coffee and two patches 
of leek-green sugar-cane. On the left bank of the Old Women's 
River we passed a decayed private chapel, an old gold-stamping 
mill, and a huge desolate manor-house belonging to the Araujos. 
More fortunate than Dr. Gardner, Avho had to make a long detour, 
we found a good timber bridge over the swift and swirling stream ; 
it is 400 palms long, 14 broad, and 20 high — the last date 
of repair" is 1864. The bulk of Raposos, or to give its title in 
full, " N^ S'* da Conceigao de Raposos de Sahara," occupies a 
small bulge or basin in the riverine valley. It consists mostly of a 
villainous pavement and an Igreja Matriz. This church boasts the 
honour of being the first built in the Province of Minas ; it was 
once very rich in silver plate, of which something still remains, 
and it owns its preservation to the care of its Vicar, "Jose de 
Ai'aujo da Cunha Alvarenga," whose memory blossoms in the 
dust. It has two filial chapels, Santa Anna and Santo Antonio, 

* The -word is indifferently written The Eaposo fox is often confounded with 

Raposos or Rapozos. As a nde, in writing the Cachorro do Mato, a yellowish-grey 

the same words, the Portuguese prefers the canine spread over the So\ithern American 

"s," and the Spaniard the "z." Thus continent. Prince Max. (iii. 149) believes 

the former would ^^Tite " casa," the latter it to be the Agourachay of Azara, the grey 

" caza. " But the orthography in this fox of Surinam, and probably a climatal 

as in many other jjoints is by no means variety of the renard tricolor (Canis griseo- 

settled. argenteus) of Pennsylvania. 

282 THE HIGHLx\NDS OF THE BliAZLL. [chap. xxix. 

near Sabara. Tlie temple is built of tbe common hard clay slate, 
stuck together, not with lime but mud, Avhich melts admirably 
during the rains : the two little towers are of red taipa or pise, 
they are tiled like the church, but they are not white-washed — a 
symptom of exceeding penury in the Brazil. The parish was 
created in 1724, and contained two thousand souls whilst the 
gold-washmg lasted ; the number is now reduced to one- 

We rode along the river-ledge into a wooded lane, and up an 
ugly hill, rough with loose blocks and round stones, and rich with 
dust of clay slate : barely passable now, what must it be in wet 
weather ? Reaching the " Chapada," ar plateau, Ave spurred fast 
over the one good league which we shall find to-day. We i^assed 
through a ruined farm with bare and broken walls. It was last 
inhabited by D. Reta, widow of one Jose Joaquim dos Frechos 
Lobo, and now it is church property, belonging to the " Irmandade 
do Santissimo " of Raposos. Beyond it is a rounded eminence, 
which caresses the eye of an old survej'or. To the north-west 
rises the massive, cross-crowned brow of Curral d'El-Rei ; further 
west is the green-clad mount known as Morro do Pii-es : * to the 
south-south-west lies our acquaintance the Pico de Itabira, 
or the " Stone Girl," whilst fronting us, or southwards, 
runs the Serra de[S. Bartholomeu, the eastern wall of the 
upper Rio das Velhas Valley. It here conceals the quaint 
top-knot of Itacolumi, and its regular ridge showed a skj^- 
line blurred with thin rain, Avhicli now fell upon us for the 
first time in Mmas Geraes. Perhajis these are the " showers 
of S. Joao," somewhat deferred, and interfering with the rights 
of St. Swithin. The vesicles of cloud were peculiarly well 
defined that day. 

The tall hills and the quorn-shaped mountains are all bluff 
and running high to the west, Avhicli is also the strike of the 
stone out-crop. The cones and heights where the rain washes 
are streaked, jagged, and gullied, like those near S. Joao and 
S. Jose, with jirojecting stripes of laminated talcose-slate, dull, 
grey, hard, and rugged. This appears to be the skeleton of 
earth, and in places the formation is quaquaversal. On the 
summit I observed a trace of copper, Avhich suggests that we 

Mr. Gordon found from tlie highest point of Morro do Pires that the Itacolumi 
bears exactly south-east. 


are now upon the great field described by Dr. Couto.'^' The 
more level places made my wife declare that she was once more 
crossing the Wiltshire Downs. Gentle swells heave up the 
surface, backed by bolder elevations, confused and billowy 
ridges forming an irregular crescent on each side. They descend 
steep to the little drains separating the mounds ; and here we 
look in vain for level water-meadows. 

The vegetation of the broken Campo was the usual Cerrado, 
dun and stunted, burnt and wind-wrung. Every hollow had 
its dense coppice hanging from the sides, and forming thick 
and thicketty jungle along the bottom. The stranger must not 
attempt to penetrate these Capoes. The mauve and yellow 
bloom of the flowery forest was set off by the silver-Uned 
peltated leaves of the tall " Sloth-tree," one of the most 
noticeable forms in the woodlands of the Brazil. I beheve 
that this "Cecropia" or Candelabra-tree belongs to the 
second growth, but Dr. Gunning, whose experience is long 
and respectable, declares that he has seen it in the " Mata 
Vii-gem." Hereabouts the old woods have gone to make fuel 
for Morro Velho. Yet the continual alternation of brake and 
fell, of grass-land and shrubbery ; the contrast of plateau and 
dwarf plain with tall peak and bluff mountain, the diversity 
of colom* and the sunshine smiling through the tears of S. 
Joao — here the people say the fox is being married — in England 
the Devil is beating his wife — formed an effect the reverse of 

The Sloth-tree (Arvore da Pregui9a or Ayg) is so called because 
that animal ascends it, especially by night, to eat the young 
shoots and leaves till it looks like a skeleton. This Urticacea 
is called by the Tupys Umbauba or Umbahuba, also written 
Anbaba, Ambauba, Imbaiba, and many other ways, but not 
" Embeaporba," as Mr. AValsh does. Mr. Hinchcliff (''South 
American Sketches" chap, xiii.) calls it Sumambaia,. which means 
a filix. The wild people make a difference between the Cecropia 
palmata and the C. peltata (L.), specifying the latter as Ambai- 

* lie entered it about "Gurrcgos," sixty ranges. It is to Mina.=:, lie ileclares, what 

miles to tlie nortli, and found it consist of silver is to Peru, and far more abundant 

ash-coloured rhomboids ; paving the ground than iron, though in other jiarts of the 

over which his horse passed, without mix- world bearing the proportion of one-tenth 

ture of earthy matter, not in veins, but in to the ferruginous deposits. 
heaps, in rocks, in whole mountains, in entire 


tinga, or the " White," because the okler leaves are lined with a 
hoary down, are frequently upturned as if the}^ were withered, 
and patch the garment of the tree with white. The young foliage 
is known by its burnished red tinge, which adds not a little to its 
beaut^'. The Brazihans also recognise two kinds, Roxa and 
Branca. The Cecropia is well known in Guiana and the Antilles, 
Avhere the people call it Coulequin and " bois de tronipette." The 
"Indians" emploj'ed this wood and the Gameleira for lighting 
their fires with friction. The negroes easily remove the inner pith, 
and use it not onl}' for trumpets, but for tubes, spouts, and water- 
pipes. The tree grows fast ; in fom' months it is as thick as a man's 
arm ; it breaks easily, but it is a true wood, not a mere juicy stem; 
and it is said to make good charcoal for gunpowder. The juice of 
the buds is used as a refrigerant against diarrhcea, dysury, and 
similar complaints; but I have never heard that "the flower is 
highly prized as a remedy against snake-bites." 

The C. palmata has a light grey, smooth, bare stem, 
grass-green when very young, rarely perfectly straight and 
tapering, generally somewhat bent, and often thirty feet high. 
About the summit spring, at a right angle and slightly cmndng 
upwards like the arms of a candelabrum, naked branches Avitli 
their large palmated leaves on long supports at the extremities, 
like gigantic chesnut-leaves joined at the stalks. The soil makes 
a great difference in the shape of the tree : in certain rich lands 
the bole appears shorter because the offsets commence sooner, 
and in this case the primary boughs have a much greater number 
of secondary branches. Great variety' of appearance is given by 
the bean-like bunches which hang to the stem of the white-Hned 
young leaves, and by the old foliage, which in decay waxes red 
and finally black. The C. peltata, Avhich the people call red, has 
more the appearance of a tree and less of a shrub : its stiff and 
somewhat ungainly boughs spread more widely. I have always 
held the Cecrojiia to be the chai'acteristic growth of the Capoeira : 
it certainly is the king of the "bush." 

The good league ended at a gateway, which leads from and to 
nothing but a vile mile of broken dusty path. It winds 
unpleasantly close to deep gaps, shafts, and holes, which show 
how much the country has been turned up, and which makes 
you calculate the joossibility of involuntary sepulture. The 
sm-face of the ground was clad with wild grass (Capim do 

cii.vr. XXIX.] TO "ROSSA GRANDE." 285 

Campo), and bright with the pretty white flower of the Break- 
pot (Quebra panella), so called because it easily' flares up and 
cracks the clay. A turn to the east showed us Morro Yermelho in 
the normal basin. The sphinx-shaped Red Mount, which gave the 
name, rises to the south-east of the Settlement : the lightning had 
lately destroyed its capping cross. The double-steepled church, 
with three black windows and abundant white-wash, spoke ot 
prosperit}-; and as we wound downwards, up came the sound of the 
village bells, informing us that the energetic shepherd was calling 
his flock to spiritual pasture. The houses were scattered amongst 
masses of bananas tufted with palms. We came upon the Calcada 
— une fois sur la chaussee et le vo3'age est fini" may be said here 
as in Russia — and about noon we entered the Settlement. 

Sr. Francisco Yieira Porto — pojDularly " Chico Yieii-a" — gave 
us breakfost and notices touching Morro Yermelho. The precise 
date of its foundation is unknown : it can hardly be older than 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. Gold was found there 
naturally alloj'ed with copper and iron : it was worked in about a 
score of places ;* and of these eight still do a little business. 
Industry gave it importance, and in all troubles and disorders 
the turbulent Mmeii'os took part with Caetlie and Raposos against 
the Portuguese authorities, and the powers that were from home. 
The vivacity, compared with the size of these places, was sur- 
prising ; but in those days landed proprietors and mine-owners 
had not only negroes but multitudes of Red-skin slaves who liked 
nothmg better than a roAv. In 1715 it armed itself and joined in 
open revolt the Yilla Nova da Ramlia (now Caethe) and Yilla Real 
(Sahara). The mutineers refused to pay the quint of gold de- 
manded upon each pan, and requu'ed the remission of theii* usual 
tribute, which was only 960 lbs. of the precious metal. They 
had actually the msolence to appear before the Governor, the 
" Most Illustrious and Most Excellent Dom Boaz Balthasar da 
Silveii'a," and with abundant " barbaridade " — to use his own 
phrase — they shouted in his noble ear — " Yiva O Povo !" — Long 
live the people. t 

Morro Yermellio is now a mere Arraial, a long, straggling 
" encampment," like a fair or market, with one street, " the 

* All duly named by the Almauack King, June IG, 1715, and describing tlie 
(1864-5). outrage, is printed in extenso by tlie Alma- 

t The Dom's letter addressed to the uack of Jlinas, 18C5, pp. 237—210. 

286 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxix. 

general fiiult of villages in Minas,"* forming tlie liigliway up and 
down wliicli travellers must pass. It lias a minimum of 100 
houses and a maximum of 180 : there are two upper-storeyed 
dwellings, and I counted four Vendas or Groggeries. The people 
suffer much from goitre, and the place from want of communica- 
tions ; this greatly dej^resses their agi'icultm'e, theii' cattle-hreed- 
ing, and their ii'on-smelting. Carts must make Morro Velho via the 
Eio das Pedras, or along two legs of a very acutangular triangle. 

Mr. Gordon, the CO., allowed us only an hour for breakfast : 
the days were short, and night-travel amongst these hills is long. 
We had no time to call at the i^attern one-storeyed house near the 
chm-ch, occupied by the vicar, Padre Joao de Santo Antonio ; f 
a reverend of excellent reputation, who in his town and his flock 
makes them remember what comes next to godliness. We set 
out at 1*30 P.M. up the rocky main thoroughfare, and crossed a 
gruelly stream thick with gold- washing : like the Corrego da 
Panella on the other side of the settlement, it is an influent of 
the Rio das Velhas. Beyond it the rutt}- road spread far and wide 
over the prism-shaped hill, and from its narrow crest we at once 
dropped into a rich bottom-land. 

In front rose the tall Serra of Eoca Grande facing to the 
setting sun ; hence its cold temperature and its noble vegetation. 
Here, contrar}^ to the ride of the Maritime region, the north-west 
is the ramy wind ; the south-east brings diy weather. .Thus 
Gongo Soco on the northern side of the ridge averages 148 
inches per annum to 68*28 that fall at Morro Velho on the 
southern flank. On our left, and low down, was the large 
fazenda of an Alferez Matheus Lopes de MagaDiacs : the house, 
the grounds, and the fine black cattle, show that the old Portu- 
guese proprietor was a hard-working energetic man. Family 
troubles, however, have compelled liim to leave his home, and the 
orchard, J whose grapes and aj^ples were famous, is now a waste. 

* The reason is tliat tlie first houses in tlie newspapers, but this is only when 

were always built on the banks of the auri- he is in business. Often two and even 

ferous streams where washing l)egan. tlu-ee brothers have diflerent family names, 

f The brother of this ecclesiastic has drojjping a part, assuming the mother's 

named himself " Demetiio Correa de Mi- maiden name, or taking the name of an 

randa." A chapter might be written uijon uncle. The subject will, however, not 

the subject of Brazilian names : as a ride require the legislation which, in France, 

any man takes what he jsleases, iisually v.-as demanded by the important particle 

the property of some great historic house, "de. " 
and changes it when he likes. Sometimes J Pomar. 

he goes so far as to publish the alteration 


To the south-west is a deep excavation, the mine of " Juca 
Vieii'a;" the site is the flank of a rugged spine composed of 
quartz, reddish slate, ferruginous substance, and auriferous soil, 
forming pj-rites. The Gongo Soco Company did not succeed 
"with these diggings, -which are now abandoned and choked with 

Westward of this place, and adjoining the Rossa Grande 
property in the east, is the Eepuxa* or Bepucha Estate, five 
miles long by three broad. It belongs to jarring little owners 
who hold it by the " Datas "f or mineral concessions granted by 
the old Guarda-Mores, and it has been worked by a kind of 
Sociedade. In 1864 the Superintendent of the S'-^ Barbara 
Company at Pari recommended it through a London broker as 
a " splendid field for mining operations," and advised the sum of 
£40,000 to be laid out upon it. He reported the rock to consist 
of clay and talcose slate, with strata striking nearly east to west, 
and dipping 40° — 50° south; the lode to be white and yellow 
quartz, with iron and arsenical pyrites; "Olhos" swells or 
bunches, which have given 50 — GO oitavas per ton ; and auri- 
ferous " Caco," expected to graduate into pyritic produce below. 
As yet nothing has been done : perhaps, however, the project is 
not dead but sleeping. 

Descending a steep, we found the land blooming with the 
Capini Melado, whose long glumes suggested heather. The hill 
was rough enough with rolhng stones to puzzle an Arab. We then 
forded a streamlet and entered the Bossa Grande Estate. This 
until lately was part of the property belonging to the Marquess 
De Barbacena, a Brazilian gentleman well known in Europe. 
As we rode up, a miserable tail-race on our right, discharging 
some 300 gallons per minute, represented the only water supply ; 
the path was evidently made with toe and heel, an " unsophisti- 
cated creation of nature," as is said of the higlnvay in Siberia. 
Turning to the left, we passed a row of ground-floor out-houses 
more foully dirty than any I had seen that day. On the hill 
above, the inevitable Casa Grande had been commenced, but we 

* The "x" in Portuguese sounding like + These "Datas" have been compared 

"ch," or our " sh," allows the spelling to with the " Tin bounds " of Connvall : the 

be confused, as in Cachaga or Caxaca, comparison is just as far as streaming goes, 

Cachoeira or Caxoeira, Chiquc Chiqnc or but not in mining. 

288 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BEAZIL. [chap. xxix. 

went straight to head-quarters, which were temporary and 
humble. The Mining- Captain and Manager, Mr. Brokenshar, 
came and asked us to hmch : we declined with thanks, as we 
Avere short of time. "Then," said the host, "I've a bit of 
hot dinner in here — I shall wish you good-bye." He was 
evidently Cornish and cautious, nor did we like to put many 
questions. The place looked a failure : there were in sight 
fourteen very depressed white men, a few free Brazilians, and 
no slaves. 

Thence we made for the stamps and inspected the stuff. The 
mine, which lies high up the hill-side, is a layer rather than a 
lode, dipping to the east, and cropping out of the north-north- 
western side of the Rossa Grande Bidge. The containing rock 
is a pinkish substance, coated with a thin layer* nearly all iron. 
Through it run vems of decomposed and easily powdered quartz 
of the sugary variety, expected to contain " Caco." This 
cacophonous term is applied to quartz and oxide of, others say 
sulphate of, iron, and is held by miners to be a valuable stone. 
We also saw laminated iron-quartz containing a Httle iron pyrites, 
principally found in brown auriferous soil. The best gold- 
bearing substances in the formation are reddish oxide of iron and 
the " elephant tusk," a plate of dark micaceous impure iron, 
running parallel with the sugary quartz. Often there is a third 
layer of brown and decomposed iron oxide. 

This mining proi)erty had long been in the market for £1600 
without finding a purchaser. Presently a gentleman at Bio 
de Janeiro disposed of it for £22,000 (£11,000 in cash, and 
2200 shares of £5 each fully paid up) to the Bossa Grande f 
Brazilian Gold-Mining Company Limited — the capital being 
£100,000. A Mining Captain Avho had known the place for 
twenty-eight years reported upon it in 1862, and declared that 
the estimates show 56 jier cent, per annmn ui)on a called-up 
capital of £40,000. According to the Prospectus the land 
extends on both sides of the Serra do Socorro, and thus it has, 
or is made to have, a rivulet at its disposal. The formation 
is quartz, brown oxide of iron, and arsenical j^yrites, in a 

* Called by the Bi-azilian miner wLich tlie property was conveyed, and thus 

"Capa." it is written by the "Almanak." Pro- 

+ The original word is probably Roca, bably they were afraid that in Europe 

a clearing. But Rossa is the name in " Iloga " woidd become " Roka. " 


containing rock (jf cl;!}-. Gold exists as tin aiul copper in 
England, where the talcose slate effects a mysterious conjunction 
with " granite."* The reporter also found a bit of quart/ 
showing visible gold. There are said to be three distinct rock 
formations, all auriferous, besides one of Jacutinga, which is 
still unexplored. The first lode is white quartz and iron, the 
second is yellow quartz with auriferous arsenical pyrites and 
rich'" Olhos," and the third is " Caco." The direction is east 
to west, and the dip 40° south. 

Unfortunately assays from this lode do not give two oitavas 
per ton, which, in working on a large scale, means Httle or 

* I saw no granite at these altitudes : one told me that the auriferous deposits of 
the hard sandstone has probably been mis- Minas were all gi-anitic where gold had 
taken for it. So at Rio de .T.aneiro some taken the place of mica. 

VOL. 1. 



Overhead upgrew 
Incomparable height of loftiest shade, 
Cedar and pine and fir and branching palm. 


The vast curtain of thin blue misty cloud, majestically drift- 
ing eastwards, did not raise its folds before 3 a.m. ; luckily, for 
the sun that succeeded it made our clothes and ridmg gear smell 
distinctl}^ of burning. We breasted a steep patch of " terra 
vermellia ; " here "red land" is a ruddy argile, not, as in the 
Province of Sao Paulo, degraded volcanic matter. There was 
also "terra vermelha tatu," much affected by the armadillo,* 
and the rest was the common "macape "f or " ball-foot " clay, 
more or less ferruginous. In places the ochre-tinted ground 
showed long streaks of " esmeril," not our emery, but a dust of 
magnetic iron which proves fertility of soil, which generally 
accompanies vrash-gold, and which is, they say, associated with 
iridium or osmiure of iridium. I AVe are now in one of the 
dampest parts of Minas ; it is the heart of the dry season, but 
pools still pit the greasy surface of the path. 

Peaching a short level we run along the western sloj^e of a 
ridge, and with many uncalled-for windings, such as travellmg 
north when our course was south, we turned to the east. Bej^ond 

The common varieties given liy Koster + The Brazilian farmer has, I have said, 
and others, are the " tatii bola" (DasyiDus a distinct name for every variety of gi-owth 
tncinctus), whose jointed armonr enables it that clothes the vast expanse ; and he as 
to ball itself like a hedgehog : the delicate carefully distinguishes the several soils. I 
meat is compared to that of the sucking presume that "Ma9ape" means "ball- 
pig ; the "tatu verdadeiro," or true arma- foot ;" it certainly balls the mules' hoofs, 
dillo (D. novemcinctus), a larger species and renders riding in hot weather a sncces- 
which cannot " ball ;" the " tatu greba " sion of sUdes. 

(peba ?) said to be anthropophagous (D. J This is positively asserted by .Jose 

tfdvipes), anl the "tatu Cauastra " (D. Bonifacio (p. 14, Yiagem Mineralogica). 

gigas). \r > <= o . 


the summit of the Serra de Luis Scares we change water-shed, 
leaving the basin of the Rio das Velhas, or rather of the Rio de 
Stio Francisco, for that of the Rio Doce. The lands, once o-«aied 
b}' the Gongo Soco Company, are now the property of the Com- 
mendador Francisco de Paula Santos. The road at once 
improves, it has been widened and partially dramed ; it is the 
Brazil veysus England, and England is, I regret to say, "^no- 

On the left was the junction of the Caethe * highway to Gongo 
Soco ; we were shown the whereabouts of the town, at the 
base of the Serra da Piedade. I regretted that we had not 
time to visit it ; the church is famous throughout the Province, 
and the place produces pottery of a superior quality, a blue clay 
which biu'ns to a light greyish tint. But we had seen and were 
still to see, many a temple and a tuilerie. 

The south-eastern side of this ridge is enriched by the over- 
falls from the western face ; we now plunge into the true 
"Mato Dentro," or inner woodland formation. It is the fourth 
region, l3'ing west of the Campos or Prairies, the Serra do Mar 
or Eastern Ghauts, and the Beii'amar or Maremma ; on this 
parallel it will extend west to the Cerro or true Diamantine for- 
mation, wliicli reaches the luxuriant valley of the Rio de Sao 
Francisco. Originally the term " Mato Dentro," which is still 
applied to many settlements, was descriptive of the secular 
forests which lay ''within" or inland of the grassy hills and 
prairie lands. These vii-gms of the soil have long been cleared 
away from manj' parts, and have been succeeded by tall second 
growth, stunted scrub, and the sterile fern.t Here and there, 
however, vast tracts of the primitive tunber remain. 

Mr. Walsh I proposes six regions or varieties of surface over 

* Caa-ete, or coa-ret^, -n'oiilcl literally cone, and drinks from the rastic cup. 

signify "very bush," or "bush-much," From " Caeth^ " is derived the name of 

true or good growth ; hence a forest, applied the South American wihl hog, known as 

either to the Mata Yirgem or to the Mato " Caetetu :" the last syllable is suu (also 

Dentro. Many places in the Brazil have wTitten suia and soo), changed for euphony 

this name, which is also rendered in the to tuu, and thus the word means literally 

vernacular " Capao bonito. " "virgin-forest-game." 

"Caete," derived from the same roots, f " Toda essa terra se cobre, depois de 

is also a broad lettuce-like leaf from 3 to 5 meia duzia de plantacoes, de um feto (filix) 

palms long, and growing in rich damp a que chamao ' Sambamliaia, ' e cpie aconte- 

grounds. The Indians made of this vege- cido desemparao a terra," says Dr. Conto 

tation coverings for their provisions, such (p. 80). 

as war-farinha : the Brazilian trooper + Vol. ii. pp. 299 — 312. 
twists the leaf like the grocer's lirown paper 

292 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [ch.ap. xxx. 

which his route lay. These are : 1. Beiramar ; 2. Serra Acima; 
3. Campos ; 4. Rock}^ metalliferous Serras, " a stony Arabia " ; 
5. The Mato Dentro, which he describes as " low eminences 
covered with copse and brushwood, frequently interspersed with 
ferns and brambles"; and 6. " Bristly peaks and conical mountains 
of bare granite," for which read granular or quartzose " Itacolu- 
mite." * In the Cisandine valley of the Amazons Paver, Mr. E. 
Spruce finds five distinct series of vegetation, independent of the 
actual distribution of the running waters, and to a certain extent, 
of the geological and the climatic constitution of the country. He 
gives : 1. The Hiparial Forests, which, with their scrub, live sub- 
merged for many months of every 3'ear ; 2. The Recent Forests ; 
3. The Low or White Forests (caa-tingas ?), the remains of an 
ancient and highly interesting vegetation, which are now being 
encroached upon by a sturdier growth ; 4. The Virgin or Great 
Forests which clothe the fertile lands beyond the reach of inunda- 
tions ; and, lastly, the Campos or Savannahs, regions of grassy 
and scrubb}' knolls, glades, and hollows. 

We halted to admire the "floresta fechada " — closed forest — 
this pomp and portent of nature, this entire disorder of vege- 
tation, through which the tropical smi shot rare shafts of 
golden light, and which kept the gioammg even at mid-d<\v ; 
viewed from above the feathery leafage disclosed glimi)ses of 
yellow downs, grey rock-peaks, and blue ridges dotting the 
misty background, whilst the base was of impervious shade. The 
surface, wholly undrained and unreclaimed, is a forest mould, a 
layer of soft, sjiongy, chocolate-coloured humus, the earth of 
leaves, trunks, and root stools, in which the well-girt walker 
often sinks to the knee. After travelling through it, man learns 
to loathe the idea of a march amid a state of nature. Essentially 
uneven, the ground is a sj'stem of sombre sloping valleys and 
deep, abrupt ravines clothed in double shades, here soled with mud, 
there cut by a cool stream rolling its crystal down stone stejDS 
and over beds of pure sand, pebbles, and rock slabs. In some 
places it is diversified by clift's and drops, in others knife-backs 
separate precipices on either side, and in others the stony bone 
pierces through the skin. The sections show a subsoil of rich 

* The reader must be warned that these regions ai'e not always distinctly marked : for 
instance, the metalliferous Serras (Cerro formation) alternate with the ]\latu Dejitro. 


red c'la}-, embedding boulders of granite, gneiss, or greenstone,* 
or disposed in layers of argile, resting, as in the Maritime Range, 
upon the rock floor. Its climate is, during the day-time, a 
suffocating, damp heat, which causes a cold perspiration to follow 
the slightest exertion. The sun-beams rarely reach and never 
warm the mould}' ground, while the tree screens deprive earth of 
wholesome draughts. The nights and mornings are chill and 
raw; and during storms the electricity is excessive. Fevers 
abound, and the few human beings who live in the "greenwood" 
are a sickly race, sallow and emaciated, bent and etiolated, as if 
fresh from a House of Correction. 

The altitude of the Mato Dentro is here that of the Maritime 
Range, the climate is similar, consequently there is a family like- 
ness in the vegetation, wdiicli is fed fat upon abundant carbon, 
genial rain, and tropical sunshine. The dreams of the tliird and 
twelfth centuries, which, reviving the Hamadryads, restored to 
trees human spii'its, here seem to be realised ; everything growing- 
wrestles and struggles for dear life, as if endowed with animal 
})assions and bestial energy. In the clearings, Avhere the 
bulwarks of verdure stand outlined, we are struck by many a 
peculiarity of the equatorial forest. The slim masts of the 
harder timber are planted in the ground like poles, the softer 
woods have giant flying buttresses raised from five to eight feet 
above the soil and forming the great roots below. The walls of 
the chamferings would enclose a compan}^ of soldiers ; the wings 
here, as in Africa, are easily converted into planks, and the 

* In the valleys, coombs or corries, these rating the decomposition of rocks ; and he 
formations suggest "boulder-drift." Un- comixires it with torrents of hot water 
fortunately the ravine floors and the striking for ages upon hot stones. 
"Tors" or rock-hummocks (roches mou- Few Brazilian travellers will accept this 
tonnees) are not "ice-dressed," or, at least, explanation of the absence of " gi-ooving " 
stone-scorings and striated, polished or and "burnishing." Almost all residents 
grooved surfaces have not yet been observed. are agi-eed that in this country hard stone 
Professor Agassiz, the father of the glacial used for building, and other subaerial pur- 
theory, remarks (Journey in Brazil, pp. 88 poses, suffers notably less from atmospheric 
— 89), "I have not yet seen a trace of modification than it does in Europe. Nor 
glacial action, properly speaking, if polished is it easy to see how -s^^arm rain washing 
surfaces and furrows are especially to be heated surfaces would affect the latter more 
considered as such." He attributes the powerfully than the tremendous force of 
absence of striation and " slickenside " to alternate frosts and thaws of the so-called 
the ' ' abnormal decomposition of the sur- temperate regions. 

face-rock, which points to a new geological It is, however, premature to discuss the 

agency, thus far not discussed in our geo- subject of "ice-dressing" in the Brazil: 

logical theories." He believes that the the hammer must be freely used in situ 

wai-m rains falling upon the heated soil before theorising can be of value, 
must have a very powerful action in accele- 


Indians, an old missionary informs' us, used them as gongs to 
recal stragglers by striking them ^Yith hatchets. The trunks are 
white-barked with etiolation, red-brown with various Hchens and 
mosses, or spotted with a resplendent carmine-coloured growth.* 
They stand out like a palisade against the background of gloomy 
shade, and many of them are so tall that though the Indian 
arrow will toj? them, the shot-gun can do no harm. They shoot 
up boughless before s^jreadrng out, as high as possible, the better 
to fight the battle of life and to plunder then- weaker neighbours 
of goodly sun and air, light and heat. The disposition of the 
few branches also is varied by the shape and tmt of the leafage ; 
some, the m3Ttles for instance, are marvellously symmetrical ; 
others, the Malvacepe and the Euj)horbias, are picturesquely irre- 
gular ; the result is a wonderful and a beautiful complication. 
Many species, I may venture to say, are unknown. The Myrtaceffi 
and Leguminosse are the most numerous; the aristocracy is repre- 
sented by Hymenepe, Bauhinias, giant figs, towering Lauruses, 
and colossal Bignonias, which supply the hardest timber. The 
beauties are the Acacias, the Mimosas, the Lasiandras, and the 
slender-waisted palms, with bending forms and heads charged 
with tall sillven plumes. The proletariat undergrowth is repre- 
sented by Cassias charged with flower-tufts, Heliconias, ground- 
palms, tree-nettles (Jatrophas), Bigonias, Agaves, many kinds of 
Cactus, arundinaceous plants, and various Bamboos, often forty 
feet high, either unarmed or terrible with thorns. These form 
impenetrable fourrcs, thi'ough which only an elei)hant's weight 
could break ; the hunter must painfully cut for himself a path Avitli 
the facao or bill, and he feels as if safelv lodged in a vegetable 


The nmnber, the variet}', and the brightness of the flowers dis- 
tinguish this Brazil forest from the more honiel}', though still 
beautiful growth, of the temperate regions, Canada and the 
Northern States of the Union. The general surface is a sj'stem 
of wonderful domes charged with brilliant points of light, glitter- 
ing like vegetable jewels. It is now autumn, but the cold season 
here, as in Africa, takes \v[)0\\ itself the office of om- sj)ring, and 
thus spring and autumn mingle their charms. Some trees are 
still bare of leaf, others wear garments of ashen-grey or sere and 

John Mawe took with him to England some of this lichen, and tried, but in vain, to 
utilise the dje. 


3'clloNv ; others are robed in rosy tints and burnished red. The 
normal coloiu' is a dark heavy gTeen '; every shade of green, how- 
ever, appears, from the lightest leek to the deepest emerald. 
AVhile a few trees are in fruit many are still in flower, and here 
again is an endless diversit}-. The gold and purple blossoms first 
attract the e3'e ; there is no want, however, of wliite and blue, 
pink and violet, crimson and scarlet. They load with perfmne 
the moist heavy air, and once more there is every variety of 
odoiu's, from the fragrance of the Vanilla and the Cipo Cravo, 
which suggests cloves, to the Pao de Alho, that spreads the smell 
of garlic over a hundred yards around it. 

Most astonishing perhaps of all the forest features are the 
epiphytes, air-plants and parasites. The weak enwrap the strong 
from head to foot in rampant bristling masses, and hide them in 
cypress-like pillars of green. Even the dead are embraced by the 
livmg that swarm up, clasp, entwine, enwrap them, and stand 
upon tlieii' crests, the nearer to worship Sol and ^ther. Every 
tall, gaunt, ghastly trunk, bleached with age and grimly mourning 
its departed glories, is ringed and feathered, tufted and crowned 
with an alien growth that sucks, vampii'e-like, its life-drops till it 
melts away in the hot moistm'e, and sinks to become vegetable 
mould. The least fracture or ii*regularity of stem or axil is at 
once seized upon by a stranger, that lives at the expense of the 
tree and assists at its death. Every naked branch is occupied by 
lines of brilliant flowers and tufty leaves of metallic lustre. Thus 
each venerable ancient of the vu-gin forests is converted into a 
conservator}', a botanical garden, " un petit monde," numbering 
a vast variety of genus and species, admirable in diversity of 
aspect, and clothed in a hundred colours — with truth, it is said, 
that a single trunk here gives more forms than a forest in 

As a rule, orchids are not so abundant in the forests of the 
interior as in those nearer the sea, where they hang the wood 
with tufts of roses and immortelles. The upper branches of the 
tree are richest in pendent Cacti, and below them trails the 
bizarre, didl-grey Barba de pau* or Tillandsia. Further down 
flourish garlands and festoons of Arums and Dracontiums, Marantas 
and Caladiums, with succulent, dark-green, cordiform leaves. 

* Also known as Barba de Vcllio ; I liave alluded to it in Chapter 3. 

206 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [.iiap. xxx. 

Most remarkable is the Bromelia, with coral-red calyx and the 
points of the folioles passing from flame-colour to pm-ple-hlue. 
There are bouquets of red, yellow, and orange flowers in spikes 
or umbels, now like the lily, then suggesting the hyacinth ; they 
press close together, and sometimes one kind will take root upon 
another. The creepers are woody Bauhinias, PauUinias, and 
Banisterias, mixed with the withe-like convolvulus, the blue- 
flowered Ipomoea, much like our common convolvulus, the 
Vanilla, whose pods here feed the rats ; the Grenadilla, studded 
with apples, and a variety of quaint and gaudy Passion-flowers. 
Many of them, Ampelidte, Aristolochias, Malpighiacere, and others, 
are families either belonging to or best developed in this New 
"World, and each has branched oft" into many a species. The 
ligneous vine-like llianas run up the masts with gigantic flat 
leaves, disposed at intervals like those of the dwarf English 
ivy. Not a few of them are thorny, and the people believe their 
wounds to be poisonous. Some throw down single fibres or 
filaments hke a system of bell-wires fifty feet long ; others, vary- 
ing in thickness from a thread to a man's arm, trail across the 
path. These hang like the strained or torn rigging of a shij) ; 
those cling like monstrous boas to the bole till they reach a 
height where they can safely put forth their cappings of tufty leaves 
and flowers. The slightest sketch of their varieties would cover 
pages. The convolutions seem to follow no rule as regards the 
sun, although the southern side of a tree, like the northern in 
Europe, is here usuall}' distinguished by a more luxm^iant growth 
of moss and lichen. Our old friend, the Cipo Matador (Clusia 
insignis, " Mata pau "), that vegetable Thug, winds like a cable 
round the tree-neck which it is throttling. Many of the climbers 
pass down the trunks, take root anew, or run along a fallen 
forest-king, and swarm up the nearest support ; from this they again 
descend, and thus they rope the forest with a cordage wonderful 
in its contrasts and complexities. Lowest ujion the trees are the 
pendent fringes of delicate fernery, which are terrestrial as well 
as air-plants, mossing over every rock and giving life to the stone. 
In marshy places spring palm-like Equisetums, which easily over- 
top a man on horseback. The tree-ferns * are no unworthy 

* It cannot be said in the Brazil that between the sea shore and 3000 feet of 
tree-ferns have a limited range : I find altitude, 
them everywhere in the humid climates 


descendants of the Calamites, bundles of fibres, forty feet high ; 
the eye dwells with pleasure upon the " antediluvian " type, com- 
paring the smallness and the delicate cutting of the bending and 
Avaving folioles with the tallness and stiffness of the trunk ; often, 
moreover, grimly armed with thorns. 

These virgin forests have other dangers than fever and ague. 
It is necessary to encamp in them with care. Often some un- 
wieldy elder, that has ended his tale of years, falls with a terrible 
crash, tearing away with him a little world. Where the ground 
is much " accidented " the dense huge vegetation of the lower 
levels fines off above into thin and scrubby caa-tinga and carrasco, 
Avhere the winds bring no risk. During long-continued tropical 
rains tree shelter is of scant avail ; at first only a fine spray 
descends, but this soon collects into huge drops and small 
spouts of water. ]\Iany of these growths are the despair of 
botanists ; the infloration is found only on the top, and the wood 
is so hard that a day is easily wasted in felling. It is the same 
with the air-plants, which, carried from place to place by winds 
and birds, mostly grow far out of ladder reach. 

Glorious in the sunshine, the Mato Dentro becomes weird and 
mysterious when the lurid red light bursts from the sunset 
clouds upon the mighty fret work of olive green. It is esjiecially 
interesting when a storm gives deeper gloom to the depths of the 
alcoves, and presently startles all the sombre solitude. The 
forest is poor in large life, the grandest specimens are the 
poorest ; as in Equatorial Africa, the inanimate will not allow 
the presence of the animate ; we must, therefore, look for game in 
places where the forest outskirts meet cultivation. On the other 
hand, it is unpleasantl}' rich in the smaller life. And as we see vege- 
table forms ranging between the arctic crj'ptogams, mosses, and 
lichens that encrust the rocks, which are covered Avith the tropical 
Bromelias, and which shadow the palms, so we hear the scream of 
the hawk, the cr}' of the jay, and the tappmg of many wood- 
peckers,* combined with the chatter of the parrot and the 
paiToquet,t and the tolling of the bell-bird from the lofty tree- 
top. '* Ubi aves ibi angeli," said the older men, and we love the 

* Especially Anabatis (Tcmiuinck) ery- JIax. iii. 32, and iii. 43. 
throphthalmus ; A. atricaiiillus and A. leu- f Tarrots are rare in this region, and the 

cophthalmus, a reddish-brown bird with a macaw, that prime ornament of the vii'gin 

singular cry ; it is described by Prince forest, has been killed o\it. 


feathered biped, not only for itself, although loveable j:)er se, but 
because its presence argues that of man. Nor must Ave forget, 
while noticing the " natural harmonies " in these leafy halls, the 
music of the " singing toad " in the swamp, and the ffog 
concerts carried on in the water and the grass, on the earth and 
every fallen tree. At a distance it is a continuous recitativo with 
base and treble, interrupted at times by a staccato passage, Avhich 
seems to be the cry of a child, the yelping of a cur, or the blow of 
a hammer upon an anvil. But even a hst of small Hfe, of the 
moths and butterflies, the beetles and the bees, the mosquitos and 
the abominable Marimbombo wasps, would delay us too long — we 
should not reach Gongo Soco to-night, or in this Chapter. 

As we progressed slowly down the dark alle}-, admiring the 
" verdobscure " scene and the sunlight, 

. . . broken into scarlet shafts 
Amid tlie palms and ferns and precipices, 

" da Casa ! any one at home ! " cried a cheery voice behind 
us. AVe turned and recognised the Dii'ector of the Cuiaba Mme, 
Mr. James Pennycook Brown, F.E.G.S., whose acquaintance Ave 
had already made. 

Loose liis beard and hoary hair 
Streamed, like a meteor, to the troubled air 

as he rode up to join us. After a joyful greeting Ave dismounted 
to Avails; ; the path, skirting deep valleys and tangled raA'ines, 
showed much of the sublime and beautiful, but it Avas very 
muddy, steep, and slipper}- — in fact, it had little of the comfort- 
able. At Cantagallo, lughest mining station beloAv the divide, 
Ave entered upon " Canga," here an incrustation of brown 
haematite. It noAV paves the ground, there forms ledges pro- 
jecting like roof-ea\'es; beneath it there may be claystone or 
Jacutinga, AA'ith or Avithout gold. 

Descending the hill Ave saAv through the avenue of trees 
" Morro Agudo," a little peak blue Avith distance and bearing 
east Avitli northing. Here, in the parish and district of Sao 
Miguel de Piracicaba, on an influent ten to tAvelve leagues from 
the true Eio Doce, is the ii"on foundr}' of M. Monlevade, a 
French settler of the old school. Though an octogenaire he 
tmuis out more Avork than any of his neighbours, and he supplies 


the Great Mine, despite the interval of eighty miles, with stamp 
heads and other rough appliances. His slaves are well fed, 
clothed, and lodged ; hy way of pay they employ the Sunday in 
washing gold from the stream, and they often make 1 $ 000 during 
the day ; if compelled to work during the holiday they receive a 
small sum by way of indemnification. 

Nearing the hill-foot, we turned abruptly down a steep to the 
left. On the right was a huge pit, red and j'ellow, whence the 
auriferous matter had been removed. Then appeared on the 
other side the uj)per ground of the once famous mine. The tall 
hill Avas rent and torn as if by an earth-slip, and showed a huge 
slide black as if charcoal had been shunted down it : at the bottom 
was a large rugged open cut such as Brazilian railwaj's affect. The 
surface, as the sun withdrew, appeared the colour of lamp-soot. 
In this western portion was sunk Lyons's shaft, once the richest, 
and Gardner may still be justified in asserting that about half a 
mile to the eastward of the mme entrance the auriferous bed 
narrows to a pomt, but that "westward it appears inexhaustible." 

We followed the bubbling waters of the Corrego de Gongo Soco 
till we came to the present workings. All is on a very small 
scale, confined to removing the pillars that were left, washing out 
the sides of the roadways, and taking up, where possible, portions 
of the old lines. Eighteen head of stamp, a feitor, and a few 
negroes are all the symptoms of present industry. The propert}-, 
Avhich runs one mile east to west, by about half that breadth north 
to south, now yields, they say, about 4 pounds Troy per annum, and 
the Commendador Avould, it is believed, sell it for a very moderate 

The shades of Captam Lyon and Colonel Skerrett must haunt 
tliis Auburn in " West Barbary," once so wealthy, now so 
decayed. It is melancholy to see ruins in a young land, grey hau"s 
upon a juvenile head. The huge white store to the left of the path 
is shut up, the gardens have been wasted by the tame pig, the excel- 
lent stables are in tatters, whilst from the remnants of the negro 
Sensallas blind and crippled blacks came and received sixpences 
from Mr. Gordon as we passed. The Casa Grande of the " Lord 
High Commissioner," large as many a summer palace in Europe, 
looked abominably desolate, and though the place is still a 
*' chapehy " the little steeple is shored up. The arched gateway 
of stone, the eastern limit of the mine proper, still stands, but 


the cliaiigiiig-liouse, where men shifted their garments, has melted 

Contrasting with all this ruin was the prodigious vitality of 
nature. A fig-tree sprang fresh and green from the very middle 
of a slab * that might have made a table for Titans or a sarco- 
phagus for Pharaohs. It was of regular shape, some 60 feet long, 15 
broad, and about 4 in height ; its material was iron and hard lami- 
nated clay. This " Baron's stone " should not be a " sine nomine 
Saxum." Another tree, a Canella (Tjaurus atra, one of the 
Laurineffi) has been allowed to remain near the entrance of the 
mine. The late Bariio de Catas Altas used in his days of poverty 
to make it hold his horse, and, when the propert}' became 
English, he requested that it might be spared. 

AVe then passed down the beautiful vale of the Gongo Soco rill, 
some 4 miles long by half that breadth. On the left or north was 
the wooded range of Tijuco, highly ferruginous and auriferous, 
in fact, the mother of the gold. To the right Avas the stream 
valley, and my friends pointed out the place whence the deep 
adit for draining the mine should have been run up to the level of 
the Casa Grande. The bottom is garnished with timber and tree 
mottes ; the undulatmg grass}' sides show stones cropping out to 
the west ; the upper heights are studded with thm Cerrados, and 
the picture is set in a semicircle of mountains. 

Another turn to the left along the hill-side showed us the Gongo 
River of many names. It begins life as the Soccorro ; it becomes 
the Barra de Caethe, the S. Joao de Morro Grande, and lastly the 
Santa Barbara, where it joins the great Piracicava, and feeds the 
Rio Doce from the west. Up its valley we see the scatter of houses 
forming the Taboleiro Grande village, and higher up the gorge is 
the old settlement with the chapel of Soccorro, after which its 
grotto is called. The stream threads like a silver wire a black 
bed of degraded Jacutinga. Beyond it a white road winds up a 
block of hills to a mountain-tarn, known as the Lagoa das Antas. 
The lakelet is described as being without issue, shallow around 
the margin, and deep in the centre ; its tapirs (antas) and cay- 
mans were soon destroyed by the miners who repaii'ed there to 

Here called Lapa, which generally stone ; and in this part of Minas is generi- 
nieans a cave. It is our leh or lech, as it cally applied to hard clay-slate, 
occurs in Crom-leh, the crumpled or crooked 


Wiish their stolen gold, but it still contains leeches, somewhat 
smaller than those imported. 

AVe were waxing tired after our long day of mist, drizzle, sun- 
shine, and many emotions : the air became biting, and my wife 
declared that she held the halting place to be a mj'th. Still, long 
as the poplar avenue of the old French posting road, the path 
straggled over a soil of iron on the left bank of the Gongo River. 
At 6 P.M. we reached our destination, the Fabbrica da Ilha, which 
belongs to Sr. Antonio Marcos the Ranger. His son-in-law, Sr. 
Joiio Pereira da Costa, received us with the normal Brazilian 
hospitality, and lost no time in supplying us with what our souls 
most lusted after, supper and sleeping gear. 

I collected from INIr. Gordon and others the following items of 
information about the mj^sterious Jacutinga.* 

The name is evidently derived from the well-known Penelope t 
called Jacu-tinga (P. Leucoptera) from the white spots upon its 
crested head and blue-black wings. This substance of iron-black, 
with metallic lustre, sparkles in the sun with silvery mica; the 
large pieces often appear of a dark reddish brown, but thej'' 
crumble to a powder almost black. The constituents are micaceous 
iron schist t a,nd friable quartz mixed with specular iron, oxide 
of manganese, and fragments of talc. Pieces of the latter sub- 
stance, large enough for small panes, occur in blue clay slate. 
The floor rock at Cocaes is fine micaceous peroxide of iron 
(specular iron), thin and tabular. This has never been reached 
at Gongo Soco, and the foot-wall is still unknoAvn. It may be 
specular iron, for oligistic matter is found in small portions, and 
was stamped for free gold. 

Much of the Jacutinga is foliated, and forms under pressure 
spheroidal oblong crj'stals never found perfect. It shows great 
difterences of consistency ; some of it is hard and compact as 
haematite, and this must be stamped like quartz. In parts it feels 
soapy and greasy, not harder than fuller's earth ; it is easily wetted 

* I have reason to believe that there are Fcrreira says the Jacu-tinga (white) is " cle 

formations of Jacutinga in Habersham cor preta," Init with white spots upon the 

County, and about the north-east corner wings and liead. 

of Cxeorgia. J Mr. Walsh applies the term ' ' f or- 

f This handsome and fine-flavoured game ma^So preta " to this gangue, but the Bra- 
bird is of many varieties, esijecially the Jacu- zilians do not use the expression. He also 
:issu (big) the excellent J. pema, dark, calls Jacutinga " Corpo da formagao," a 
which Prince Max writes Jacnpcmba, Pene- term used rather in diamond washing than 
lopeMavail, Linn. , and J. Caca, the smallest. in gold washing. 


and pulverised, but it is hard to diy. Its gold is readily sepa- 
rated by washing, and it is purified with nitric acid. The whole 
body of the lode is not worth removing; it is therefore best 
worked in underground galleries. The lines and veins are fol- 
lowed with pick and without blasting ; their contents supply a soft 
and crumbling iron ore, which requires little stamping, and the 
" line gold " thus procured is of superior qualit}'. Often by 
following the filaments which radiate to all directions from a 
common centre, the miner finds a nucleus or nugget of large 
size, but inferior in standtuxl to the line gold, and losing more in 
the smelting-pot. The carat at Gongo Soco was 19 — 20. Some 
describe the gold as dark yellow with palladium, others say that it 
was deeply tinged with u'on and coloured like lead. I have seen it 
of a bright brass}' tint, and sometimes dingy red like worked un- 
polished copper. 

Gongo Soco evidently "gave out" because men knew all about 
Jacutinga. But in this mine the gold was free and the plunder- 
ing was enormous, some say to the extent of one-half the find. 
Tales are still told of miners going out on Sunda3^s carrying guns 
filled with stolen ore, and the tin biscuit-cases that came empty 
. into the mine sometimes took out from it thirteen pomids of the 
precious dust. There is yet much treasure hidden, and at times 
the luck}' ones find little fortunes in pots and bottles. Gongo 
Soco is explained to mean "the gong, or bell, sounds not." 
Brazilians translate it " Escondrijo de ladroes " — den of thieves. 



E onde, estulto Velho, oude acliaremos 
O ceo de Nitheroy ? As f erteis plagas 
Do nosso Paraliyba ? E as doces aguas 
Do saudoso Carioca . . . ? 

Confedcraqao dos Tamoyos, Canto IV. 

We slept comfortably at the little fazenda. It was the usual 
countiy abode, a ground-floor used by negroes and animals, 
a wooden staircase leading to the " sala " or guest room, and 
behind it the gynsecium and kitchen, which are forbidden ground, 
the sancta of the Dona. The front room is furnished with a 
Avooden table, always six inches too tall, a bench or two for the 
humbler sort, and a dozen chairs with cane backs and bottoms ; 
these are famous for wearing out overalls, and are instruments of 
tortiu'e to those who remember the divan. The paperless walls 
are adorned with hunting" trophies, weapons, horse-gear, prints of 
the Vii'gin, the saints, early Portuguese worthies, the siege of 
Arronches, and Napoleon Buonaparte ; sometimes there is a 
mirror and a Yankee clock, long and gaunt ; in the wild parts 
there is a portable oratory, a diamond edition of a chapel, two 
feet high, lodging proportional patron samts, prints, flowers, and 
bouquets ; they defend the small sums and little valuables 
entrusted to them by the owner. In the carpetless corner there 
is often a large clay water-jar with a wooden cover, and a tin pot, 
the drinking fountain. The family sleeps inside, the bedrooms 
of the guests open upon the sala : these windowless alcoves — light 
not being wanted at night and during the siesta, — are exactly 
what old Rome bequeathed to her daughters, Portugal and Spain. 
Each has one or two cots,* bottomed with rattan, hide, or board, 
and mattresses stuffed Antli grass or maize leaves. The bed- 

* Here called " Gatre," evidently a corruption of the Hindostani kliatli. 

304 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BllAZIL. [ciiAr. xxxi. 

clothes are generally good, alwa3'S clean, and the pillow-cases are 
edged with broad j^illow-lace. The dining-room is often in the 
body of the house, where the feminine portion, congregating 
behind the doors, can observe the stranger without being seen. 
One of the peculiarities of the table is the absolute necessity of 
a table-cloth; even if you are served with a mess of beans upon a 
travelling box b}- a negro host, he will always spread a napkin. 
The other is the presence of a tooth-pick holder of quaint shape, 
which exercises much small German ingenuity. Our country 
people, often leave home with a mighty contempt for the cleanly 
" palito," * which the}' amusingly term a dirty practice. In a 
few months, however, they discover that it is indisj)ensable in the 
Tropics, but not having learned its use, they are by no means 
pleasant to look upon Avliilst they use it. When the fazenda is on 
the ground floor, the sala is a place of passage for vermin-bearing 
sheep and goats, poultry and pigs ; such was the Irish cabin of 
the last generation, and the richest proprietors care little for this 
nuisance, which the juniors and the seminude negrolings delight 
to abate with sticks and stones. 

Altogether the small fazenda lacks many things desirable to 
the comfortable traveller. But in its roughness there is a ready 
hospitalit}', and, if the master be a traveller or an educated man, 
a hearty good will and a solicitude about the comfort of his guest 
which I nowhere remember except in the Brazil. 

Next morning we inspected the Fabbrica furnaces. On the 
right bank of the Gongo River there is an outcrop of sandstone 
slanting westward and roofing the Jacutinga, which can easil}' be 
made either into pig (cast ii'on) or bar (wrought iron).t There is a 
marvellous richness of this material, which reminded me of 
Unyamwezi in Inner Africa ; it extends for leagues over the 
land, and Martins and St. Hilaire agree that this part of 
Minas is, as Pliny said of little Elba, inexhaustible in its iron. 
The mineral here contains from 50 to 84 per cent, of pure 
metal, and that which we saw worked gives GO per cent. What 
would it pay in England, wliicli must remain content with 20 
to 35 per cent. ? 

* Palito, tlie little wood, tlie tooth- leaving, as Mr. BairJ says, a very fine 

Ij'ick. malleable iron behind, superior to any he 

i' "B\it it appears that the carbon here had seen in the furnares in England." Mr. 

always escapes in the first instance (''.), Walsh (ii. 2nr)). 


The inner Brazil preserves the Catahxn, or direct process of 
treating the ore by single fusion, now obsolete in older lands. 
Even the Munjolos* in AVestern, and the Marave savages in 
Eastern, Africa, have improved upon it by adding a chimney for 
draught, a rude land of wind-furnace, t Here the forge is a rough 
bench of masonr}', ten feet long by two in height, and containing 
two or three funnel-shaped basins one foot in diameter, and open 
at the bottom before and behind. In the rear are the twiers or 
tu3'eres, the draught holes for the cold-water blast ; a small 
stream falling through a rough tube forces the air into a wind-pipe 
and drains off below, whence it passes to work the forge-fire and 
the tilt-hammer. Unfortunately the blast cannot be controlled. 
The ore is broken into pieces about the size of a walnut, without 
previous roasting or sifting, and is mixed in the proportion 
of one-third to two-thirds of the charcoal, rudely measured by a 
basket ; this mixture is placed in the furnace-basins, which are 
previously heated, and at times charcoal is added. As the iron 
melts it sinks, and the slag and other impurities are removed 
through the front holes opposite the twiers. The negro in 
charge attends to the fire, stirring up the mass from the top with 
a rod or poker, and he knows that the melting process is com- 
plete when the thick smoke and blue flame have changed to a 
clear white blaze. 

The side opening at the bottom of the furnace-basin, which has 
been banked up with fine charcoal, is then cleaned, and the work- 
man, with a pair of tongs, pulls out the " bloom " + or " boss." 
It is chilled rather than quenched in a large water-bowl contain- 
ing a layer of charcoal ashes, and now it has the appearance of 
an amygdaloid, tlie raisins of the pudding being the half-burnt 
fuel. The clinker is rejected, but there is no puddling to get rid 
of the abundant sulphur. This mineral will disappear under the 
hammer, showing how tenacious is the ore ; an inferior quality 
would split. But also the wood charcoal, combining with the 
iron, has made a kind of steel ; were sulphm'ous coal used with 
such a process, the produce would be almost worthless. 

* See Chap. 24. lonial days tlie people were forbidden to 

+ A drawing of the IMarave forge is melt an ounce of iron : they walked upon 

given in " Muata Cazembe " (p. 38), the it, but they were compelled to impoi-t their 

diary of the Portuguese Expedition of luetal from Portugal. 

1831-2 (Lisbon, Imprensa Nacional, 1854). + This lump of malleable iron is gene- 

We can hardly wonder, however, at the rally called a bala, locall/ a " lupa. " 
rudeness of the Brazilian process. In co- 


306 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxi. 

The last oi^eration is now to place the " bloom " under the 
tilt-hammer, where it is doUeyed and stamped into the shape of a 
brick. No refining process is attempted beyond simple reheat- 
ing to expel impurities and increase the hardness ; it is then 
replaced under the hammer and drawn out to the required 
scanthng. It goes to Morro Vellio in bar, to be used as boyer 
iron. I have already remarked how it lasts out the stamps of 
English steel. But the rudest and sunplest process suffices for 
such excellent ores — witness the Damascus steel forged by the 
rude Hindus in the hill-ranges of Bombay. Here an evident 
and ■ easy improvement would be to build a stack or even a 
cylinder over the basins, and thus to heat the blast. It will be 
long before these men will be persuaded to employ the newly 
invented s^'stem of electro-magnets. 

After an ample breakfast we struck down the River Valley, 
guided by Sr. da Costa ; it was adorned with beautiful figs of the 
coolest and most refi-eshing green. On our left was a tall, tm'ret- 
like outcrop of granular limestone mixed with "lapa,"ahard 
clay slate. The mine was in a disordered condition and uncrys- 
tallised ; in one place a horizontal vein cropped out from the 
main body.* Beyond this point the coarse ferruginous soil was 
a rabbit warren, burrowed in search of gold, now exliausted. 
Crossing the Gongo River, we rode up the one street of S. Joao 
do Morro Grande, whose newly finished Matriz, with the 
pepper-box and round-square belfiies, we had sighted from afar. 
It is, comparatively speaking, an old xjlace, and was raised from 
villagehood to parochial rank by a Royal Letter of January 28, 
1752. The Serra de Cocaes, tall, stern, and cloud-capped, 
walls the left side of the vallej', and on its slope is the little 
Gamelleu'as Mine, workmg nine stamps, and belonging to the 
Capitao Jose de Aguiar and the Coronel Manuel Tliomaz and 

It is curious to see how the soil near the stream has been 
tossed and tumbled about during the last 150 years ; the present 
population could by no means have done it. " H3^draulicking " 
on an extensive scale was shown b}^ long lines of leats, runnmg 

* Here Gardner (p. 494) was misledby tlie mass of its centre consisting of granite. " 

M. von Helmreiclien, who made the Serra Upon this he places schistose and clay slate, 

north of the Grongo Soco Mine to nm east to cropping out at about 45 deg. 
west, and to be "of a primitive character, 


along the liill-sides like the river beaches and the parallel roads 
of often-quoted Glen B.oj. Above, them mines and diggings, 
deepened b}- the rains of many a summer, have been cut into 
Vesuvian cliffs and craters of red clay. 

We passed thi-ough the little village of " Capim Cheii'oso," * 
whose " fle}'- craws," wind-worked figures on tall poles swinging 
then- arms to frighten away bu-ds, suggested the presence of 
Swiss. Beyond it is the Sao Francisco settlement, where three 
streamlets meet; near the junction are a little tln-ee-windowed 
chapel and a wooden bridge with a stone pier m mid-stream. 
The path ran up the pretty river plain, bright with sugar-cane, 
on the right bank of the Brumado stream. It had a look of 
home ; the rivulet was, without overflowing, full — in these lands 
such streams are either o'erflowing or underflowing — and on the 
fm-ther banlc wintry broom rose naked in the aii-. Eeaching the 
much decayed village of Brumado, we saw on the left the road 
leading to Santa Barbara and the Pari Mine,t and we tm-n right- 
wards to the great house of Commendador Joao Alves de Sousa 
Coutinho. The reth-ed courtier, a favomite of the first Emperor, 
gave us a hearty welcome and pressed us to sta}'. 

Here we are close to the property of the Santa Barbara Gold 
Mining Company (Limited), of which a section of the public has 
assuredly heard. It was formed in 1861 to buy an estate and 
fazenda called the "Pari Gold Mme," or "Pari Lode," in the 
district of Pu-acicava, parish of S^''^ Barbara, t from which it is 
distant about six miles. Its owner, Coronel Joao Jose Carneii'o 
e Miranda, had long offered it for 5000/. ; it was purchased for 
12,000/., two-thirds in cash and the remainder in shares of 11. 
each. Moreover 18,000L were expended upon getting the mme 
into profitable working order, upon an adit for unwatering, and 
upon a new stamping mill of seventj'-two heads. Thus the total 
outlay was just half the capital, 60,000Z. 

The proposer, who visited it in 1855, § gave it a good name in 

* " Sweet-sinelling grass," a Cjiieracea, 54 miles nortli-east of Morro Velho. Ac- 

Kyllinga odorata (Syst.). cording to St. Hil. (I. i. 214), wlio -n-rites 

+ "Pari," pronounced mucli like the "Percicaba, or piracicaba," the Guarani 

French Paris, is a fish trap. -words " Pira cy cabS." appear to signify 

X S'» Barbara, upon the western head " shining black fish. " 

watei-s of the Rio Doce, is said in the reports • § In 1850, Dr. Walker reported that 

to be 14 — 15 miles due east of S. Joao do the lode resembled that of Morro Velho ; 

Mon-o Grande, 20 miles north by east that it was worked underground, but only 

from Gongo Soco, 24 miles from Cocacs, and by day, and that the ore was stamped, 

X 2 

308 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxi. 

his report. The lode, hornblende, quartz, and arsenical pyrites, 
ran north to south, parallel with the clay slate containing rock.* 
At grass the width was 3 — 4 feet, but below it widened to 7 — 13. 
It has been worked to 100 fathoms, but the level was shallow, 
hardly 80 feet, and the only pump was a hand-pump. The 
auriferous yield was to be upwards of four oitavas per ton. By 
way of refresher, in April, 1863, a report by an ex-miner of 
Gongo Soco, who had thirty years' experience in Brazil, was sent 
home ; the worthy man assured all shareholders that the former 
proprietor, despite his " crude, imperfect, inefficient, and there- 
fore costly development," had realised a very handsome property. 
Corollary, what a fool he was to sell it ! Moreover, the principal 
agent, whose son was also one of the mining caj^tains, reported 
that he was making five oitavas per ton ; other information was 
equally favom-able, especially when volunteered by those who 
had local interests, such as a store, or a shop, to supply rose- 
coloui'ed specs. 

On the other hand, facts were unreasonable enough to prove 
that the hornblende which predominates over the pp-itic forma- 
tion, though represented to be easy for boring, is an extremely 
refractory substance, making the quarrying very difficult, and 
neutralising the auriferous properties of the quartz. After six 
years the agent withdrew. The works are now in the hands of 
an ex-mechanic, two English miners, and a very few free 
Brazilians. The slaves have been given up, and — sic transit 
gloria Sanctae Barbarse ! But she may become rediviva ; in such 
matters " imjDossible " must be erased from the dictionary; and 
I have heard rumours that she is to be set on her feet once more. 

After eating oranges and drinking orange-wine, we bade adieu 
to the Commendador, leaving with him that extremely enUte 
Mr. Brown. A cross road to the west of the highway led up a 
short river valley with a charming " bit of view," crossed a " mud" 
or two, and placed us upon the open sunny Campo. I always 
return to these pure and airy do-svns with pleasure, especially 
after a spell of the "shut forest." Travellers complain that 
they are monotonous, but that depends upon the traveller. As in 
the Arabian desert, objects are few, excex)t to those who know 

passed tliroiigli arrastres, and straked In * Tlie underlay Is stated to be 54° — 55* 

the usual way. east. 


where to find them and how to look for them. And there is 
nothing unsightly in the long rolling waves of ground, dotted 
over with the j^ellow apple of the Jua, the black woods in the 
lower levels, and the gradual sinking of the foreground into a 
smooth horizon of the purest blue. 

Here for the first time rose high before us the Serra do 
Cara^a,* more poHtely called da Mae dos Homens. "NVe had 
turned its northern bluff without a clear jirosjiect of its form, and 
we shall almost circle round it before we return to Morro Yelho. 
Though it was so long in sight I was never weary of gazing upon 
it, despite the sage, 

Nil tarn mirabile qiiidquam 
Quod non minuant mirarier omnes paulatim."* 

It is a grisly spectacle, that Big Face, a huge mass of ii'on 
slate towering several thousand feet f above the high downs. 
Its featm'es are grotesquely seamed and dyked with broad and 
narrow bands of quartz I standing out from the dark Itacolumite, 
and in places there were long vertical shaves of blue-black 
Jacutinga underl3'ing the hard intercrust of mica slate. After 
yesterday's rain the ore had been washed out of the joints, 
making the slides and precipices look as if molten silver were 
flowing down a mountain of moulded iron, a grisly casting that 
disdains to show a sign of vegetation, and which seems to stand 
as if defjing the elements for ever. The southern end, where 
the strata are ahiiost perpendicular, assumes the appearance of a 
rhmoceros head ; nor are nasal horns wanting, the softer parts 
of the stone have scaled off, leaving a jagged line of tall pikes, 
like the "organs" of Rio Bay. Looking at it, as we do, from 
the west, it proclaims its inaccessibility ; it is the wall of iron 
which Sikandar of Hum. built against Yajuj and Majuj at 

• Cara9a is explained in Portuguese as to an enormous visage." St. Hil. (I. i. 
Carranca (tetricus vultus) de Pedra (Voc. 218) observes that the word is at once 
Port. & Latin of Padre Raphael Bluteau, Portuguese and Guarani. In the latter 
10 vols, folio). The word is feminine, but tongue, Cara and ha9a, or Caara9aba, cor- 
al ways takes the masculine affix, "0 rected to Caraga, mean a defile. 
Cara9a," the ugly face. This confirms the f Some say 3000 and even 4000 feet, 
legend which derives its name from some St. Hil. (I. i. 285), who ascended the highest 
pongo-faced negro, Quilombeiro, who first peak, lays down the height at nearly 6000 
lived in its horrid heights. Mr. Henwood feet above sea-level. 

erroneously calls it "the Cara9as." Mr. + Mr. Halfeld informs us that the Cara9a 

Walsh (ii. 312) is worse still: "Another contains muriate of soda in the strata of 

was called ' Serra da Cara ' from ita likeness Itacolumite. 


This '' Big Face Mountain" is the very pivot and centre of the 
mid-Minas gokl mines, especially the pyritic formation : open the 
compass to a radius of 0° 30', sweep round, and the enclosed 
circle will all be more or less auriferous. The Serra was ex- 
amined botauically by Spix and Martins, followed by St. Hilaire : 
heav}' rains kept Gardner away. Mr, Gordon ascended by the 
southern face, and found a dangerous road, with round rolling 
stones, over ledges and along precipitous chasms : the pass 
by Allegria on the south-eastern side is also bad. The best 
approach is from Brumado, which we have just seen, and up 
the easier northern slope. On the summit is a plateau of some 
three square miles, soled b}^ a swamp which dries up in winter ; 
around the margin of this water European vegetables grow to 

As usual with remai'kable mountains in Minas, the Caraca was 
long a hermitage where life must have been lively as that of a 
lighthouse-keeper thirty j-ears ago. A chapel in which mass was 
said for fifty miles round,* was begun in 1771, and dedicated to 
N^ S'^ Mae dos Homens. Near it was a monastery occuj)ied 
by a brotherhood of eleven. The works were all made by a 
certain Irmiio Louren^o, who belonged to the regicide house of 
Tavora. His portrait is still in the College, and he is remembered 
as a most worthy man who did not "make fire in the sea." He 
lived there till past 1818, and at his death left to the king his 
hermitage, which became a seminary. The congregation of the 
Mission of St. Vincent de Paul was present!}' estabhshed by Padi'e 
Leandro Eabello Peixoto e Castro, in vii'tue of the Eoyal Letter 
dated Jan. 21, 1820. It languished till the present Bishop of 
Marianna, Avho had been one of the lecturers, returned to it as 
Principal, and found there very few pupils. The diocesan collected 
funds for a little church and altar-stone to admit of the place 
being consecrated ; and the excellent prelate intends, it is said, to 
be buried in it. The now well-known theological college occupies 
a secondary ridge on the north-west part of the jDlateau, and when 
residences were built the Propaganda sent priest-professors. The 
Principal is M. INIichel Sipolis, who has temporarily retm-ned to 
France ; the Vice -Principal was his brother M. Francois Sipolis, 

* So says Henderson, wi-iting in 1821. 1S16; he also mentions " Frere Lou- 
In 1831, St. Hil. (I. i. 220) described the ren50." 
mountain plateau, which he visited in 


whom we shall frequently'- meet, and there were three other ecclesi- 
astics, all well-educated men. 

Our track lay up and down hills of yellow clay, thinly greened, 
and presently we fell into the Santa Barbara, or main road that 
leads from Ouro Preto to Diamantma. This, the most important 
line of communication in the Province, appears hereabouts a 
respectable highway ; near the City of Diamonds it will become 
detestable. On the right was a ranch whose palms, coffee-shrubs 
and bamboos, larger than usual, argued a warmer climate. 

Approaching a well-bridged stream, the " Bibeirao da Bitan- 
coui-t," we saw from afar a phenomenon that puzzled us. At 
length, straining our e3'es like so many D. Quixotes, we distin- 
guished, not windmills, but a cavalcade of eleven Sisters of Charity 
in gull-wing caps, mounted on poor hack-mules, and travelling, 
like Canterbury Pilgrims, in single file under the escort of two 
j)riests. They had been sent from the Laranjeiras establish- 
ment at Rio de Janeiro to found a branch house at Diamantina. 
AYe halted and addressed mes soeurs : unfortunatel}', the only 
pretty Sister, who, moreover, sat her horse well, and who wore 
a neat riding-skirt, went forward, and would not join in the 
chat. M. Francois Sipolis, carrying his full-grown metal cross, 
was in command of the detachment, and recognised Mr. Gordon, 
and the Sisters my wife ; loud and hot were the greetings. 
This priest, still young, had come to the Brazil in his salad days, 
and he has perhaps been too long here : I could hardly tell his 
nationality. The rear was brought up by a j'outh in soutane, with 
sallow greenish skin, and apparently a double supply of eyes, 
behind and before : he most diligently perused his breviary, while 
he took iuAvard stock of everybody and everything. Thus, the 
King of Dahome's system of duplicate officials is not always 
desj)ised by the civilised and the Jesuitic order touching the 
mission of their " apostles." Misito illos vinos is still carried out 
in the Brazil. I engaged myself to meet M. Sipohs at Diaman- 
tina : we then shook hands and parted a Vaimahle. 

After long sighting the grassy slopes below the settlement, we 
crossed a " lavapes "* in the shape of a bright little stream flowing 

• "Wash feet." This name is given to in hand till near the to'^vTi, when she washed 

the little stream nearest the settlement. oflF the mud, and appeared in public like a 

It reminds one of olden Tuscany, where the " respectable person." 
peasant girl carried her shoes and stockings 

312 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxi. 

over its black Jacutinga bed ; it rises in the Caraqa, and forms one 
of the head waters of the Rio Doce. Our hoofs clattered loud 
over the rugged pavement of the silent " Catas Altas," called 
" de Mato Dentro,"* although the forest has long ago been 
cleared away. Mr. Gordon had sent his man forwards, and 
we found all prepared at the " Hotel Fluminense e Bom Pasto 
Feixado,"i kept by the Lieut. -Colonel Joiio Emery. The son of 
English ]3arents, and thoroughly John Bull in burliness of look, 
the host could speak onl}" Portuguese. As he explained himself, 
the face was British, but all the rest was Brazilian. It too often 
happens in this Empii-e that the father and mother become ac- 
customed to talk their mangled Lusitanian en famille, and thus 
the children, with the harsh featm-es and the freckled faces of the 
far north, cannot answer the simplest question in the language 
of their ancestors. 

From the hotel we could easily see the diggings in the eastern 
cheek of the Caraga. The upper stratum is a rich ochreous clay 
some twenty feet deep, overlying fine micaceous slate, that rests 
ujion compact magnetic ii'on, and the latter has always been fomid 
in fiU' greater abundance than gold. In the lower beds run the 
veins of ferruginous quartz which used to be split "udth fire and 
stamped for precious metal. The eye chose out three huge exca- 
vations resembling craters and ranged in line, duly flanked by two 
Casas Grandes. The easternmost is the " Pitangui," I the Lavra do 
Padre Vieira, which belongs to a Brazilian association and by 
which flows the "lavapes." Next to it is Boa Vista, the La\Ta do 
Francisco Vieira, brother to the padre ; it has lately done a little 
business ; and further on is an old houseless pit called " O 
Machado." Besides these, the Brumadinho, the Bananal, and the 
Durao, are spoken of by the people. They were mostly worked 
out before 1801, and mining enterj)rise is now far beyond the 
local pm'se. All sui)j)osed that we were going to buy, and whis- 
pered, with the bated breath of a London police magistrate fresh 
firom Rome, the vast riches liidden in the mountain's lean bowels. 

* Thus distinguished from Catas Altas his beasts in a "close pastui-e," where 

de Noroega. ditch or palings prevent their straying. 

+ The Minas pronunciation of " fech- J Some say that to the east of the Pi- 
ado." The first tiling done by the sen- tangui and the Morro de Agua Quente, is 
sible traveller on arriving is to ask and " Cuiaba," a mine worked by the Gongo 
look after the pasture. If he wishes to Soco Company when their head-quarters 
make an early start, he must always place began to fail. 


Whilst dinner was being served up, we easily visited the town, 
which dates from 1724 : since its mines failed it has become very 
poor, and the inhabitants support life by corn-growing and cattle- 
breeding. These sunple and innocent occupations, Georgic and 
Bucohc, ought to make them happy ; they look downcast as Meli- 
boeus or Corj'don, and, as their dull lives are hardly worth keei:)ing, 
the}' live long and die hard. The single street has, besides the 
Matriz N^ S''' da Concei^ao, three chapels, a Rosario, a S'* Quiteria, 
and a Bomfim. The porticoed mother church, which fronts a 
neat sloping square, is abundantly painted ; even the balustrade 
round the tower is a deception not likely to deceive. The interior 
is quaintly and curiously ornamented with old twisted pillars, 
and, a novena being in prospect, cut and coloured paper extended 
from floor to roof. The rotulas* and balcony of the vicar. Padre 
Francisco Xavier Augusto da Franca, were crowded with ladies pre- 
paring for the festival. His reverence told me that he was entering 
his eightieth year. "Why is it that after seventy a man must tell 
you his age inevitably, as if he had shot the albatross ? He spoke 
of a parishioner who had lately died set. 119, and he estimated his 
cure to extend over 3900 souls, of whom some 490 only were 
slaves. t 

* The old wooden lattice work which in 1808, when the Court of Portugal 

formed a kind of hanging closet outside changed quarters from Lisbon to Rio de 

each window, and .sometimes extending Janeiro. 

along the house face. Being handier than + The Almanack of 1865 believes the 

even an Affghan " Sangah " when a quiet slave popixlation not to exceed 488. 
shot was to be fired, they were suppressed 



Torrao que de seu ouro se nomeava, 
Por crear do mais fino ao pe das Serras ; 
Mas que feito em fim baixo e mal prezado 
nome teve de " Ouro Inficionado." 

CaramurCi, 4, 21, 

The night was exceptionally cold, we slept soundly', and on 
the next day, a harmless Friday, we were on foot at an hour 
when the humid darkness seemed to be 

Almost at odds with morning, which, is which. 

Instead of makmg " Inficionado " by the direct road to the 
south-south-east, we were to cover an equilateral triangle of 
twelve miles to "Fonseca," where the combustible matter is, 
and then to malve our nighting place, as much further. 

We resumed the Campo road, and after two miles with a few 
rough ascents and descents, we reached the little village Morro 
d'Agua Quente. While fordmg the streamlet, we were shown an 
island in w^hicli an English miner was buried. He had pledged 
himself to unwater the Agua Quente mine, and had set up some 
fine pumping gear, eighteen mches in diameter, made of ^vi-ought- 
iron plates from home. But even these failed ; he redeemed his 
Avord like the last of the Romans, by going to Kmgdom Come. 
"There was," said the satmcal Mr. B., "but one honest 
Cornishman m Minas, and he — went and hanged himself." 

Mr. Gordon had some business to transact with a decent 
Brazihan bodv, the widow of an Irishman emploved at Morro 
Velho — his other five relicts are not so easily managed. Mean- 
while we put up at a little tavern kept by Sr. Leandro Francisco 
Arantez, an energetic young man who has a concession for 
working the seam which we had come to see. The Province is 


thorougiily alive to the necessitj'- of supplanting seaborne coal by 
Brazilian, and has offered £2000 for the discovery of the grand 
desideratum. Sr. Arantez showed us with just i)ride the gold 
medal which had been conferred upon him in 1863, when he hit 
upon the doubtful substance : the reverse showed the head of 
H. I. Majesty, and Bene meritum premium was on the obverse. 
He told us his many troubles, how the people had discouraged 
him in every possible way, and had named his trouvaille " raiz de 
pan" — tree root. So in the Province of S. Paulo, when, at 
the end of the last generation, certain innovators proposed to 
abandon the valueless sugar growing, for coffee, they were derided 
as "planters of fi'uit." 

Agua Quente — hot water — derives its name from a thermal 
spring, which was covered by an earthslip. In 1825, Caldcleugh 
spoke with an old man who remembered drinking " agua morna," 
lukewarm water, but he did not remember if it had any smell. 
Others declare that the heated element once appeared in the 
mine. As usual, the village has decaj-ed, together Avith the cause 
of its origin : it has 68 houses within reasonable distance of one 
another. The Companj^'s old store still exists at Bananal, near 
Agua Quente, but no work is done there. Above the mine is a 
peak, known as Morro d'Agua Quente, and from this our 
destination, " Fonseca," bears due south-east. 

Accompanied by Sr. Ai-antez, we ascended a very steep hill 
that placed us upon the Chapada. Here the ground rang under 
the hoof as if iron plated ; in places it sounded hollow, suggesting 
that the thin crust might easily cave in, and such hereabouts 
is the formation generall}-. The appearance of the mmeral 
reminded me of the laterite in Malabar and Western India, but 
here it is the richest haematite. Dr. Couto found the village of 
Agua Quente built uj)on immense dej^osits of copper ; sheets of 
the red variety, chequered and sprinkled with the ashy mineral, 
forming a chess-board of pleasing appearance. To the left was 
the Serra da Batea, a southern butt-end of the great Serra do 
Frio.* On the right, and falHng to the rear, looking excep- 
tionall}' ribbj', rose the peaked mountain, Caraca, down which 
the dangerous road is seen to Avind. 

Passing a small fazenda, " do Moreira " — not to be confounded 

* This must not be confounded -nitli the Cerro do Frio, fiuiher north, around the city 
of Cerro, or Serro, the old Villa do Principe. 

316 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxii. 

with the Freguezia of Paulo Moreii-a, twelve leagues from Gongo 
Soco, a little south of east — we found a basin separated by a 
" knife-board " from one contiguous ; both are gentle hollows 
of considerable size. The easternmost showed at the side a 
small winding stream, the 3'oung Piracicava, and on its bank lay 
Fonseca, a chapel and scattered huts, like a new mining locality. 
Around, the land looked dr}" and sun-burnt : the dead brooms 
and withered ferns covered in patches hundreds of acres, and 
their dull sombre brown-grey will darken the brightest and 
cheeriest landscape. This is a sign of a dry porous soil : the 
tender root of the Samambaia* cannot penetrate the tough clay. 
In the Brazil, where the fern is supposed to follow overfiring 
and exhausting the ground, when once it has taken possession 
the case is hopeless. In New Zealand the clover kills the fern 
as the white man's rat destroj's the native rat, and the European 
fly drives away the Maori fl}' : perhaps it would do so here. 
Now, the sole precaution is to cut the plants before they 
branch, and to let beasts graze upon the roots, as we do in 
England. In the Brazil, as in Tibet, peasants eat the j^oung 
shoots of a kind of fern (" Samambaia do Mato ") : M. Hue 
compared it — height of imagination ! — with asparagus. 

We descended to a "gulch," in which there is a little stream, 
the Corrego de Og6,t and the opening faced north-west by north. 
This is the place where the coal was found, accompanying sand- 
stone-grit and haematite. The dip of the rock is 70° ; the strike 
is west- south-west, and the cleavage planes are as nearly as 
possible east to west. The water, as usual, here showed signs of 
iron, and carbonate of Imie ajipeared in the eastern wall, where 
drops had trickled down. We found the same formation higher 
up, and our guide told us that the coal was also in the Valley of 
the Piracicava, and in the western basin by which we had 
ridden. We traced it a few yards down the Corrego, a ferru- 
ginous riU, which, after two miles, falls into the Piracicava. 
Here also was a quartzose and pyritic rock, which had given gold. 
The precious metal Avas, however, " muito fi-i-i-no," as our com- 

* Older %\Titers prefer the less eiiphoEic metal found in sand, and used to falsify 

Sambambaia, and Sambambaial, a (natural) gold. Others tell us that it floats in water, 

femei7. From one of these ferns (Mertenfii and is therefore probably mica, now called 

dichotoma), pipe stems are made, and fixed jropularly " Malacacheta. " St. Hil. (I. 

to a little head of black clay. i. 341), speaks of a " sable brillant^ appele 

+ Ogo is described to be a base yellow Og(5 qui se trouve du cote de Sahara." 


panion said, raising his voice almost an octave, to denote the 
superlative of fineness, that is to say, of minuteness.* 

The combustible appears in small pieces and broken layers 
much mixed with clay and sandstone : we did not find a single 
block. It was mostly transition lignite, or brown coal, known 
in S. Paulo as " tipota :" distinctly modern, ligneous of ap- 
jjearance, and burning with the smell of wood. Other pieces 
from the same locality are smooth and black, like obsidian or 
sealing-wax, conchoidal in fracture, highly inflammable, and 
gi^dng out tliick smoke and gas in quantities. It is, in fact, 
our cannel coal, and it will be found useful when the old reverbere 
and the kerosine are clean forgotten. I recognised the forma- 
tion, having already examined at the Fazenda of a certain Dr. 
Eafael, near Old Cacapava, in the Valley of the Parahyba River, 
Province of Siio Paulo, a very similar basin, whose lignite over- 
lies cannel coal : here, however, at a greater depth, occurs 
anthracite, a veritable black diamond which does not soil the 
fingers, and which bm-ns without smoke. Before working these 
places, the mam consideration is whether the formation be 
sufficiently extensive to pay : the exploratory works should 
certainly not cost more than 200L In Minas I nowhere observed 
the great deposits of sulphurous or bituminous shale which 
occupy the Valleys of the Southern Parahyba and the Upper 
Tiete, and which will some day supply the land with petroleum. 
These must be sought fm-ther east, and they will probably be 
found upon the lower courses of the Pio Doce, the Mucur}-, and 
the Jequitinhonha or Belmonte. 

We then rode up the rough western wall of the eastern basin, 
and met with water everywhere, even near the top. This is a 
common featiu'e both in Minas and S. Paulo ; the stranger is 
often sm'prised to see a crystal spring welling from the brow of a 
hill. The only trace of game was the " Frango do Campo," or 
Prau-ie Chicken, plumed like the water-rail, short-legged, and to 
be mistaken for a yomig hen that has escaped from the poultr}-- 
yard. The Siriema, or Serpent-bird, ran before us in the path, 
and represented the turkey. 

At the Fazenda do Moreira, Mr. Gordon bade us a temporary 

* This custom, very general in the Brazil, fino " denotes ' ' la belle qualite de cet or :" 

probably descended from the aborigines, who it may have this signification, or that given 

expressed the superlative by intonation. in the text. 
St. Hil, (III. ii. 62), says that " Ouro 


adieu : lie was to regain Morro Yellio via Agua Quente, whilst we 
intended to sleep at Inficionado. We descended a long liill, 
passing near the bottom-water a small iron fomidry, and by a 
tedious ascent we made a Chapada, which, like that of the 
morning, was a plain of ii-on, hollow-sounding as a pot. From afar 
we saw the curling smoke of the settlement, and the black outlines 
of " Cata Preta," * which was worked to little purpose by the Gongo 
Soco Company, and which now belongs to the Commendador owner 
of the mine. Then we dropped into a deep road, a hollow way, like 
the lanes of fail' Touraine, once so familiar to me, and presently 
below us flowed the river, broad and clear, crossed by a tolerable 
bridge. We lost no time in transferring ourselves to the hostelry 
of Sr. Francisco Cesario de Macedo, at the southern end of the 

During the evening we M-all^ed out to see the ''parishry of N^ 
S^ de Nazareth do Inficionado "—of the Infected (gold). The 
cognomen was given because the metal at first seemed excellent, 
but presently showed the cloven foot. The '' Infected" is now 
the usual long, wretchedly-paved street or rather section of 
high-road, whilst horse-shoeing and grain-selling at a dear rate 
to bezonian travellers ajipear the principal industries. A dry 
chafariz fronts the matriz, and there are two chapels, but never a 
priest ; on the other side of the Piracicava, a thin scafi"olding still 
surrounded the tall black cross, which was being duly armed. 

The fashionable skin was a sallow brown, and people showed a 
mixture of races, with much inter-marriage. Cripples and beggars 
were unusually numerous. I saw two cases of hydrocephalus, 
one with soft the other with hard head ; both creep upon the 
ground, and have forgotten the use of their "immortal souls." At 
Barbacena the mouth is worn open ; at S. Joao the tongue is 
slightly protruded; here the villagers "made at us a pair of 
eyes" and laughed in our faces the laugh of semi-idiotcy, wliilst 
one of them audibly remarked that my "companion" f was " uma 
senhora muita capaz" — highly trustworthy. The host, however, 
was civil and obliging; he did not even murmm- when our 

The "Black Pit." demoiselle, Lut no femme or fille : in the 

t The Brazilian gentleman speaks of liis United States, not to speak of England, the 

wife- as " Minha Mulher. " The countiy hotel books abound in " Mr. A. and lady " 

people call her " Companheira. " The rest —a nseful prevarication if Mr. A. he not 

say, ' Mmha Senhora "—my lady. So in travelling with his own spouse, 
li ranee, the l)ourgeois has a dame and a 


exceedingly careful fellow-traveller found a sixjience wrong in 
tlie mules' rations, and with loud " blatlieration " performed the 
operation of docldng. 

Cata Preta boasts of one great bii-th. Fr. Jose de Santa Rita 
Durao was born there about 1737; this old worth}- was the son of an 
energetic Portuguese colonist, and he died, as poets were wont to 
do, in the hospital of Lisbon, 1784. During these forty-seven 
3-ears he wrote a number of poems, of which the best known is 
"0 Caramm-u,"* an epic m hendecasyllabics, numbermg the 
normal ten cantos. Had the Lusiads never been created, this 
production would have become world-famous : as it is, the echo 
of the older and grander strain haunts the reader's ear. Even 
the sententious trick of the line terminatmg the stanza is pre- 
served. For instance, the exordium — 

Of the stout spirit whom no toil could tame, 

Nor daunt the rage of occidental waves ; 
Who the Reconcave,+ ever dear to Fame, 

Which still the haught Brazil's high city laves, 
Explored ; the " Thunder-Son," whose fearful name 

Could rule and tame the savage Indian braves, 
I sing the valour proved by adverse fate — 
Who masters fortune, he alone is great. 

The poem was hastily thrown oiF, and was printed in 1781. 
The Visconde de Almeida-Garrett, liimself a most distinguished 
poet as well as prose writer and critic, says of it, " Where the poet 
has contented himself with simply expressing the truth, he has 
Avritten most beautiful octaves, some of them even sublime." M. 
Ferdinand Denis, an early historiographer of Brazilian literature, 
declares it to be a "national epopee, which interests and excites 
the reader; " andM. Eugene Garay de Mongiave has translated it 
into French. It might, I think, appear in an English dress with 
much judicious curtailment, and A\'itli the prosaic portions reduced 
to plain prose. 

On the next day — a thu'teenth be it duly remembered — we left 
Tnficionado at a late hour. Eain was brewing in front, the effect 

* A certain Diogo Alvares of Yiana was properly signifies, "the electric eel." The 

^^■recked at Baliia, where the land swarmed " Son of Thunder" was the title given to 

with savages : by the iise of his musket he Diogo Alvares, wlio married the " Princess" 

rose, like Mr. Coffin of Abyssinia, to high Paragua9u. 

rank amongst them. The Indian nickname f (_) Keconcavo is aj^plied to the magiii- 

is usually translated " Jlau of fire:" it ficcnt Day of S. Salvador (da Bahia). 

320 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxii. 

of the " Serra de Ouro Preto," which indulges in a perpetual 
night-cap of heary wet. We began with the high-road, or, as it 
is here called, the " cart-road," to Marianna city, and we found 
some luxuries, such as the rivulets cleared of their large round 
stones. We were not, however, bej^ond the old wheel-tii'e -with 
projecting iron knobs, which bite the slippery clay ground, and 
which over-work the trains upon the levels. Presentl}' we turned 
into a bridle-path, exceptionally bad ; our mules seemed to be 
climbing up and down stairs. The material is a glarmg white 
quartzose sandstone, soft and laminated; it is easily trodden and 
weathered into holes and ledges. The formation is akin to the 
so-called Itacolumite which supplies Diamantina with its gems. 
There are mines around, rude diggings in clayey sand, mixed 
with coarse ferruginous gravel and debris fi-om the schistose rocks 
of the Serra. 

After an hour we descended to the hamlet " Bento Rodriguez," 
wliich lies between the forks of the river Gualaxo,* a vitreous 
stream in a ruddy pink bed, which contrasts charmingly with the 
lively verdm-e around. The eastern or further water, even at 
this season, was girth-deep : the ruins of a bridge were there, and 
a *' pingela," which here represents the hanging bridge of Peru, 
showed that after rains the clear waters became unfordable. 
Another rise and fall led to a " Devil's Glen," a deej) dark 
hollow, with strata highly tilted up, and a mountain burn 
plashing down the bottom, crossed by a single arch. About 
noon we reached Camargos, a small village with a stream in red 
sands below, and a very big church standmg on a hill to pray, a 
veritable Pharisee. At this half-way house a little venda gave us 
shade ; and a few words of civihty and chatting about war-news 
produced oranges : om* only expense for entertamment was dd., the 
cost of a bottle of cachaca. The Brazil, like Bussia and other 
young comitries, is a place of exceeding cheaj)ness for those who 
live, as the Anglo-Indian saying is, "country-fashion," on beans, 
charqui, and native rum. On the other hand, imported articles 
double their London jirices, and anything out of the ordinary way 
is inordinately expensive. Those who think that they cannot 

* Gualaxo do Norte, by Henderson the Rio Doce proper. We have uow left 
■written Guallacho. The water is so called the Valley of the Piracicava. 
from a neighbouring Fazenda, and it feeds 

■II Al". XXXII. 


spend money here will marvel at the cost of beef-steaks and 
beer, fresh butter and English cheese. 

Camargos — on this line towns and villages greatly resemble 
one another — sows and breeds lilce its neighbours : it has a 
small industr}^ in the matter of gold, once so abundant, and it 
can also export iron. From this district came the tea which 
gained tlie gold medal in the Great Exhibition of 1862 : * we 
presentl}' saw the plantations, rather shabby below, but rich in 
the higher lands, fronting the Bom Retiro Fazenda. I had not 
met with the shrub since leaving the Province of Siio Paulo, and 
it was the fiice of an old friend. 

Ascending the Morro da Yenda da Palha,t we enjoyed a noble 
view of enormous extent. To the north, under " a sky of won- 
drous height," rose the peak of " Itabira do Mato Dentro," a mere 
knob rising from the horizon plain, and distant, as the crow flies, 
forty-five miles. Eastward a tall blue screen, hardly distinguish- 
able from the clouds, denoted the valley wall of the Rio Doce. 
In front surged the lumpy Serra de Ouro Preto, with a red road 
seaming, like a ribbon, its slopes of green. 

From that point all was descent. The path became worse, and 
the half-devoured remnants of a cow lying across the hne did not 
speak well for the new mines. Down the ruddy slope we fell into 
a country of Canga and Jacutinga, like that of Gongo Soco. By 
degrees, the Morro de Santa Anna settlement, better known as 
the " D. Pedro Norte del Rey," a complicated absurdity, opened 
out before us. The site is a bleak and treeless hill-side, fronting 
east, "rugged as cliffs on the seashore," with its tall, naked face 
burrowed for gold ; an ugly contrast to the picturesque approach 
that characterises Morro Velho. On the upper level appears, en 
profile, the chapel, a white box, surrounded by the dull clay huts 
of the native workmen. Below it are the hospital, the houses 
of the ofl&cers, the white quarters of the English miners, the Casa 
Grande, large, neat, and well situated, and the " blacks' kitchen," 
a tall, white tenement, bald and bare. The latter surmounts a 
dwarf eminence rising from the valley sole, the " Corrego da 

* The only complaint was that it Teixeira cle Souza of Ouro Preto, the owner 

wanted a certain aroma. This arose from of Bom Retiro, or Fazenda do Tesoureiro. 
its being too new. Moreover the specimens t From Camargos to Marianna there is 

were so scanty that they could not be sub- an older road, Ijdng east of the line by 

mitted to sufficient test. The principal tea which we travelled, 
grower of the Province is now the S'jnatnr 

VOL. I. Y 

.•322 THE HIGHLANDS UF THE liKAZIL. [chap. xxxn. 

Canella," upon wliose "bottom knd are the sliops, smithy, car- 
pentry, stamps, and other fm-niture. Here, too, were extensive 
washings made in the olden day. 

Fortunately I had sent on Miguel with our introductory letter. 
The trooper met us before we reached the house, and now^ we 
learned for the fii'st time that Mrs. Thomas Treloar, the Superin- 
tendent's wife, was not expected to live. She had passed thii'ty- 
three years in the Brazil, and had intended returning to an 
English home in June last. The " six months more " are some- 
times as fatal in the Brazil as in Hindostan. 

We retired from a sun " enough to roast a Guinea man," to the 
Venda, wretched as an inn in Stja'ia, and considered the case. Dr. 
George Mockett, for whom also we had letters, was in attendance 
upon Mrs. Treloar ; and her son-m-law, Mr. Francis S. Symons, 
Manager of the Passagem Mine, was momentarily expected. 
Nothing remained but to ride on two miles, and trust to the 
tender mercies of a Marianna hostehy. 

We forded the Corrego da Canella twice, and passed over 
sundry hill-spurs. Here the houses thicken to a suburb, every 
second "ranch" shows stakes for tethering mules, and saddle- 
making is added to horse-shoeing. We remark that the whole 
road no longer presents the gloomy picture of ruins and deserted 
villages traced by Dr. Couto in 1801. But in those days, the 
mining population, mostly coloured, lingered about their ex- 
hausted diggings ; now they have applied to other work. Ever}'- 
where we saw bullocks' hides stretched out in the usual 
Brazilian fashion upon a frame-work of sticks, the ground being 
too damp to permit pegging them down ; thus they obtain the 
benefit of smi and wind, and they can easily be moved out of 
the rain. The skins, which in the dry season, after a few days' 
exposure, become hard and board-like, are used to cover mule 
loads by day, and to act couch at night : in the wilder parts they 
are the bed, sofa, and mattress, and in stools and settles they 
supplant the rattan. 

Then we forded the " Pdbeirao do Carmo,"* which divides 
the city proper from a large suburb, the " Bairro de Monsus :" 
higher up the stream there is a wooden bridge on stone piers, 

* This is the River of Marianna, now popularly kuo\vai as the "Rio YermelLo. " We 
shall ascend its vallev dnritK; the next two mai'ches. 

( -fvi-. XXXII.] TO MAlllANXA. 323 

used during the rains. From this point is the prettiest view of 
the ecclesiastical capital, which reminded me of picturesque old 
Coimbra. The houses, here white, there red, pink and yellow, 
rise in steps from the right bank of the rivulet, which the poets 
have compared with the Mondego,* and appear based upon and 
mingled with rich green lines aiul clumjis of the domed 
Jaboticabeira, palms, plantains, oranges, and bright-flowering 

Ascending a ramp, we left on the right the Ribeirao do 
Cattete : gardens now bloom in its bed, but a long stone bridge 
proved that it has not alwaj^s been dry. A vilely-paved street 
led us north-east to the Largo da Cadea, in whose centre still 
stands the pillory of colonial days, the first which I have seen 
in the Brazil. It shows the holes by which criminals were 
tied up, and it is surmounted by globe and crown, sw^ord and 
scales, and the iron hooks to wdiich limbs were suspended. 
The jail, also guild-hall, is a quaint, squat, old-fashioned 
building, with a complicated entrance curiously painted, and a 
few black soldiers were on guard. Fronting it is the Church 
of S. Francisco, tawdry in exterior : it is the temporary " Se," 
the Cathedral being under repair. To its right is the N^ S^' 
do Carmo, ^^ith the usual round-square or pepper-caster 

Evidently we are in a city which is clerical and not com- 
mercial : the dulness is that of cathedral towns generally, from 
Itu in S. Paulo to Durham and Canterbury before the age of 
railways. " Formigoes " — big black ants — as the black soutane'd 
students are called in waggishness, stroll through the thorough- 
fares, and loll listless about the shops. The store-keeper leans 
with elbows upon his counter, and stares vacantly at the street, 
or muses and smokes cigarettes in concert with a friend or 
friends, seated upon stools nearer the door. Negro urchins squat 

* Claudio I\Iaimel ila Costa, of wliom tary to the Presidency of Minas, and after- 
more hereafter, wrote a poem upon the wards of Sao Paulo, has presented the 
llibeirao do Carino. When Apollo hail original of this poem, " Villa llica," to H. 
stolen the nymph Eulina, this amorous I. Majesty. Dr. Claudio died unmarried, 
drain cursed the god : the latter, in re- but he left nieces : the latter attempted, 
venge, taught men to v.ound the bank for when the Brazil became an Empire, to 
gold and precious stones, and to stain the establish their rights, and applied to the 
crystal current with blood. At length, the usual officer, the " Procurador dps feitos da 
Ribeirao, mad with despair, rushed down a fazenda." Unhappily the papers had dis- 
rock and was dashed to pieces. appeared, and the cause was lost. 

l)r. Hcnrirpie Cezar Muzzio, Chief Seci-e- 

324 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxii. 

upon tlie stejis, or tiy conclusions with vagrant pigs and dogs, 
Avhicli are apparently the main items of population : one of the 
creatures, who certainly had not heard of Joan Dare, bawled out 
" Godam," as we rode by. Old black women hobbled about 
picking up rags and compost ; and we remarked sundry white 
men going barefooted — a very unusual spectacle in the Brazil. 
Here and there a profusion of straight, glossy and well-greased 
hair, with a bright red blossom on the left side of the head,* 
and a face of ver}' mixed blood, engaged in the " serious 
study of street scenery," inform the practised eye that, as 
might be expected where j'oung men are "reading for the 
Church," Anonyma is as well known as to those who "live at 

Descending into the Largo da Pra^a, a grassy square, sloping 
eastward, we came upon the Hotel Mariannense, the best of the 
three inns. The host, Sr. Antonio Ferreira, who complicates the 
Boniface with the Figaro — the reception room was in fact a 
barber's shop — began bj^ charging us heavily for pasture and 
maize. But we are now on the high road, where the leagues 
become better because shorter,! and the prices worse, because 
longer. AVe ended with a bill which would have done honour to 
the Hotel des Ambassadeurs, St. Petersbm-g. 

The establishment was the t^-jDical estalagem or country inn of 
the old Brazil. From the barber's room ran a long corridor to 
the back of the house, and it was so badly boarded that one 
risked falling through. The bed chambers, with walls bare of 
ever3'thing but dirt, showed plank couches, a chair, and some- 
times a table. The passage leads to the dining-room, distin- 
guished only by an armoire, whose glass front exj^oses spare 
china, cruets, condiments, a few bottles, and j^ots of provision. 
The normal " punch-bath " will not be ready for half an hour, 
the dinner for two hours : time is not Avorth a thought here, and 
regularity' is next to impossible. The negroes and negresses 
prefer staring, whisijering, and giggling, to work, however light : 
there is never less than one screaming child to make night- 
horrid ; and generally there are two fierce dogs that bark and 
bay responsively at the shadow of an opportunity. The feeding 

* The man-ied wear tl.e flower on the tlu-ee geogi'aphical miles : as a rule, the 
light side of the head. further it is from the cajiital, the longer it 

t Here the league may Le assumed at waxes. 

CHAr. xxxii.] TO MARIANNA. 32:) 

is that of the " venda;" there are " Irish potatoes," the ''famine 
root," because we are in a city ; and the lights are not lamps of 
Ricinus oil, hut composition candles, for which we shall have to 
suffer in the purse. 

And yet, to these three wretched inns there are nine 
churches ! 



" La race Portugaise s'est emparde en Amerique de la contree la plus admirable 
du monde, et que la Natiu-e semble avoir pris iilaisir a combler de tous ses 
bienfaita."— Castclnau (Ex^jklition, iii. chap. 33). 

In 1699, when Joao Lopes de Lim;i, a Paulista explorer, dis- 
covered, gold in the " Eio Vermelho," which we have just forded, 
the miners built the *' Ai-raial do Carmo." This became, in 
April 8, 1711, the "Villa de Albuquerque," under the Governor 
of that name, and in the same year it was changed to " Leal 
Villa de N'' S^ do Carmo." Public documents* granted jsrece- 
dence in all processions and public " Acts " to its Camara, as the 
senior ^dilitv in the Province. A royal letter from D. Joao V. 
(April 23, 1745) raised it to the rank of " Cidade Marianna," or 
" Marianopolis," so christened after the Austrian princess that 
sat upon the throne of Portugal. In 1750 the Quint alone ex- 
ceeded 100 arrobas of gold per annum. Tliis in 1799 fell to a 
Httle more than one -third.! But, as Dr. Couto remarks, the 
mitre then j^roved the best mine. 

The finest view of the ecclesiastical city is from the southern 
rim of tlie basin, where the Church of Sao Pedro is being — or 
rather is not being — built. The plan shows some attempt at 
art, unlike the others which liave gro^ni out of being barns with- 
out acquiring the dignity of temples. It has two unequal bays, 
and attached to the southern, or greater, is a rectangular sanc- 
tuary. The clocherium, also composed of sandstone grit, resting 
upon soHd foundations, awaits completion. The two bells are slung 
to the normal gaUows outside, and there are graves which bother 
with their suggestive " II faut mourir " those who are here for en- 
joj-ment. The facade bears the keys and episcopal hat and mitre. 

* ^'"^ted July 17, 1723, and Feb. 21, + r.Iore exactly 3S arrobas, 12 marcos. 

' " ■ and 6 ounces. 

ru\r. xx>aii.] AT MARIANNA. 327 

Tlie pilasters end barbarously in scrolls over the main entrance, 
and the side windows are not on the same plane. The body is 
partially covered with a zinc roof, which occasionally falls in, 
and the principal inhabitants are taperas — swifts or devilings. 

Marianna lies below, couched on the pleasant western slopes, 
and extending to the sole of the valley, Avhich is drained north- 
wards by the serpentine Eio Vermelho. About the white mass 
of tenements lie diggings in red ground, and black Jacutinga 
heaps are the vestiges of its old youth. This basin, situated in 
a sub -range of the Serra do Itacolumi, wliich closes it on the 
south, is 2400 feet above sea-level. It suffers from the neblina, 
or morning fog, often deepening to a drizzle, but not so bad as 
that of Ouro Preto ; and it is succeeded by sun which glows 
in the cloudless sky till evening. It is reported that during the 
rains its bleak cold causes severe catarrhs. This, however, must 
be taken cum (jrano, as the equatorial clove-tree flourishes in the 
open air. Eight fountains supply the city vAi\\ water slightly 
ferruginous, and where there is scarcity it arises from extensive 

AVe were reminded that Marianna is a bishopric* by a prodigious 
tumult and clatter of Angelas bells and chimes, a tutti of the 
steeples, on Saturday evening. On the Sunday there was a 
" Missa de Madrugada," or dawn-mass for the tattered many w^ho 
did not like to show theii' rags at a later hour ; and shortly 
afterwards the Sisters of S. Vincent de Paul, a branch house of 
the Rue du Bac, set up the usual chaunt. At 8 a.m. there was 
mass, which began at 7*30 a.m., and thus the stranger was 
apt to miss it. At 9 a.m. there was high mass at the acting 
cathedral, and at 10 and 11 a.m. there was high mass in the other 

After breakfast we Adsited the city, which retains the character 
given to it by Gardner ; it appears almost deserted. The pave- 
ment was really bad — good only for the chiropodist. There 
were a few neat two-storeyed houses, but the greater part was 
ground-floor, made of scantling and whitewashed adobes, with 
half-windows, and not a few rotulas or lattices. Some of the 
fountains were old and quaint, fronted bv carved and painted 
dolphins that contrast curiously witli the neat modern castings 
and statues of the "Atlantic Cities" in the Brazil. 
* Seile do Bispado de Jliiia'?. 

J2S THE HiOHLA>>'DS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxni. 

We called upon the Bishop Monsignor Antonio Ferreira Vicoso 
at the Palace, a large old bungalow, with hat and arms over the 
door. The venerable ecclesiastic, now aged eighty, was still in 
feature and pronunciation a Portuguese : his eye was bright and 
intelligent, and his face calm and intellectual ; he was dressed in 
the pink-red robe, according to the order which prescribes black 
to the priest, scarlet (typical of shedding his own blood*) to the 
cardinal, and white to the Pope. He received us most kindly, 
endured the ring-kissing with much patience, and led the way to 
a library, mostly theological, and adorned with fancy medallions 
and portraits of classical philosophers. Mgr. Gaume would 
have joyed to behold the caricatm^e of poor epicures who com- 
mitted the one unpardonable sin of declaring that the gods do 
not trouble themselves with mortal matters, and, therefore, that 
it is vain to hii'e for them priestly servants. 

The " Eeverendissimo " is highly spoken of, and has done much 
for ecclesiastical education in this and other Provinces. He lec- 
tured on philosophy at Evora, and on theology, mathematics, 
and languages at Angra dos Eeis — where he had been a parish 
priest — at Rio de Janeiro, and at the Cara9a. He then became 
successivel}'' Principal at the Semmaries of Angra, the Caraga, 
and Campo Bello.f He Avas promoted in January 22, 1844, by 
Gregory XVI., and was consecrated in the following May by the 
Bishop of Rio, Chrysopolis, and Para. He took possession, b}' 
proxy, on April 28, 1844, and made his public entrance in early 
June. He has anointed, in the Cathedral of Marianna, two of his 
Caraca pupils to the bishoprics of Para and Ceani, and he has 
lately visited Diamantma to perform the same office for its 
diocesan. More than once he has emplo3'ed six to seven months, 
even during rainy weather, in inspecting his see, preaching, 
confessing, and administering chrism. "NVe may safely join in 
the general prayer, " Deos conserve seus dias ! " 

A short account of the Bishoj)'s predecessors may not be 
uninteresting. t At the request of D. Joao V., Benedict XIV. 
dismembered the diocese of Marianna from that of Rio de Janeiro 

* Tlic Cardinalician purple has of late + A small place situated between Minas, 

been solicited for the Archbishop of Bahia, S. Paulo and Groyaz. 

the Primate of the Brazil. He will, if the J The Almanack for 1865 is answerable 

honour be gi-anted, be the first American for any inaccuracies concerning the " Exms. 

that ever sat in the Holy College. Bispos de Marianna." 

(ii.vr. xxxiu.J AT .MAKIANNA. .329 

by the bull, " C'aiulor lucis setenise, Dec. 6, 1741.* The first 
diocesan Avas D. Frei Manoel da Cruz, D.C.L. of Coimbra, 
foiu'th bishop of jNIaranham, and friend and coadjutor of 
the famous — or infamous — P*-' Gabriel Malagreda, the " devil's 
mart^-r" — " in Portug. pro fide occisus." When nominated, 
Sept. 15, 1745, I). F. Manoel travelled to Minas overland, in 
those days a dangerous journey, and rains and sickness occupied 
him, some sa}' eleven months, others fourteen months and a few 
days. He finished the ]Matriz, now the Cathedral ; he founded 
the Seminary, and he laid the first stone of S. Francisco m 1762. 
Directed to oppose, with "prudence, paternal love, and charity," 
the disorders of his herd, he was much complained of, but the 
King continued to repose in him the fullest confidence. He 
died Jan. 3, 1764, aged seventy-four, and he lies in the middle 
catacomb within the cathedi'al clioii'. 

The second was D. Joaquim Borges de Figueii"6a," a secular 
priest, who became Ai'chbishop of Bahia before he reached Mari- 
anna. He was followed by D. Frei Bartholomew Manoel Mendes 
dos Reis, formerly resident bishop of Macao ; he also did not 
take personal possession, but he assisted in consecrating his 
successor. Then came three governors, one of whom, Ignacio 
Correa de Sa, the Doctoral Canon of the Cathedral, indited some 
singular threatening pastorals. " It is in 3'our hands," he de- 
clared, " to show that your sins are not the cause of my departure, 
by hearing the word of God. If ye do so, then if the Lord be not 
pleased that we depart * * * He will send another to serve 
him with zeal and charity." 

The fourth was D. Frei Domingos da Incarna^ao Pontevel, a 
Friar-preacher, professor of philosophy and theology, and direc- 
tor of the Thii-d Order of St. Dominic. He was confirmed b}^ 
Pius YL, and he took charge Feb. 25, 1789. Dm-ing his day 
happened the celebrated " Inconfidencia," in which the noblest 
son of Marianna, Claudio jNIanuel da Costa, of Paulista family 
(born 1729, died 1789), sacrificed his life for his native land. His 
portrait in the Episcopal Palace, Marianna, bears this distich — 

Quid prffisul noster ? Nil est nisi pulvis in um&, 
Cordibus est nostris vivis et ipse manes. 

* PizaiTO says 17413. He also remarks tice of certain colonial cijiscopi, who have 

that the second and the third bishop escaped blame when they deserve more 

enjoyed at Lisbon the emoluments of this of it than the "buccaneer bishops" so 

diocese. This suggests tho_ modern pruc- severely " banged " of late years. 

330 THE HIGHLAND.S OF THE BKAZiL. [ciiAr. xxxui. 

He was succeeded b}' T>. Frei Cypriano de S. Jose, a friar 
minor (Franciscan), of Arrabida, and a literarj'- man. During his 
rule the Royal family landed in the Brazil. This Bishop died at 
Marianna, August 14, 1817, and on April 9, 1820, D. Frei Jose 
da SS. Trindade, of the Reformed Minors of S. Francisco of 
Bahia, was consecrated. The independence of the country having 
been declared, he assisted in the coronation ceremonies of the 
first Emperor, who, with the Empress D. Amelia, subsequently 
became his guests. He died in his diocese, September 28, 1835, 
and he Kes in the Cathedral, near the first bishop. The seventh, 
D. Carlos Pereira Freii'e de Moura, did not live to take possession. 
The eighth we have just met. 

An ecclesiastic accompanied us from the Palace after the 
episcopal blessing had been given, to the adjoining Seminary, 
where we were duly introduced to the Principal, Rev. Joao 
Baptista Carnaglioto, of Turin. The staif consists of a Vice- 
Princijjal and seven professors, with as man}^ priests. About 
forty of tlie 180 pupils are noAV resident. The long vacation 
begins in July, and ends Avith October 1. The course of prepa- 
rator}' studies lasts five years, after which those destined for the 
chiu'ch are sent to the Cartica, and the others to the various 
academies of the Empire, where doctors — in law, mathematics, and 
medicine — are manufactured b}" the gross. AVhen first founded, 
the Seminary w^as placed under the Jesuit, P'^ Jose Nogueu'a. 
It was reorganised by the present Bishop, the rectors being now 
diocesans of Cearji and Diamantina ; and for a few months the 
director of the collegiate part was D. Pascual Paccini, Professor 
of Natural History in the Museum of Palermo, sent on a scien- 
tific mission to the Brazil. Dr. Jose Marcellino Roche Cabral, 
ex-editor of the once famous " Dispertador" — the Awakener — and 
a well-known writer, who had exchanged political for private life, 
was also a vice-director. The Most Reverend then divided the 
pupils into a major and a minor class, and entrusted both to the 
Fathers of the Mission. Charitable persons have bequeathed 
negroes and estates to the house, and its finances are managed 
by administrators under the Superior. 

We walked through the establishment, which was remarkable 
for cleanlmess and order ; even the kitchen was neat. Au rcste, 
there were the usual long double rows of small black iron bed- 
steads and red blankets, the travelling boxes ranged along the 

. KAP. xxxiiT.] AT MAKIAXXA. 331 

walls, the long" tables clo^vll long refectories, and the long scrip- 
toria, with endless desks, and the huge, antiquated maps which 
are seen in all such places. Upon the old doorway Ave were 
shown the date, MDCCLX. — 1760 is a hoar antiquity in this 
the youngest of empires. 

Lastl}', we went to visit the Sisters of S. Vincent de Paul. 
In 1749, the good Bishop, who is Superior of the Order in the 
Brazil, collected alms, and established them in the city. They 
now number fifteen. The house receives from the Government 
six contos of reis per annmii, and the law compels it to lodge, 
board, and instruct forty orphans, duly nominated by the autho- 
rities. The reverend motlier, elderly and compact, active and 
bustling, received us cordially, and, with the rather startling 
words, " AUons premierement visiter le maitre de la maison," 
led us to the convent chapel. We then inspected their school of 
sixty-six boarders — giiis of every age up to twenty, and even 
upwards. The pupils pay 180 $000 per annum, not including 
washing and small extras. No signs of luxury, and few of com- 
fort, appeared ; on the other hand, the arrangements were excel- 
lent, and nothing could be cleaner. Next we saw the second 
class, and the orphanry, numbering sixty -four. These in process 
of time will be married to suitable persons, who are expected to 
^PPly officially for wives. Lastly, passing through a good garden, 
we visited the hospital patients,* forty-two in number, including 
four men and six women — an unusual proportion — insane. They 
were employed in making flowers and pilloAv-lace, of course for 
sale ; and all flocked up to kiss the Mother Superior's hand 
vdth great show of respect and aflfection. After buying a fev," 
mementoes, we went our ways. 

Many Brazilians send their daughters to these places of in- 
struction because thej^ can get no better ; but they do not like the 
old monastic system, roughly adapted to modern days. They 
fear to see their daughters buried aUve "for the greater glory of 
God, and of the Ladies of the Holy Heart." They openly ex- 
claim against the system of espionage practised in these places, 
and the}' have other objections which cannot with decency be 
specified. As a rule, even in Europe, and in England especially, 

* The Tisuiil number in liospital is thirty infirmary received forty ;-irk, of whom 
to forty per annum. ^^any, however, seventeen improved, thirteen died, and 
enter when past hope. In 1865-0 the the rest were cnrcd. 


THE HKiHLA^'DS UF THE BKAZiL. [chaf. xxxmi. 

the teaching of religious houses is fifty years behind the Avorkl. 
After a course of six to eight years' study, the girl " comes out " 
in a peculiar state of ignorance, and supplied ^Yith certain remark- 
able superstitions and ascetic ideas,* such as dislike to society, 
aspirations to the life of a religious, which in a 3'oung country 
like the Brazil cannot be too strongly deprecated, and an engoue- 
mcnt for penance and mortification which everywhere should be 
obsolete. Of this house it is said that an orphan girl, one of the 
pupils, when called upon to sign her name could not write. The 
assertion fovmd its way into an official paper, and opened the 
eyes of the public. For my part, I believe the place of these 
excellent women to be in the hospital, or by the sick bedside, 
where their heroism and devotion deserve the highest resj^ect. 
Instruction is not their forte, and yet they vehemently desire it, 
because thus they can best mould the minds of the rising 

* I could name a house of education, a 
"convent-school," not far from London, 
where in the nineteenth century children 
learn that on Christmas Eve all animals 
kneel down and jaray ; that thunder is the 
voice of the Deity — the merest fetishism ; 
and that opiates must not be given to a 
dying person, whose "agony" is the last 
temptation to voluptuousness, or the final 
chance of penitence — three specimens out 
of three hundred ! My experience is that 

in matters of pxire faith or belief — that is 
to say, taking statements on trust — all 
nations are as nearly equal as their de- 
velopment of imagination, of the marvel- 
lous, permits them to be. Amongst the 
most civilised peoples in Europe it is right 
easy to point out tenets which, submitted 
to the eye of reason, appear identical with 
those held by the savages of the Bonny 



Quand ploon per San ]\Iedar 

Ploon quarante ghiours pus tard. — ( Old Proverh.) 

St. Medard had been rainy, and so was St. S within. One 
does not expect the weather-saints, be they SS. Bibbiana, 
Mamert, Pancrase, or Servais, to serve alike for both hemi- 
spheres. On the Saxon's fete we were visited by Mr. F. S. 
Symons, who, despite his domestic troubles, hospitably insisted 
upon our taking possession of his then empty house at Passagem. 
AVe left Marianna that same morning, ascended the hill on which 
St. Peter stands, and fell into the eastern slope upon a good 
road, lately repaii'ed by the Provincial Government. The 
country has that monotonous beauty, primitive and savage, as 
Atala or Iracema, of which our eyes are now wearjdng. 
Our admiration of the inanimate is being fast exhausted ; the 
wildly beautiful, the magnificence of virgin forest, the uniform 
grace of second growth, begins to pall upon us ; we are tired of 
grand mountain, picturesque hill, and even of softly undulated 
l^rairie. The truth is, we want humanit}' ; we want a little 
ugliness, to speak plain English, by way of relief. Anthroi^os 
and his works are to the land he holds, what life is to the body ; 
without them Nature lies a corpse or in a swoon. It is not 
only the " inconstancy of man " that made Castehiau, in all 
this splendid scener}', look forward to the icy tempests of the 
Andes and to the shuddering cavised by gulfs and arid deserts, 
and by precipices fit only for the condor. I cannot but hold 
that green is the most monotonous of colours, and that in a 
warm, damp climate its effect is a peculiar depression. In the 
desert of rock and clay there is a vitalit}' and a vivacity of brain 
which we never experience in India or in Zanzibar. 

Presently we passed a neat buikling, the Mine Hospital. 


After a couple of short niiles, we turned to the left and entered 
the grounds of the '' Casa Grande. This bungalow formerl}- 
belonged to a proprietor and shareholder in the Passageni dig- 
gings. From afar it looks well, but a nearer inspection shows 
that it is roughty put together. A fine head of water pours 
from the bluff in front, and beyond it is shown a gap, a kind 
of breche de Roland, where, in 1699, the two Pauhsta exploring 
parties, headed by Manoel Garcia, who discovered gold in a 
branch of the Ribeirao do Campo, and Joao Lopez de Lima, 
the founder of Marianna, unexpectedly met. 

We spent three da3^s at the head-quarters of the " Anglo - 
Brazilian Gold Mining Company (Limited)." Mr. S^anons rode 
over from the Morro de Santa Anna as often as possible, and 
we had every reason to be grateful for the j^roverbial hospitality 
of the Coruu-Briton. Our fii'st visit was to the " D. Pedro 
Norte Del Rey," by the road now familiar to us, and up the 
Valley of the Corrego da Canella, towards which the Morro de 
Santa Anna and the Morro de Maquine both slope. The former 
is no longer worked ; the free gold in quartz and the auriferous 
jjyrites did not pay. The ground, however, is a bm-row of 
shafts and levels, rendering it dangerous to stray from the path. 
The face of the mountain is covered with a layer of " canga " 
some four feet thick; but tlie containing rock of the quartz 
is iron mica slate. We therefore proceeded to the latter, 
where the launders were flowing and the wheels were creak- 
ing merrily in the forest that gloomed high above us. The 
Buraco de Maquine is the centre of three well-known old 
diggings ; to its west is the Buraco do Tambor ; eastward, the 
Matador,* and on the west the Mato das Cobras. Around it is 
a mass of mines — Bawden's, Cornelius' (new ground), Benicio's, 
Honorio's, Branco's, and the Minas de Sociedade, a very old 

The jMaquine hollow, which lies in a spur of the main hill to 
the north of the Morro de Santa Anna, is drained by a stream 
Avhich falls into the Corrego da Canella. The gully shows in 
the same range six distinct deposits of Jacutinga, iron, mica, 

* The Matador property has been worked the section called the Tambor ; Jacutinga 

by the ancients ; now it belongs to the was found, but it proved to be unauri- 

Company, and in due time -ivill receive ferous. 
attention. A cross-cut was driven into 


clay slate, {lecomposetl quartz and gold ; the lode runs east to west, 
the dip is to the east,* and the underlay is northerl3^ Between 
the beds are layers of capa, or hard iron slate, dipping 5° to 6°. 
Number four gully is the highest part where exploration had 
begun ; number three, just below it, had been found " alive " 
with traces of gold, and number U\o (or the third from the top) 
varying in size from six inches to ten feet, is that which, 
after patient and persevering labour, has yielded such rich 

We rode up the hill accompanied by Mr. McEogers, the head 
mining captain, and saw the low ground to which the three deep 
adits will run. Mr. Thomas Treloar has taken due warning 
from his old place of employment, Gongo Soco. We were 
joined at the mouth of the mine by Mr. Hosken, another 
captain ; it is here the rule that one man must not enter. 
Jacutingaf gold is free, and, unlike the pyritic, requires every 
precaution against exposure ; in this matter it is as dangerous 
as the diamond, and, despite ail carefulness, the negro will 
certainly find means of picking and stealing. 

We entered No. 3 (from the top), or Hilcke's tram-level, the 
principal of the six which have been acquii'ed by purchase or 
concession. The general direction was with the dip north 
51° east, and four shoots or lines of gold have been found in 
it. The interior was literally walled with wood, cap pieces, and 
legs, with lathing of whole or split candeia trunks, and sometunes 
coarse planking to prevent the sides coming to. The sets of 
timbering were nowhere more than six feet apart. In the main 
levels, or arteries, first-class wood is used ; ordinary timber 
suffices for the stopes, and when the lode has been taken out 
the w^alls are allowed to come together. Under guidance of the 
captain we visited the cross-cuts driven northerly to coimnunicate 
with the lode, side passages, and mmor levels, which should be 
level, but which are distinctly the reverse. When lode is 
encountered, these are extended in its course, and are used for 
tramming out broken ore. Several levels have been driven and 
abandoned, as the workings penetrated below them. The prin- 

* The easterly dip of t!ie line of gold + The Jacutinga is soft, and consists 

averages from 20° to 20°. One of the mainl}^ of micaceous iron, friable quartz, 

lines has been worked on I'lO fathduis sand, and clay, in a containing rock of 

from outcrop. slaty iron ore. 

3;jG THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BEAZIL. [vnxv. xxxiv. 

cipal are at present " Hilcke's " and " Alice's," intersecting the 
lode, the former at 47, the latter at 128 fathoms. As a rule, 
the walking was eas}' and even pleasant ; the mine was excep- 
tionally dry, and no hanging wall took away from the sense of 
security. I noticed but a single blower — a crack in the side 
which emitted gas ; we tried to ignite it, but could not, and in 
one place only the lights burned dim and blue. This speaks 
well for the ventilation of the drivings. " Rises," or commu- 
nications from one level to another, are made for shooting down 
the ore broken in stope, and for convenience of breathing. 
Air shafts are especially necessary in Jacutinga, the worst of 
minerals for heat, which becomes intolerable. In some parts 
the unpure damp has extinguished the lamps and driven away 
the miners ; but this is rare. 

After leaving the souterrain we saw some of the rich stuff 
washed by women, labelled, locked up in safes, and sent down 
to the lower stamps. Lately (1867) a nugget has been found 
containing 512 oitavas of pure gold, and measuring eighteen by 
eight inches. The common vein yields ten oitavas per ton, and 
about 1800 tons are worked per month. lUcli ore gives 800 
oitavas (eight pounds, four ounces, Troy) per ton ; twelve boxes, 
or half a ton, have produced 1900 oitavas, and 700 jjounds have 
given eleven Brazilian pounds weight of gold. This is magni- 
ficent. But lines of gold in the fickle Jaciitinga, reach fissures, 
and frequently disappear. AVe carried off, b}' way of mementos, 
small but very beautiful specimens of nuggets — not to the detri- 
ment of the shareholders. 

Bemounting our mules, Ave passed a new building, the future 
" changing barracks," where garments which may contain gold 
will be deposited. After visiting the twelve head of upper stamps 
where the rough Jacutinga is crushed and straked, we descended 
to the lower stamp-house, where the rich ore is worked. When 
pulverised, it is placed in a tacho, or long copper vessel, and 
washed once more. Finally, it is taken up to the Casa Grande, 
and packed up for travel. 

An extraordinary meeting of the proprietors of this Company, 
held July 23, 1862, sanctioned the purchase of the Morro de 
Santa Anna, and sent out Mr. Thomas Treloar. The latter was 
<lirected to place himself in communication with the agents, 
Messrs. Moore & Co., of Bio de Janeiro, and the works began 


in 1863.* Santa Anna proved a failure, the quartz being poor 
and uncertain. The Superintendent had reported, " on the 
Maquine side we have more territorial than muiing extent," but 
the reverse was the case. An experienced miner had undertaken 
to raise from the despised hollow 2000 oitavas per day, and was 
offered a handsome sum in case of success, with the annexed 
condition, " no gold, no remuneration." There were many 
reports about the riches here buried. Tradition declares that 
a Portuguese took out large quantities and went home, intending 
to work the diggings on his return, which death prevented. It 
is said that the " old men " found near the foot of the wooded 
gap, sixtv-fom- oitavas of gold after a burst of water, which 
drained off into the Corrego. Thus guided, and directed, more- 
over, by his long experience, Mr. Treloar panned up the stream 
and struck the lode. Maquine was an afterthought ; but the 
energy and perseverance which conquered it deserve every credit. 
It now employs 350 hands, white and black, and it is one of the 
only two successes which can be claimed by English mining in 
the Brazil. 

According to Mr. Treloar's reports the Morro de Santa Anna 
was so valuable that in 1762 the Government honoured it with 
an esjiecial law. By paj-ing to the Treasmy five per cent, of gold 
extracted, any subject of Portugal could open a cross-cut to the 
lode, and claim the sm'face ground for twenty -five palms, instead 
of recei^ing• it by the " data," which was about ninety fathoms. 
Thus the mountain became the property of himdreds of people. 
Santa Amia became as populous as Marianna ; extensive diggings 
were ignorantly driven ; ventilation was neglected ; hand labour 
in a pilao, or mortar, was the only treatment known. The yield 
fell off, and presently the major part became the property of a 
few, from whom the Company bought it. The Buraco de 
Maquine also had a number of owners till it fell into the hands 
of a certain PatU-e Pii-es. 

We also visited the Passagem mining property, which lies on 
the right of the high road to Ouro Preto. The site is a narrow 
river valley, sm'romided by low rolling hills and tall heights ; 
it is drained by the Marianna River, a moimtain-torrent here, 

* It began with 230 workmen, viz., profits of the Company amounted to 
12 Em-opeans, 65 free Bi-azilians, 123 £51,944 (at the average exchange), 
negroes, and 30 negresses. In 1867 the 

VOL. I. Z 

338 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxiv. 

flowing north-east, under higli precipitous banks. This auri- 
ferous rock formation has been worked for nearly a century. 
Caldcleugh described it in 1826. He found botryoidal man- 
ganese, with octahedral cr^'stals of magnetic iron, in a feiTO- 
micaceous rock ; * the metalliferous veins, which varied from six 
inches to three feet in thickness, were of schorty quartz, arseni- 
ate of cobalt, and pyrites, ii'on and arsenical, the latter called 
by the miner " lead." The lower strata were dark mica-slate, 
which higher up changes -colour and blends with the simple 
quartz rock. Under Baron von Eschwege the Company had a 
capital of 20,000 crusados, and employed three overseers and 
thirt3^-eight negroes ; of course it hardly paid its expenses. 
The rich stuff was carried in bowls to a mill of nine head of 
stamps, and the coarser powder was subsequently levigated 
between two horizontal ii'on plates worked by water — a more 
scientific process, by-the-bye, than the present. Passages 100 
feet long had been chiselled and blasted into the mica-slate ; the 
cog-pumps, however, could not unwater them. Capt. Penna, 
the then Superintendent, proposed to drain the mine by a deep 
adit, through which the stone could be hauled out ; this was left 
for the present Company to accomplish. In 1840 Gardner tells 
us that the Arraial de Passagem had been built by gold 
wasliings which the people had abandoned for growing provisions 
to suppl}^ the capital. Since that time the propertj^ has belonged 
to a score of men. A company, whose brain was the Com- 
mendador Paula Santos, worked the " Fundao " ground, and 
sank, but to little purpose, the Vieira and the Easgao adits. 

The " Anglo-Brazilian Gold-Mining Company (Limited)" 
began in January, 1865, with a capital of ^£100, 000, half paid up, 
and the shares are now at three-eighths premium, a favourable 
sign. I have seen the Thiixl Report of March 31, 1866, and 
find it very satisfactory, promising a brilliant future. The works 
are only beginning; everj'thing is on a small scale, and the 
speculation does not pay a dividend. But it is a " likely " affair, 
which may still do great things, and I have no hesitation in 
considering it even now a half success. 

We put ourselves under the charge of Mr. Martin, head 

* About Marianna the true Itacolumite is also a quantity of the curious flexible 
often passes into mica schist, and the stone en-oneously called Itacolumite. 
" phyllas satine" contains garnet. There 


mining captain, who first showed us the plan. There is a hirge 
extent of mmeral ground. All the diggings are on the right 
bank of the streamlet, which rises eighteen feet during the 
rains. The southernmost is the Tundao, whose surface is a 
swamp which swells to a lakelet in the lowest part of the 
riverine valle}^ ; it was once reported to be the richest, and is 
approached by " Foster's Shaft." Follow the Mineralogico and 
the Paredao grounds, each containing its mine, and to the north- 
east, or down stream, no limit has been assigned to the lode. 
The main lode can be traced, and has been wrought for miles 
in length. 

Habited in correct "underground" costume, and each with 
lantern and stick, we entered the main or " Dawson's Shaft," or 
rather inclined j)lane, leading to the Mina Grande, which has 
three others for the extraction of stone — " Haymen's," Han- 
son's, and Foster's. Northward are in succession the Mina do 
Buraco Seco, the Mina do Barril, with the Barril adit, and the 
Mma do Congo. A transverse section through the deep adit 
shows a surface of humus and Jacutinga based on clay and iron- 
stone. The lode underlies the reddish and ferruginous mica- 
slate ; the footwall is talcose slate, sandstone, and "killas,"of 
blue and ruddy rock, whose quartz, here soft, there hard,* is 
at times interjected between the lodes. The dijj of the vein is 
south-east 17° 30', and often shallower (15°), and the lodes run 
about north-east and south-west. The head-wall of the main 
lode (iron mica-slate) had been reached by old workings, some 
of which are still drowned out ; a large accumulation of mud, 
crushed ground, and foreign matter, had to be cleared away. 
Thus the system of opening out the mines has been hitherto 
confined to sinking shafts on the footwall through the crushed 
worldngs of the former proprietors in order to encounter 
the lode. A large amount of the usual dead, unproductive 
matter has been got out. The lode and lode}^ stuff are said to 
be thirty-five feet thick, — namel)^, sixteen feet of main vein ; a 
footwall of killas four feet "between the 'aii' and the 'oaf;" 
and lastly, fifteen feet of canoa, short or rich body. The 
" pay dii-t " gives per ton three to four oitavas of 23-carat gold, 

/"worth £3 12s. per ounce. 

/ We found the eightj'-three fathoms of tunnel steep and dark, but 

* Locally called Congelada, that is to say, quartz, felspar, and other Lard rock. 

z 2 

340 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BEAZIL. [chap, xxxiv. 

dry and comfortable ; it was well timbered with beams and candeia 
trunks wherever the ceiling required propping. At length we 
reached a vaidted cavern, thirty-five fathoms of perpendicular 
depth. It was lit up with torches, and the miners — all slaves, 
dii'ected by white overseers — streamed with perspiration, and 
merrily sang their wild song and chorus, keeping time with the 
strokes of hammer and drill. The heavy gloom, the fitful glare 
of the lights, the want of au*, the peculiar suljDliurous odour, 
and the savage chaunt, with the wall hanging like the stone of 
Sisj'phus or the sword of Damocles, suggested a sort of material 
Swedenborgian hell, and accordingly the negret Chico faltered 
out when asked his opinion, " Parece O inferno ! " 

We then went down to the " deep adit," foui-teen feet below 
the canoa, or rich lode, and driven to the right banlc of the 
rivulet. The stone is trammed to the mouth, and hauled out ; 
thence an inclined plane of wood, which runs \iy> the nearly 
perpendicular ascent, and a whim conveys it to the stamp-houses. 
The matrix is evidently am'iferous arsenical pyrites, much 
resembling that of Morro Velho ; gold is rarely seen in the 
quartz, and sometimes '* black Caco " is found. The good 
picked stone is in the proportion of sixty per cent. Nineteen 
Em'opeans, including the Superintendent,* compose the white 
force ; the others may be 380 — 400, men and women. The recruit- 
ing for the Paragua3'an war, so near the capital, has greatly interfered 
with the supply of timber as well as hands. About fifty men 
work underground at once ; each has a task of four palms or 
six palms, with extra pay for overtime, and the bore raises half 
a ton i^er diem, or a daily total of sixty to seventy tons. The 
stone raised varies from 1600 to 1800 tons per day, and the 
produce is from 3000 tons upwards. 

When Ave were to grass we touched om' pipes and examined the 
upper works. There were two hauling wliims with mule-races, 
serving the four incluied planes which ran from the bottom of the 
mine to the spalling floors. There were forty-two head of stamps, 
of which thirty are new ; they are divided into upper and lower, 
and the stufi" is carried to them in platters on women's heads ; 
after the tliii"d crushing the shme is allowed to run off. The 
arrastres and amalgamation have not yet been introduced. The 

* Mr. Furst, an officer in the employment ^of the Company, had lately died of 
typhus ; the body became, it was said, " yellow as a guinea." 


stamped sand, when fine enough, is washed in the batea, and the 
gold is stored in locked-iip troughs. The coarser stuff, before 
being replaced in the upper stamps, is levigated on sloping slabs 
in the "wash-house." 

Very comfortable and pleasant was that Casa Grande, with its 
piano and plenty of books, not to speak of Bass and sherry. We 
had taken leave, and the mules stood saddled at the door, when 
Mr. Symons made up and asked me to read the burial service 
over his mother-in-law. At 3 p.m. we collected near the little 
ruined chapel that overlooks the narrow Valley of the Rio Vermelho. 
After not hearing for many years the " order" of the Church of 
England, I was struck by the coldness and deadness of the rite, 
the absence of consolation to the living, and the want of comfort 
to the dead, if " spiritists " speak the truth. And what is there 
appropriate in the "Lesson taken out of the fifteenth chapter of 
the former Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians," with its argu- 
mentative tone and its uninteUigible allusion to being " baptized 
for the dead?"* How far better is the short " office" used in 
the older western section of Christianity. The Cornishmen seemed 
resolved to add a little life to the ceremony. When the reading 
was concluded they sang in a nasal tone a lengthy hjoim, which 
gave them, I presume, some spmtual refreshment. 

It was late in the afternoon when we set out for Ouro Preto, 
distant a short league. The whole length is more or less inhabited. 
So we read in 1801 that it was populous with little settlements and 
miners' huts built on heights near water. The line was then a 
fine calcada with an avenue of trees, which were, however, 
beginning to fail. Now it has changed for the worse ; it runs 
upon a Idnd of ledge. To the right is a confusion of red clay 
hills, covered with scrubby vegetation ; on the left, deep and in- 
visible in its rock}' bed, flows the Ptio Vermelho or Marianna 

* Paul, 1 Corinthians, xv. 29. Amongst version witliout tlie will of the recipient, 
the Marcionites (a.d. 150), who were Of modern days the practice has uuder- 
pai-tly Manicheans, the rite was literally gone revival. See the "Book of Doc- 
performed. When a man died, one of the trines and Covenants (of the Church of 
sect sat in his coffin, and wiis asked by Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints ; selected 
another whether he were willing to be from the Revelations of God. By Joseph 
baptised, and, consenting, he was baptised. Smith, President)" under the heads "Bap- 
The Cataphi-j-gians, who followed the wild tism for the Dead, acceptable only in the 
Montanus (A.n. 170) also baptised their Temple;" "Baptism for the Dead, the 
dead; and vainly the orthodox contended Nature of." I have also alluded to the 
that the act was foolish and useless, since rite in the " City of the Saints," chap. ix. 
if it were valid a person might be baptised p. 471. 
for a Jew or a Greek, and effect his con- 

342 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxiv. 

Biver. The line is a gentle and regular ascent of red sand and 
black earth, now muddy, then dusty. Scales of ferro-micaceous 
slate glitter like powdered sUver, and here they say occur scatters 
of pale blue cyanite. The general du-ection is west, with a Httle 

We found Passagem, where several of the English miners lodge, 
a little village with a certain air of neatness. A compatriot, who 
from a labouring man had become a capitalist, here has a large 
house. We had lived within a stone's throw of him during three 
days. When we met, he invited us to become his guests, but he 
had not energy enough to call. In three weeks, perhaps, he might 
have succeeded. It is said that the first words learned by the 
stranger in the Brazil are, " paciencia," " espere um pouco," 
and " amanhaa " — Patience, wait a wee, to-morrow. I may add 
that some foreigners learn the lesson better than then- teachers. 
Men who live too long in the Tropics often fall into a nervous, 
solitary habit of Hfe ; in fact, the difficulty is not to do it. 
Sr. Domingo Martens, of Whydah, left valuable silver plate Ij^ng 
for years on the beach, because he would not or could not order 
a guard of his army of slaves to bring up the boxes. I know a 
traveller who spent three years in Inner Africa, always wishing 
and intending to leave it, but lackmg energy to give the word. 
My excellent friend, Lieut.-Col. Hamerton, of Zanzibar, resolved 
ever}^ night to pack up next morning, till, not being able to make 
such exertion, he died. 

About half-way we sighted a tall white fane, the Igreja do Alto 
da Cruz, which in the gloaming looked like a Frankenstein, frightful 
and gigantic, flat on its back, with its two legs en Vair. Another 
mile showed on the right the Chafariz de Agua Ferrea, whose old 
front and long inscription testified to the virtues of its chalybeate. 
Near the entrance the road had been cut out of the solid rock ; 
on the right, or northern side, was a quarry of white freestone 
large enough to supply the Province, and tunnelled with long- 
abandoned gold works, now used by the poor as pig-styes ; to the 
left a parapet defended wayfarers from falling into the great dark 
gully which, running west to east, drains the two parallel lines, 
the southern Serra de Itacolumi and its opposite neighbour, the 

* Bni-meister's map makes Mariauna ston (Stanford, Charing Cross) Marianna is 
due east of Ouro Preto, wlucli it is not. placed soutli-south-east of Ouro Pi'eto, 
In the last edition of Mr. A. Keith John- which is worse. 

cuvp. xxxiv.] TO PASSAGEM AND OUIIO PRETO. 343 

Serra de Ouro Preto. Both had been bored and excavated, 
riddled and honey-combed for veins and nests of auriferous 

The situation of Ouro Preto, whose " ill-omened and ill- applied 
name " is patheticaUj- noticed by Ml\ Walsh, struck me at once as 
unlike any capital that I had j&t seen.* We are accustomed to 
find race symbols and national character thoroughly developed in 
the political and administrative centre called a metropolis, and 
here we shall see that the old Villa Rica is not the less suggestive 
than Washington of the magnificent distances. It is nothing but 
a great village, a kind of " Aldeota," a single street built after the 
fixshion of Minas along the highway, and near the water required 
for gold washing. Thus it resembles a provincial town, and there 
are many in Minas which equal it in population and exceed it in 
importance. Hence, also, life in these country settlements is a 

* * * Duller than the fat weed 
That rots itself iu ease on Lethe wharf. 

The want of level ground causes the white houses that cluster on 
the rocks, whose salient angles face the torrent, to creep up and 
down the minor ridges which run perpendicularly from the main 
range, and to stand on steps cut out of the hill-sides. Here they 
lie scattered over the heights, there they disappear in the shades 
below us. The prospect wants all the grace and grandeur of a 
city. Yet it is singular, it is full of " surprises," and it is, to a 
certain extent, romantic and picturesque, thoroughly Mineii'O. 

We and our " following " found shelter at the house of the 
Commendador Paula Santos, Hospitaller or Receiver-general of the 
English at Ouro Preto, as was Jose Peixoto de Souza in the last 
generation. He was then at Rio de Janeiro, but his brother, 
Dr. Jose Margal dos Santos, did the honours of the Golden City. 

* Provincial capitals in the Brazil average 20,000 souls ; some of them, Aracaju and 
Maceio for instance, much less ; others, as Pernambuco and Bahia, much moi'e. 


Difficiles terrte, collesque maligni. — Georgics. 

The following topographical description of the cit}^ was pub- 
lished in the "Annaes de Medicina" of 1848, by one of the 
illustrious " sons " of Oui'o Preto, Dr. Eugenio Celso Nogueira. 
It is only fair to let him describe his home : — 

" The capital of Minas is situated on the Serra de Ouro Preto, 
S. lat. 24° 24' &', and W. long, (from the Sugarloaf of Rio de 
Janeiro) 0° 16' 51". Four hills, offsets from the same chain, form 
the base, and the irregularity of the site makes an exact descrip- 
tion of the cit}' a difficult task. Of the liills, some advance, 
others retii'e, leaving between them deep gorges. Those which 
are too steep for building purposes are covered with a jioor vege- 
tation, and are irregular with orifices due to time or to man's toil. 
The houses are built in unequal groups, rarely occuppng the 
same plane ; hence the ii-regularit}^, which extends even to the 
street levels. Mostly they have an upper story, except in the 
suburbs, where the ground floor is the rule. In the city almost 
all can boast of glass windows and ceilings of bamboo-mat ; in 
the outsku'ts the}' are low and mean, some wanting even floors." 

"Of the four hills, the most important is that of the Pra9a, 
raised 1620 toises* above sea level ; the Bairro of Ouro Preto, 
the lowest, numbers 1579, and the summit of Itacolumi 1960 
toises. The city enjoys few clear and serene days ; throughout 
the year, esi)ecially during the rains, the sky is covered, and the 

* The toise, I presume, is six French Palace Couii; 1145 metres =3747 feet. My 

feet = 76755 inches, or 6-3946 feet English. instruments (No. 1 and best, B.P. 206°, 

Thus 1620 toises would be = 10, 362 feet. Temp. 65°, and No. 2, not so good, B.P. 

The Almanack gives 5245 (Lisbon) palms 206° 30', Temp. 62°) range between 3180 

= 3758 feet. Caldeleugh places the square and 3373 feet; of these two I .should 

(bar. 26-393, and thei-m. 69° 30') 3969 prefer the latter, and give in round numbers 

feet above sea level. Gerber makes the the height of Ouro Preto 3400 feet. 


clouds seem to have made theii' home upon the mountain 

This was written in 1843 ; since that time the climate has, they 
say, improved. But the altitude, the accidents of ground, and the 
peculiar position, make it subject to extremes of diurnal variation 
and to great uncertainty. Now it has the sun of Italy, then the 
fogs of England. The climate is distinctly sub-tropical, and 
northern races must be acclimatised before they can thrive in it. 
Yet it is cold ; the equatorial fruits are poor ; the pine-apple 
hardly rip»ens, whilst apples and quinces flourish. The tempera- 
ture is hottest at 2 p.m., and coldest after midnight; the mean 
variations are from 58° to 84° F. in the shade ; the latter is rare, 
but the extremes would, I believe, tell a different tale. Evapora- 
tion is excessive, the result of feeble atmospheric pressure,* whilst 
the neighbourhood of the mountains exposes it to strong aerial 
cuiTents from the Atlantic ; hence it is one of the dampest places 
in the Highlands of the Brazil. It is difficult to prevent broad- 
cloth from being mildewed except in air-tight cases. As regards 
the healthiness of the chmate opinions greatly differ. Of two 
Brazilian friends long resident here, one spoke highly in its 
favoiu', declaring that it had no endemic complaint : the other 
affirmed it to be dangerous, esj)eciaUy at the changes of season in 
April and November, and at all times fecund in goitres and con- 

The plan attached to M. Gerber's book will, despite its defects, f 
enable us to find our way about the city, beginning at our tempo- 
rary home. 

The Commendador's house is buried amongst the hills at the 
lowest level of the one long street, and in a good central position. 
To the east is the well-built and parapetted stone bridge, the 
" Ponte dos Contos," crossing the Corrego of the same name. 
The rivulet winds from north to south till it joins the main di'ain, 
wliich we hear running below us as if over a dam. The Corrego 
bed is at this dry season a garden with tufty plots of strawberries 
and a noble Jaboticabeiua myrtle, under which the " range 

* Dr. Franklin da Silva Ma.ssena, the Preto is generally laid down at 19° '9 

engineer who studied engineei-ing at Rome, (Cent.). 

calculates the atmospheric pressure on the t The Planta Topogi-aphica do Ouro Preto 

human body to be 3 vC) arrobas (12,032 Ib.s.) is on too small a scale; the streets are 

less than upon the seaboard of the Brazil. not named, nor are the hill-lines properly 

The annual mean temperatiu'e of Ouro laid down. 

346 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxv. 

palustres " make night vocal. The tenement is neat, with 
moulded windoAvs and corniced roof, and the balcony- is adorned 
with busts and a noble vine. 

Om- first walk will be up the Una de Sao Jose, the thoroughfare 
leading with many a loop and bay, to the west and north-west. 
The place is classical. Close to oui- quarters is the small three- 
windowed house where lodged the unfortunate Alferes of Cavalry,* 
Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, nick-named (por alcunha) " Tira- 
dentes," or "Draw-teeth." This is not, as I supposed, an equiva- 
lent to our " Bell-the-Cat." The patriot was Hterally an arrachem- 
de dents and a maker of artificial teeth. Several of liis relatives 
are still at Alagoa Doiu'ada, and the}' preserve his etui, Ihe 
coarsest possible contrivance. He j^erfonned extraction " with 
subtle lightness," and he taught himself to make artificial teeth. 
The sight cai'ries us back to the days of a popular movement, of 
which this great and heroic Province may reasonabh' be proud, as 
it led directly to the Independence of the Brazil. 

The democratic natm-e of the outbreak, wliich the Government 
called the Conjuragao (Conspiracy of Minas), or Levante de Minas 
(Rising of Minas), and which is now known poj^ularly as the Incon- 
fidencia or Treason, t was evident, and as " sacred " as that of our 
Great Rebellion. The consj^irators, when apprehended, rnade, it 
is true, protestations of loyalty, but their designs spoke for them- 
selves. They resolved to jDroclaim their independence and liberty, 
and the}'^ proposed to abohsh the highly obnoxious "Fifths" 
(Quintos), and other royal extortions ; to cancel all Crown debts, 
to throw open the forbidden Diamantine lands, and to found a 
university at Villa Rica and a capital at Sao Joao d'El-Rei. 
They had devised a flag and arms, a triangle supposed to represent 
the Hoi}' Trinity, whose myster}' was the chief devotion of Tira- 
dentes ; the motto was to be " Libertas quae sera tamen," | and 
the symbol, an Indian breaking his fetters. 

* Bom 1757. Official documents call J Not a genius, as is jjopularly said, 

him ex-Ensign of the paid cavali^ troops "Genio" and "Indio" in MS. would be 

of the Minas Captaincy. The vrilgar sup- easily confused. The Yirgilian motto has 

pose that he was " Ensign," or Lievitenant fared very badly. Soiithey gives it "Liber- 

of Artillery. He was captured on May 10, tas pure sera tamen " — Senhor Norberte 

1789, and placed by orders of the Viceroy "Libertas quse sero tamen." Sr. A. D. 

in the Ilha das Cobras. de Pascual (p. 60) writes "Libertas quae 

+ An opprobrious term, adopted as a sera tandem." The latter published in 

boast. St. Hil. (I. i. 202) calls it la pre- 1868 (Rio de Janeiro, Tji^. do Imperial 

tendue conspiration, and declares "on ne Institute Artistico), a brochui-e entitled 

decouviit aucune preuve." His account of " Um Epysodio da Historia Patria. As 

the movement is poorer than Southey's. Quattro derradcirasNoites dos Inconfidentes 


Evidently the intention of the " Inconfidents " in their 
" embiTonal attempt" was to estabUsh a repubUc in Minas and 
the adjoining captaincies. This was in 1788, half a generation 
after the Boston Port Bill, the Starvation Plan, and the Tea- 
chests led to the King's war, and brewed a storm which upset and 
shattered the old colonial system of the world. The great 
Cromwell had taught the Anglo-Americans, and these in their 
turn, aided by the Encyclopedists and the "philosophers," had 
inoculated France with the subhmest ideas of liberty and inde- 
pendence. Hence the spirit of emancipation passed like an 
electric flash to the Brazil, where the "analogy of situation" was 
at once recognised. The Empire, I may here say, founded 
herself, and did not owe her existence, as the superficial remark 
is, to Napoleon the First. At that time the Governor and 
Captain-General of Minas Geraes was the Viscount of Barba- 
cena,* and it must be owned that though he was an avaricious, 
corrupt, and unprincipled man, his vigour and address contrasted 
favourabl}^ with the feeble obstinacy and the failures of Burgoyne 
and Cornwallis. The circular touching the revenue which he 
addi-essed to the several Camaras quite settled the grievance upon 
which the conspirators prepared to work. But his superior, the 
Viceroy of the " State of the Brazil," who succeeded at Bio de 
Janeiro D. Luiz de Vasconcellos e Souza, was the " stupid and 
taciturn " D. Jose de Castro, Count of Resende, the " pest of 
Portuguese nobility." 

The Cabegas or leaders of the patriotic rebellion were thirty- 
two; such at least is the number sent for trial to Rio de Janeiro. 
There were not less than 1000 suspected, the flower of the land, 
clergy (of whom five were found guilty) as well as laity, all friends 

de Minas Geraes (1792). The fovir last * D. Luiz Antonio de Mendon<;a Furtado. 
nights began with Tuesday, April 17, 1792. The name is thus given in MSS. ; books 
The author professes to quote from the usually prefer Furtado de Mendonga. The 
MS. of a Franciscan Packe of the Santo An- people believed that he had been sent out to 
tonio Convent, who was sent with ten others recover arrears of the gold quint, amount- 
on the night of the 18th and fol- ing to 22,400 lbs. of gold. In July 11, 
lowing to console the eleven condemned to 1788, he succeeded Luiz da Cunha de 
death. The Jesuits had introduced the Menezes. The latter, who is satirised in 
custom of sending a minister of religion the Cartas Chilenas, had some inkling of 
to be present whenever a capital sentence the republican tendencies then rife in Minas 
was read out, and on their expulsion the Geraes ; but having many friends there, he 
office passed to the Franciscans. Sr. Pa-s- contented himself, when returning to Por- 
cual informs the public by an Advertencia tugal, with reporting the affair in a general 
that he had pui-posed originally to write a way ; hence dragoons and other troops 
di-ama ; he has certainly in writing history were scat out to the disaffected colony, 
preserved the dramatic form. 

348 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxv. 

if not relations.* We may imagine the horror-stricken state of 
the people when the movement failed. The notables were the 
proto-martjT " Tira-dentes," the arm of the conspiracy; Claudio 
Manoel da Costa, the brain ; the poet, Tliomaz Antonio Gonzaga, 
of whom more presently; and the seven condemned to death. 
These were, 1. Francisco de Paula Freh-e de Andrade, of the 
Bobadella family. Lieutenant- Colonel of the Cavahy Corps 
(Cavallaria Viva) of Ouro Preto, a man of high position and most 
interesting character. 2. His brother-in-law, Jose Alves Maciel, 
freemason, and first confidant of Tira-dentes, and who had tra- 
velled in the United States and in Europe ; t his confessor 
describes him as a St. Paul persuading the others, and a St. 
Augustme dii'ecting to God his true confessions. 3. Ignacio Jose 
de Alvarenga Peixoto, ex-Ouvidor of Sahara and Colonel of the 
Fii'st Auxiliary Corps of the Campanlia do Rio Verde. 4. The 
venerable Domingos de Abreu Vieu*a, | Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Auxiliaries of Minas Novas, who had seen his seventieth year. 
5 and 6. Jose de Resende Costa, father and son. 7. Dr. Claudio 
Manoel da Costa, Crown Procurator and Commentator upon 
Adam Smith, Commissioner of Customs, and Father of Political 
Economy. 8. Lieutenant-Colonel (Auxiliary Cavalry) Francisco 
Antonio de OHveu-a Lopes. 9. Luis Vas de Toledo (Piza). 
10. Domingos Vidal de Barbosa, doctor or surgeon. 11. Salvador 
Carvallio Grugel do Amaral; and lastly (12), Tira-dentes. They 

* The Almanack (1865, p. 51) gives Historia do Brasil, chap. 5, § 6) MacicI 

twenty-four as the number of the Incon- was xjrobably the per.son mentioned by Jef- 

fidentes ; of twenty-one were found ferson wlien writing from Marseille on 

guilty. M. Kibeyrolles has published the May 4, 1787, to "John Jay ;" an extract 

trial in Portuguese and French. Dr. Mello of it is given in the Revista Trimensal do 

Moraes (Brasil Historico, Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Historico (vol. iii. p. 209). Vam- 

Dec. 18, 1864, and succeeding papers) has hagen (ii. 270) mentions the fact of Jef- 

printed the whole Processo do Tiradentes. ferson meeting at Nismes an ardent young 

The original documents were, it is said, Brazilian, Josg Joaquim da Maia, whose 

kept for many years sewTi up in a leather father was a mason at Rio de Janeiro, 

bag amongst the archives of the Secretary J. A. Maciel escaped better than his friends, 

of State for Home Affairs. But I believe because he was the son of a Capitao Mor, 

this to be a mistake ; the Visconde de and was on good terms with the Captain- 

Barbacena carried oif to Europe all the General. 

documents which compromised him ; many J I am happy here to be able to record 

remained even in the Secretariat of Ouro an instance of negro aifection and gi-ati- 

Preto, and not a few have been inublished. tude. A slave, of name unknown, belonging 

t There is, I am told, a despatch amongst to this officer, induced the authorities, by 

those written from Paris by Thomas Jetfer- force of petitioning, to gi-ant him permis- 

son to Washington, reporting that he had sion of accompanying his master to jail and 

met at Passy two envoys fi-om the Brazilian to exile in Africa. Sr. Pascual calls him a 

colony; of these, it is said, Jose Alves " black diamond " and a " faithfid, noble, 

Maciel was one. According to General and saintly slave. " 
J. I. De Abreu e Lima (Compendio da 


met, saj's their process, at Villa Rica, in the houses of Francisco 
de Paula and of Dr. Claudio, and the sentence orders the j)lace of 
their "infamous conventicles" to be razed and salted.* They 
had, it appears, determined to open the proceedings with the 
watchword, " Hoje e o dia do baptizado ;" others say " Tal dia 
he o baptizado " (To-day is the da}" of the baptized), (scil. repubhc). 
Lieutenant- Colonel Andi-ade was to keep orJ^r with liis troops, 
Alvarenga, Ohveu'a, and Toledo, with their slaves and partizans, 
were to excite the neighbouring towns ; wlii^st Tii*a-dentes was to 
sally forth with vivas for hbert}', and to hasten for the Governor's 
head to liis country house near Cachoeu'a, where that dignitary 
amused liimself with farming.! Finally, Portugal was to be 
officially infonned that Minas Geraes had become an independent 

According to Southey, who, not 'aaving heard the other part, 
writes with an evident bias towards Portugal, the conspii'ators 
" acted hke madmen." Some of them seem to have done their 
work in a half-hearted fashion, others to have been far too open 
and confident, a few thought that saying was as good as doing, 
and many looked upon the attempt as "hypothetic," not holding 
the people ripe for Hberty. It was, in fact, a " rude tyrocinio ;" 
on the other hand " it was a gi'eat enterprise, and everything 
must have a beginning." The poet Gonzaga+ spoke of Tira- 
dentes as a poor dcA^il, fit to become Jove or Neptune as to be the 
chief of such a rebeUion. One man upon his trial called it a 
comedy ; the Franciscan chronicler more aptly designated it a 
tragedy. Revenge and treachery were rife as in the ranks of 
Fenianism. The arch-delator was Colonel (of Auxiharies) Joaquim 
Silverio dos Reis Lairia Genses, one of the conspirators who 
reported the plot verbally§ to the Governor. He owed 20,000 

* The "razing" was not done, as it when he visited Ouro Preto he was obliged 

was found more profitable to appropriate to take peculiar precautions. A room in 

the confiscated property. One door and the the present palace was divided by him into 

little room occupied by Tira-dentes, were eighteen different comiDartments, and no 

pulled down and have since been destroyed. one knew where he sat or slept. 

t The conspirators declared that they + LjTas, ii. 38, 7 — 9. It is generally 

intended to aiTCst and deport, not to murder believed, however, that Gonzaga applied 

him. This seems probable ; but with such the words " pobre, sem respeito e louco " 

a tcte-montee as Tira-dentes, it is hard to only to save his friend. The confessor of 

avoid excess or to foresee what may happen. Santo Antonio describes him as "enthu- 

In such circumstances men mostly act iipon siastic as a Quaker, and adventurous as a 

the instinct that the only way to get rid Quixote." 

of an enemy is to tiike his life. The Vis- § Authorities ai-e not agi'eed whether it 

conde de Barbacena was so unpopulai- that was done verbally or in •WTiting. 

350 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxv. 

cruzados to the Treasury, and lie liojied by his treachery to 
obtain a remission of his debt. The documents signed for trans- 
mission to the Viceroy bear the names of the Mestre de Campo 
Ignacio Correa Pamplona and Lieutenant-Colonel Basilio de 
Britto Mallieu-o. This wretch demanded as the price of blood a 
pension and decorations. He was praised in the process as a 
loyal and CathoUc vassal, and was left to starve at Para, where 
he was driven by public indignation. 

The accused were arrested on May 23, 1790, confined sepa- 
rately, and sent in a body to Rio de Janeiro. There they remained 
imprisoned, curious to relate, m the very same building where 
some years afterwards some of them took their seats as members 
of the National Assembly. Their confinement lasted till sentence 
was pronounced on April 18, 1792. Dr. Claudio Manoel da 
Costa, the "Amigo Glaucestre " of Gonzaga, was taxed by the 
Governor with treason, when he replied, alluding to the absorp- 
tion of Portugal by Spain, " Traitor was your grandfather, who 
sold his country ! " He was removed from the prison to a vaulted 
closet under the main staircase of the " Casa dos Contos." The 
permanent guard was changed, and he was murdered by the 
soldiers.* A report was spread that he hanged himself to a cup- 
board, after having opened a vein with the bucldes of his breeches 
in order to write with his blood a distich on the wall, for he too 
was a poet.f The tale that his corj)se was exposed on a taller 
gallows than usual in the Camj)o de Sao Domingos is fictitious ; 
it was at once buried in unconsecrated ground, the Garden of the 
Quartel da Guarnicao. But the vicar Vidal of the Menezes family, 
whose sister was grandmother to the present Senator Teixeira de 
Souza, of Ouro Preto, disbelieving the report of suicide, exhumed 
the body, and with the aid of two slaves, Agostinho and another, 
consigned it to the thu-d catacomb in the High Chapel of the 
Matriz of Om-o Preto. f 

* Tia Monica, a sage femme, happened is well characterised in the Plutarco Brasi- 

to be passing professionally by the house leiro, i. 225^252. The Holy Office disliked 

just after the murder, and saw two of the the tone of his prose writings, and allowed 

soldiers dragging out the body of D. Claudio, few of them to be printed. The distich 

a large-fi-amed man, who was easily recog- that showed the ruling passion strong in 

nised. The Bobadella family tried in vain death never came to light, 

to save him. :J: A soldier hapiiened to die at the time, 

•f He was devotedly attached to Ana- and according to some authorities the poet 

creon and Malherbe (et Rose elle a vecu, etc. ) was inten-ed in consecrated ground under 

Among the confiscated articles belonging to the supposition that he was the defunct 

Gonzaga were copies of these authors, bear- ' ' pra9a. " 
ing the name of Claudio Manuel. His poetry 


Eleven of the conspirators, Gonzaga included, received sentence 
of death. Seven of the ringleaders were condemned to be hanged 
at the Campo da Lampadosa, to be decapitated and quartered, 
Avith exposure of heads ; their goods were confiscated, and, after 
the barbarous fashion of the time, their sons and grandsons were 
declared infamous. Four others, Salvador Corneiro do Amaral 
Gurgel, Jose de Resende Costa,* father and son, and Dr. Domingos 
Yidal de Barbosa, were sentenced to hanging on a gallows taller 
than usual, lilve their friends, to beheading without exposure, but 
Avith loss of goods and attaint of issue. The decree was read to 
them on the night of April 19, 1792. Five were exiled for hfe to 
the Presidios or garrisons of Angola, and mulcted of half their 
property, with threats of death in case of their return. The rest 
were temporarily banished, and two false accusers were flogged. 
None could complain of their fate. They knew the law ; most of 
them were officials under government ; they had staked their all 
upon the throw, and they had lost the game. 

But it is said that the legal proofs were vile, and consequently 
that the sentence was iniquitous. In those days the Viceroy was 
omnipotent, and the judges also, terrified by the example of 
France, carried on the proceedings with Draconic severit3\ 
Curious to observe, the Jeffries of the trial was the Desem- 
bargador Antonio Diniz da Cruz e S3dva, a poet still popular, 
whose Pindaric odes and heroico-comic piece, "0 H3'Ssope," have 
become classical, f But the Queen, D. Maria I., the first croA\aied 
head fated to visit the New World, was merciful : she commuted 
to perpetual banishment all the capital sentences of the Philippine 
Ordmances, except that of Tira-dentes ; and thus of eleven heads 
onl}^ one fell. Usually it is supposed that he was a mere tool of 
deeper men, punished in terrorem. The tradition runs otherwise. 
He was the ver}- t^-pe of Mineii'O blood, of S3'mpathetic presence, 
and sanguine-biUous temperament. He had studied in the mili- 
tar3' schools of France, t and had there matured the j)roject of a 
Pan- America b3' addmg ]\Iinas to the List of RepubHcs headed by 

* Proprietor of the Sitio da Varginha, and the poet has been called the Pindar of 
where one of the mai-tyr's arms was put Portugal. His assessors on this occasion 
up, a property now belonging to the Dutra were Antonio Gomes Ribeiro, the prose- 
family. His descendants in Africa claimed, cutor, and the chancellor, Sebastiao Xavier 
on the ground of illegal sentence, its res- de Vasconcellos. 
titution, but did not succeed. J The tradition is at fault ; he never 

f Ferdinand Denis, ch. xxvi. The Hys- left the Brazil. 
SDpG has been compared with the Lutrin, 

352 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxv. 

the United States. He died only forty-five years of age, energetic, 
and very "phrenetic." During the first year after his return 
home he had ridden five times, not on foot, as the tale is, in the 
interest of his darling project from Ouro Preto to Rio de Janeii'o. 
At this place he was arrested. Ujjon liis trial, although he left 
a wife and a little daughter, he had denied nothing ; he accused 
no man ; and finally he died, as political mart^^rs mostl}^ do, like 
a hero. 

The spot chosen for the execution of the Tooth-draw^er, whom I 
can hardly call unfortunate, was then a wild space on the west of 
Ptio de Janeu'o, the Campo dos Ciganos, a place where gipsies and 
newl3'-imported negroes (negros novos) were buried. Six corps of 
infantry and two " companies " of cavahy, besides auxiharies, a 
large armed force for a cit}-^ of 50,000 souls, surrounded the 
scaffold, which stood exactly on the spot where the funeral 
coaches are now kept for liire. Crowds of people covered the 
plain, and massed themselves uj)on the skirts of the Santo Antonio 
hill. The son of the Count de Pezende (D. Luiz de Castro 
Benedicto), momited on a horse shod Avith silver, commanded the 
troops. Whilst a Te Deum for the benefit of Her Majesty was 
chaunted at the Carmo, and lojnl speeches were being made, the 
Brotherhood of the Santa Casa da Miseiicordia, as was then the 
custom, collected alms to be sjsent on masses for the repose of the 
victim's soul. The sum amounted to a " dobra," Sr. Pascual 
says five dobras, each 12$400 reis fortes, equal now to 100$000, 
showing the sj-mpathies of the crowd. The heroic dentist, calm 
and gi'ave, was led in the tunic of the condemned from the prison 
(now the Chamber of Deputies) by the Rua da Cadea, the present 
Rua da Assemblea, and the Rua do Piolho, accompanied by two 
priests, and guarded by 100 bayonets.* He continued his adora- 
tion of the Trinity and the Incarnation till he reached the scafibld. 
There he presented his gold watch to the executioner. His last 
words, after repeating with his director the Athanasian Creed, 
were, " Cumpri a minha palavra, morro para a liberdade " (I 
have kept my word — I die for hberty). The glorious confession 
was drowned by a ruffle of drums and clang of trumpets. At 11 
A.M. he was hanged by the neck till dead, decapitated and quartered 
by a negro hangman and valets. His head and limbs Avere salted. 

* According to Sr. Pascual, tlie Juiz de Fora rode before liim. 


The former, of •svhicli poets have since sung as the " Cabeca do 
IMartyr," was sent in a cask, and much decomposed, with an 
escort of dragoons to Ouro Preto, and placed upon a tall post 
(poste alto) which then stood at the north-eastern corner of the 
Una Direita, fronting the main square. The windows were 
decked, and all the citizens were compelled to attend and shout 
"vivas" for the Queen. It is related that his brother, a priest,* 
shrank from the spectacle, and was compelled by force to stand and 
look and hurrah with the rest. His arms were sent to Parahyba and 
Barbacena, his legs were nailed to wooden posts (postes altos) on 
the Minas road, in the Sitio of the Varginha and the Freguezia 
dc CeboUas,t "where the criminal had sowed the seed of revolu- 
tion, and had committed his abominable practices." As he was a 
lodger, the value of the house was granted, but not paid, to its 
proprietor ; it was ordered to be razed and thrown into the river, 
and the site to be ploughed and planted with salt, " that never 
again on that spot there might be building;" but interest pre- 
served it. A Padriio,! or Stone Column of Infiimy, was set up, 
and this remained till 1821, when the citizens, excited by the new 
Constitution, assembled and abated the nuisance by pulling it 
down. In future days there will be a Mausoleum on this spot. 
At present Brazilians think little of these national glories ; even 
the hill of Ypii-anga has no monument to mark it amongst hills. 

Thus tragically and with blood ended the " comedy," in the 
same year that witnessed the decapitation of the Bourbon " son of 
St. Louis;" and hardly had a single generation passed away when 
the Tree of Liberty and Independence, watered by the blood of 
the Republican Tira-dentes, shot up and overshadowed the land. 
Twenty-nine years after the savage scene above described the wild 
plain of the execution became the Rocio now laiown as the Pra^a 
da Constituicao, and in sight of the spot where the gibbet was 
planted rises the statue of the first Constitutional Emperor of the 

Brazil, the Man of Ypiranga. 


* Tira-dentes had tvo In-others wlio were us that Da Garaa's annada was supplied 

priests. with them. 

f This phxce is on tlie road from Minas According to Sr. Pascual, wlio is, I 

to Parahyba do Sid. It now belongs to the Ijelieve, in error, the head was placed in an 

Deputy Sr. Martinho de Campos. iron cage (gaiola dc ferro), and mounted 

4: The word is a corruption of Pcdrao, a upon a Padrao. He also relates that the 

large stone. In the heroic days of Portu- brotlier of Tira-dentes, at 2 a.m.. May 20, 

guese discovery these columns were planted 1792, placed within the cage a stone with the 

by the adventurers, who thus took possession symbolical inscription, "30/, "Emvunah." 
of the soil for the Grown, and Camoes teUs 

VOL. I. A A 

354 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxv. 

The Riia de S. Jose, be3'ond the widening where the proto- 
martyr lived, has a good modern macadam ; it contrasts with 
the rest of the city, where the cruel pebbles are like our cobble 
stones — one seems to be "walking upon eye-balls." This main 
artery of the AYestern Quarter, the BauTo de Ouro Preto, shows 
the usual style of house, shop and store. The walls rise as if 
made of cards, straight from the ground, and in some of them a 
lower coloured band two or three feet deep resembles an external 
wainscot. Upon the roofs one line of tiles is placed convex, 
overlapping its concave neighbom-, and the edges are closed with 
mortar ;* joists from the wall support a* horizontal planldng 
upon which rest the eaves extended to defend the foundation ; 
the underpart is finished with boarding and whitewashed, and if 
the house is of a Janota or dandj^, the under edges of the tiles 
are painted vermilion. There are no tubes of derivation, and 
spouts large as an average hose pleasantly play upon yovu- hat or 
your umbrella. Street hteratm'e hardly exists, signboards are 
rare and quaint, and the shops still preserve the homelj^ little 
glass cases hung up to the jambs by day and taken down at night. 
The stores being ground-floor, tailors, shoe-makers, and artisans 
work at the doorway, or at the door-hke windows which reach 
the ground, and employ half their time m chattmg with the 
passing friend. English shops are common, and there is, as 
usual in these depot towns, a small retail trade in everything that 
the mule trooper or the backwoodsman requires. I saw little of 
the deca}" Avhich Mr. AValsh describes in 1829, and which made 
travellers declare that Villa Rica had become Villa Pobre. After 
the right-angled parallelograms, so offensive to the warped eye of 
the European traveller,! which characterise the new settlements 
of the Brazil, Ouro Preto has as much misshapen cmwatm-e and 
narrowness as can be desired. There will be every picturesque 
difficulty for water drainage and gas — somewhat a heavy price to 
pay for crookedness. 

* A Chinese (style. So the Kiaiis of througli. It is an excellent hint to tra- 

Borneo ( ' ' Life in the Forests of the Far vellers where bamboos aboimd. 
East," by Siicnser St. John, London, f I confess to admiring above all things 

Smith and Elder. 1862. Vol. I. p. 263) a perfectly straight street, with a vei-tical 

split their Ijamboos in two, arrange the swelling or depression, especially when there 

canes side by side with their concavities is a sag that allows the eye to fall upon it. 

upward to catch the rain ; then a row is Nor can it be presumed that a man is horn 

placed convex to cover the edges of the with a taste for crooked streets and unpa- 

others and prevent the water dripping rallelogramic squares. 


Amongst the foreigners here established, we found an English- 
man, Mr. Saul Spiers and his family. He dealt in jewellery and 
such matters generally, and here we saw specunens of the Minas 
topaz, of Avhich the older authors, beginning with John Mawe, 
have left such careful descriptions. Here were three common 
varieties of this stone so rich in flaws, the wine-coloured, the 
brilliant straw-3'elloAV, and the almost white ; under the influence 
of " Fashion," and of extensive falsification, they soon became 
a drug in the markets of Europe, and are noAv no longer dug or 
indeed used except by watch makers. A few skins of ounces and 
wolves were i)rocurable, but in the cities they are rare and very 
expensive. We also met Mr. David Morritzsohn, a German, 
once a shareholder in the land that now contains the Morro 
Velho Mine ; he is now a delegate of the French Consulate at 
Eio de Janeu'o. Further on is the best hotel, the Quatro Nacoes, 
kept bj' a Frenchman. 

From the main street a long leg to the left or south leads to 
the hole in which is built N'' S^ do Pilar de Ouro Preto, the 
]\Iatriz of this Quarter. The material of the old and primitive 
missionary pile is whitewashed stone and mud, with pilasters of 
grey-3'ellow sandstone and capitals painted chocolate. The main 
entrance fronting westward is somevrhat bowed to the front,* and 
adorned with two columns of the jNIinas-Ionic, banded in the 
centre and resting upon an architectural nothing. Glass appears 
only in the facade, a calico-strip defends the rose-light, and the 
bell-towers are half-finished. The only praiseworthy parts are 
the old doors of solid wood, and these want washing and painting. 

My wife, who entered the Matriz, describes it as being egg- 
shaped ; round the upper part is a gallery openmg into the body 
by four arches on each side, and one for the choir over the door. 
The ceiling of antique wood-work is carved and gilt, painted and 
frescoed ; a curious box suggesting Punch and Judy, and hung 
near the choir between Heaven and Earth, contains the organ. 
There are two handsome pulpits, and four silver lamps dangle 
before the six side altars ; the latter are of ancient taste, carved 
into angels and other grotesque figures.! A coat of arms well cut 

* Here called " forma oitavada. " No. 3. A large Crucifix; SSo Miguel; 

t On the right are, — Sao Francisco de Paula, and 

No. 1. N»s S"' dos Passes and da.s Dorcs ; Santa Boavcutura — Saint Good 

Sao Joao IJaptista and S'* Rita. Luck, for whose mystery I liave 

No. 2. S'" Anna and Virgin ; Sao Jose a respect verging upon adora- 

com Mcnino Deus and Sao tion. 

Joaquim. On the left are, — 

A A -Z 

356 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BEAZlL. [chap. xxxV. 

in stone is placed near the ceiling over the Sanctuary rails. The 
Sanctuary, a mass of carved and gilt wood, has four tribunes ; 
amongst its frescoes is a Last Supper on the ceiling, and tapers 
burn in large silver candlesticks in presence of the B^ Sacrament. 
The High Altar has a throne for the Santissima, surmounted on 
ordinary- occasions by a statue of the Patroness, N^ S* do Pilar, 
over whose head a crown is held by two angels ; she is ade- 
quately supported b_y S. Pedro and S. Francisco de Borgia. 

South of the Matriz, lined with tottering steep-roofed houses, 
is the Campo do Manejo or parade ground, a kind of Praia or 
river-beach at the junction of the Corrego de Ouro Preto into the 
Funil stream from the south-west, and the latter has the honour 
of being named as the source of the great Rio Doce. The two 
form the Ribeirao do Carmo, Bio Vermelho or Marianna Biver. 
It rushes down a crack, a deep dark passage evidently draining 
an old lake or pond, which now appears to be a mere widening 
in the sandy bed. This place was once enormously rich ; early 
in the present century, 12,000 slaves worked there, and the 
diggings supported the population of 30,000 souls. Even in 
Gardner's time, the half-naked ''faiscador" could make a 
shilling a day by panning the sand and gravel, after removing 
the larger stones ; now he may " dive" for ever like a duck, but 
he will find nothing.* 

Beyond the Manejo, a turn to the north leads to the N* S" do 
Bosario de Ouro Preto ; f like the other churches, it is built upon 
a platform that levels the sloping ground. The body is divided 
into a pair of ba^'s, the portico with stout piers is defended b}^ a 
wooden railing painted red, and the space in front shows a 
fountain and a stone cross. Further to the east, a hill-top is 

No. 1. N" Sa da Concei^fto ; the Guar- canjica, which again is less than the peijito, 

dian Angel ( Anjo de Guarda), or nugget. The washer is called faiscador, 

with S'" Isabel and the Menino and as his work is mostly imder water he 

Deus, all together ; and Sao is said to niergulhar, or dive. 

Sebastiao. + In the other quarter there is another 

No. 2. N» S» da Terra ; S'* Ursula, N« S" do Rosario, called do Alto. It was 

Queen of the glorious Eleven once very rich in plate, which has now dis- 

Thousand ; Silo Francisco de appeared. The tale is that the negro gold- 

Assis, and Sao Domingos. diggers, who mostly aifect this invocation, 

No. 3. Santo Antonio and Menino Deus ; were allowed by their masters at the annual 

Sao Vicento de Ferreira, and October fete of their patroness to load their 

Sao Gon9alo. wool with precious dust, and to wash it off 

* Faisca de Ouro, X'rimarily meaning a in the holy-water stoup. When 12,000 to 

spark, is applied to a flattened particle or 14,000 men thus did, the "Golden Fleece" 

spangle of gold ; it is oi)posed to Pisca de must have been no myth. 
Ouro, a grain of gold smaller than the 


crowned with the Church of S. Jose ; it has a single central 
tower, a clock stationar}- at 4*37, a heap of sand at the entrance, 
and one old man at work. Thence a long and steep paved ramp 
leads to the S. Francisco de Paula, upon which a man and a hoy 
— the}' suggested Trafalgar Square — were putting a fresh front. 
There is no general panorama of Ouro Preto huried between its 
great parallel ranges, we must view it little by little, and here is 
a fine prospect of the AVestern Quarter limited by the two- 
towered chapel, Sr. Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, in the place 
called *' As Cabecas." 

Now going further north we cross a small stream by the 
" Pontilliao do Xaviers," a single arch ; there is a good quarry 
of "freestone" up the ravine. Eastward lies a yellow ochre 
building, the barracks (Quartel) of the Police, once 600 strong, 
now volunteering in Paraguay. Their place is being taken by a 
new lev}', which as yet numbers only 220. They are kno'wn by 
blue coats and red edgings (vivos), wliicli for the National Guard 
are white, or fancy colour. Ouro Preto, being a capital, has its 
little troop of galley-slaves, who are seen in the streets working 
at the pavement under a master-mason. They do not beg hke 
the Tuscan galeotto, but each man requires a guard, and beyond 
smoking and lomiging, they do very little throughout the Brazil. 
Tlus penalty, re-invented in the days of Charles VII., and made 
fosliionable by Louis le Grand, wants extensive modification. 

To complete the circle round the Baii-ro de Ouro Preto, we 
leave on the right a small single-towered temple, N''^ S'* das 
Merces (de Ouro Preto), whose facade bears a gilt figm'e and the 
inscription, "Ego Mater Pulchr^e DUectionis." To the south 
lies the cemetery of the brotherhood, abundant in weeds. The 
other tertiary orders of the cajiital- are S. Francisco de Assis ; 
S. Francisco de Paula, and N^ S'^ do Carmo. We are now 
behind the Palace in the upper town, and we descend to the lower 
by a long stone ramp running to the west. The only remarkable 
building here is the " Quartel da Guarnicao fixa," a misnomer, 
as that garrison has gone to the war; the exterior is painted 
yellow, and inside is a hollow square, worse than the Scutari 
hospital in its worst days. 

Physically Ouro Preto is unworthy of the vast Province which 
it commands ; even in S. Paulo it would be onl}- a second-rate 
town. The straggling and overgrown mining village numbers 

358 THE HIGHLANDS OP THE BRAZIL. [chap. xxxv. 

6000 to 10,000 sovils,* in 1500 houses. During its palmy clays, 
between 1723 to 1753, the census gave 2400 tenements, and 
30,000 inhabitants, of whom two-thirds were slaves ; in 1800 it 
had ah-eady fallen to 19,000 to 20,000. In 1865 the wliites Avere 
six to one black, now they are seven to one, and everything 
shows that the climate is not suited for the African. 

Amongst its many disadvantages we may observe that carriages 
cannot be used, and that even riding is not safe in the city ; 
there is no ground for extension, the streets are too narrow for 
rails, and the country is unfit for the iron horse. Hence we 
have the sights and sounds of a capital, the fair sex dressed in 
French toilettes, — • 

*' Gents corps, jolis, pards tres richement." 

Officers and men in uniform, civil and military, orderlies riding 
about, bells, guard-momiting, bugle sounds, and music eccle- 
siastic and militar}', wliilst perhaps listening to the band stands 
some old negress habited in male cloak, with rusty cliimney pot 
hat proudly perched upon a dingy kercliief. Literature can 
hardly be said to flourish when the Ouro-Pretanos cannot kee^j 
up a single bookseller's sliop.t The late Abbe and energetic 
President, Councillor Joaquim Saldanha Marinho, has reformed 
the educational establishments and created five " Externatos." 
We have visited one at Sao Joao d'El Rei ; the others are at 
Ouro Preto, Companha, Sahara, and Minas Novas. This has 
been an incalculable benefit. The illumination is poor, worse 
even than that of Sao Paulo ; each lamp should be equal to six 
not to three stearine candles, and man}' of the posts are lying on 
the ground. The lands around it are unproductive, the gold- 
veined mountains cannot be worked except by companies, and 
the city is not wealthy. In Ouro Preto I did not see a single 
gold coin, and but for its minor industries it would resemble our 
miserable English colony on the Gold Coast. The city lives by 
the sweat of other brows, by its profession as a capital, and by 

* I should prefer the number 8000. At Mathematics, and Pharmacy. The Botani- 

the same time there is a consideralilo cal Gardens, which, under the General 

floating population, and on special occasions Government, once spread 20,000 lbs. of 

it may reach 10,000. tea about the country, have been let for 

+ In IS-tO the Provincial Assembly esta- 200 $000 'pev annum to a private propric- 

blished a preparatory college, with chairs tor. The people are fond of music, but that 

for Latin, French, English, Philosophy, is everywhere tho case in the Brazil. 


the money which the Government expends upon its employees, 
making the Province comphiin of " Empregocracia." Being on 
the thoroughfare between the Imj)erial metropolis and the 
Diamantine District, it has a certam amount of small commerce, 
hut this agam is not lilvely to last. The sooner another site for 
a capital is found the better, but it is not easy, I have already 
said, to point out a central locality suitable for the purpose. 



Tu formosa Marilia, ja fizeste 

Com teus olhos ditosas as campinas 

Do turvo ribeirao em que nasceste. — ( Gonxaga, Lyra xxis.) 

On the other and far side of the bridge, where the city looks like 
a bit of old Abbeville, is the House of Millions* (Casa dos Contos), 
now the Thesoiu'o, or the (Imperial) Treasury by excellence. It was 
built, as was the Commendador's house, by one Joao Rodriguez de 
Macedo, a very rich and important citizen, who kept open doors 
and lived in splendour. Lilie many others, he ruined himself by 
taking the contract of the "Disimos" or Tithes, which were 
confii-med by Pontifical Brief to the King of Portugal as Grand 
Master of the Order of Christ ; and his debts threw his property 
into the tender hands of Government. He died almost mad and 
in penury. It is a fine large substantial jjile, with bindings of 
grey stone, heavy balconies, and a Mirador or belvedere on the 
top. Below on the right is the CoUectoria, where the provincial 
export dues are collected ; on the left is the Branch Establish- 
ment of the Bank of Brazil,! whose President is Dr. Mar9al, 
and behind it is the Post Office. En passant we were shown the 
place of Dr. Claudio Manoel's death. In the upper story is the 
General or Imperial Treasury, with all its complicated staff, 
inspector, chiefs of sections, writers first, second, and third, suj)er- 
numerary writers (praticantes) and others ; half a dozen to do 
the work of one — " loafing about" not included. 

Thence we ascend the Piua dos Contos, a long straight ramp 
which sets out to the south-east, passing on the left a fountain, 

* A name given by the people in the notes of the Banco do Brazil. I would as 

days when gold was lodged there. willingly give other details ; unhappily the 

+ " Caixa Filial do Banco do Brazil." Treasurer promised punctually to supply 

The capital was from the beginning and them to me, and as punctually neglected to 

still is 100:000$000 (say £10,000), in do so. 


one of the thirteen or fourteen in the city. It is curiously 
inscribed : — 

Is qua3 potcatiim cole gens pleno ore Seuatu 
Securi ut sitis a am (sic) facit ille sitis. 

The water is better than the Latinit3\ On the right is a gay- 
looking building, the Mesa das Rendas, lately made a Provincial 
Treasury, showing a wilderness of clerks who, pen behind ears 
like the Secretary bird, work hard at the statistics of street 

The Rua Direita or High Street, whicli turns sharp east, is 
very steep and slipper}^, with narrow trottoirs. At the top is the 
Pra^a,* the square, there being no other. It is a long paral- 
lelogram sloping to the centre, whicli shows a monument to the 
Martyrs of Independence, lately built by subscription. It some- 
what unpleasantly resembles the pillory of ancient days,t and 
Ave could not judge of base or capital, because both were en 
papillotes. It wants a figm"e of Liberty, Poetry or the Indian, 
"Brazil," or some. other pretty heathen, for although a pillar 
supporting a statue is bad enough, a column that supports 
notliing is worse. + On the north is the Presidential Palace, § 
finished by the Brigadier of Ai-tillery, Jose Fernandes Pinto 
Alpoim, mentioned in the " Uruguay ;" the scientific artillerist 
was also architect of the Viceregal, now the Imperial Palace at 
Bio de Janeii'o. This Government House formerly accom- 
modated the Gold Intendency in the lower part ; the front looks 
like a " chateau-fort," a dwarf curtain connects two triflmg 
bastions of the Vauban age, and its popguns used to overawe the 
exceedingly tumultuous town. The normal long stone ramp 
leads up to the entrance, which bears the Imperial arms and a 
gigantic " auri-verd banner." Here we called at the reception 
house between 11 a.m. and 1 p.m., upon the senior Vice-President 
and acting President, Dr. Elias Pinto Carvalho, a ''liberal 
Historico," corresponding with our old Whig, born at Cruvello, 
and formerly Juge de Droit at Sahara. We were received in a 
fine large sala, with the inevitable sofa and double perpendicular 

* Or Pra§a Publica. There are five f The tradition is that the head of the 

Largos, or "PLaces," in the English, not heroic dentist was here placed — an error, 
the French, sense — mere widenings in the J Dr. Muzzio informs me that the Indian 

streets. Of tlie hitter thirty-five are breaking his chains, who was to appear 
counted. iipon the flag, will take station here, 

§ Palacio do Governo. 

362 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxvi. 

liiie of cliaii's ; there was little to remark but the inordinate size 
of the "huge half-bushel-measui'e spittoons." His Excellency 
promised to forward my jom'ney, and really took the trouble to 
write a long list of introductorj^ letters, a kindness which I 
hai'dly expected, and for which I beg to express my sincere 
gTatitude. At tlie Palace I also met the Secretary to Govern- 
ment, Dr. H. 0. Muzzio, whose name has appeared in these 
pages. He is deeply read in poetry, and esj)ecially in the history 
of the "Inconfidencia;" to him my readers owe the first detailed 
and coiTect account of this great historical episode which has 
ever appeared in England. 

We then visited the " Pa9o de Assemblea Legislativa Provincial" 
on the north-east of the square. The hall was large and in good 
repair', with seats for the President and the two Secretaries, 
facing as usual the semi-circle of deputies' desks ; the public 
accommodation was very limited, an advisable precaution where 
discussion is apt to be exciting. South of the *'Pa9o" is a plain 
house, the Camara Mmiicipal. The southern side of the square 
is occupied by a fine solid old building, the prison ; * the Mineiros 
declare de Om'o Preto a Cadea e agua — the best things at Ouro 
Preto are the water and the jail — the}' boast of it as the finest in 
the Empii'e ; perhaps it was, but now it cannot comj)are with the 
newly established Houses of Correction. On the ground is a 
fountain with a long insciiption, and a double flight of stairs 
runs up to the guarded entrance, flanked by baiTed windows. 
The first and second stories have Ionic pillars, with huge and 
ponderous volutes, and around the top is a massive stone balus- 
trade, with a statue of Justice and other virtues at each corner ; 
nor has the lightning rod been neglected. The prisoners are 454 
men and 12 women, a notable difference. We visited in the 
upper story, the infirmary and the rooms for recruits disposed to 
desert ; the di-ainage has lately been improved, but there was stiU 
something to do in the way of cleanliness. The inmates showed 
more industry than usual, and the head keeper, Sr. Joaquim 
Pinto Eosa, wisely makes all his jail-bii'ds learn some handicraft. 
He ascended with us the winding staii'case of the tall central 
clock-tower, and from the leads we enjoyed a curious prospect. 

The shape of the Golden City, or rather of what part we see, 

* Tlie old Bastille was in the middle of tlie .sqi;are ; no vestiges of it now remain. 


is that of a huge serpent, whose biggest girth is about the Pra^a, 
which also represents the Court or West-end. The extremities 
stretch two good miles, with raised convolutions, as snakes have 
in old books. The site is the lower slope of the Serra de Sao 
Sebastiao, drained by the Funil in its break : this subrange is 
part of the " Ouro Preto " line, extending two leagues from east to 
west."^' The " streeting " of both upper and lower town is very- 
tangled, and the old thoroughfares, mere " wynds " and " chares," 
show how valuable once Avas building ground. Some fifteen 
churches,! mostly rise on detached and conspicuous points, 
and thus gain an appearance of elderly consequentialness. 
The houses hanging about the picturesque ravine, as near to 
the old mine-lake as possible, have necessarily one side taller 
than the other. Polychrome has the best effect : there are all 
varieties of coloui's, even the Imperial — gold and green — wliilst 
one tenement is faced with imitation brickwork, white, red, 
and yellovY\ 

All the view is hilly and " goldy," turned up and rummaged by 
the miner. Immediately south the Morro do Cruzeiro bears its 
cross, and here lies the highway to Pio de Janeiro. The gem of 
the prospect lies a few steps to the south, where we see upon the 
horizon, rising above its mountain wall, Itacolumi, the " Stone 
and Pappoose."! A tall black monolith projects its regular form 
against the sk}^ bending at an angle of 45°. By its side is a 
comparatively diminutive block, which the red men, pictm'esque 
in illiterate language, compared with a child standing near its 
mother. Perhaps the name alludes to some forgotten metamor- 
phosis of Indian fable, and, perhaps again, this is the idea of some 
Mineiro poet who had not forgotten his bird. The slopes culmi- 
nating in this apex are here bald, there grass-clad ; tall Ai'aucarias 
tell the severity of the cold, and if a cloud exist in the sky it is 
sure to find out "Itacolumi." 

Deep in the hollow at the mountain foot, and backed by shad}' 
trees, is an iminteresting building, long, low, tiled and white- 

* The substance is micaceous quartzose was suppressed. They declare that liis 

slate, resting on micaceous slate, with clay salary of 1: 4:00$ 000 per annum was earned 

shale at intervals. Some travellers mention by celebrating one mass per fortnight, 

a base of gneiss, but I did not see this. Caldcleugh mentions twelve churches. 

f There is at present an excessive J The name reminds us of the ' ' Cow 

economy of priests at Ouro Preto, only and Calf" at Ben Rhydding," which has 

one-third being allowed to each church. no right to the "Ben." But how homely 

About 1S66 Padre Franga, the Chaplain of is the English compared with the Indian 

the Police, who also attended the prison, simile. 


washed — veiT like a comfortable farm-house. Here lived and 
died "Marilia," whose profane name was D. Maria Joaquina 
Dorothea de Seixas Brandao, the local Hero, Beatrice, Laura, or 
Natercia, and who narrowly escaped being the Heloise of Minas.* 
She was niece of Lieutenant-Colonel Joao Carlos Xavier da Silva 
Ferrao, an aide-de-camp (adjudante d'ordens) to the Governor. 
Books tell us that she was a " descendant from one of the 
principal families in the land," f but tliis is denied by some at 
Ouro Preto. Born in 1765, at sweet fifteen she was promised 
by her uncle, a stamich Boyalist, to the poet Gonzaga, then aged 
forty-foui", and there is a legend that her beauty hastened the 
tragical denouement of the " Inconfidencia." A certain Colonel 
Montenegro, t when "jawab'd," as the Anglo Lidian says, 
taunted her with preferrmg to a "gentleman of fortune and 
position," a poor " man Avho wrote books." She, girl-like, lost 
her temper, and retorted that she preferred brains to money and 
Montenegro. The latter denounced by letter the conspu'acj^ to the 
Viscount of Barbacena, who turned pale, placed the paper upon 
the table, and left the room. His cousin, Fr. Lourenco, the 
hermit of the Cani^a, liapi)ened to be present ; the missive was 
blown to the floor, and the friar, picking it up, saw all at a 
glance. He retired, sent for his friends in haste, told them 
the treacher}^, and advised them to ^y. They, however, hurried on 
the movement, and rushing armed into the streets, attemj)ted to 
raise the cry of Libert^'. The Governor, who being inti- 
mate vnih many of the accused, had, according to his party, 
determined to retire from his post, was thus compelled to take 
action. § This tale is not told in any of the voluminous writings 

* Tlie first two parts of Gonzaga's Pas- the first couplet of LjTa, — • 

torals (Amores and Saudades) are entitled Eu, Marilia, nao sou algum vaqueiro, 

" Dirceu de Marilia," i.e., to Dirceu fi-om Que viva de guardar alheio gado. 

Marilia, and are thus "attributed" to the f '^^^ same is asserted Ly the Visconde 

lady. They are, however, the answers to, de Barbacena, May 23, 1789. Moreover, 

and echoes of, the second three jjarts, the arms of the family are well known. 

' ' Marilia de Dirceu, " i. e. , to Marilia from J The reader will bear in mind that all 

Dirceu, and it is generally believed that this is merely local tradition. I record it 

they are the work of the editor, an unworthy on account of its wide diffusion in popular 

mystification. D. Maria probably never belief. 

wrote a line of verse, or perhaps ijrose, in § This certainly does not aj^pear in the 

her life. "Marilia" is evidently Amaryllis, Secret Correspondence of the Viscount of 

and thus that well-known Brazilian Latinist, Barbacena with the Viceroy D. Luiz de 

Dr. Antonio de Castro Lopes, translates by Vasconcellos and with the Court of Lisbon. 

The Franciscan chronicler before alluded to, 

Eusticus haud, Amaryllis, ego, uec sole, cm-iously defends Barbacena by declaring 

geluque that "he never was guilty of extortion, 

Torridus, alterius qui seiTem armenta, and he governed Minas as Caligula ruled 

bubulcus : Rome." 


upon the " Inconfidencia," but I heard it eveiywhere in Minas, 
even upon the banks of the Sao Francisco River. 

Haplessly for the romance, Heloise was notably unfaithful to 
Abelard, as Abelard was faithless to Heloise.* The lovers whom 
" death could not part," and whose written protestations of con- 
stancy are legion, sepai'ated after the discovery of the rebellion : 
this is easily explained : amongst the Inconfidentes there had been 
some little talk of removing the stern aide-de-camp's head. They 
were, however, allowed to meet and bid farewell for ever — the 
scene is said to have been painful. And both did worse things. 
A certain Dr. Queiroga, Ouvidor of Ouro Preto, had the honour 
of supplanting, but not with a legal tender, the poet Gonzaga. 
By him I). INIaria Dii'ceu, as she was called, had three children : 
Dr. (M.D.) Anacleto Teixeira de Queiroga; D. Maria Joaquina 
and D. Dorothea, all blue-eyed and light-haired. At Oiu-o Preto 
she is now best knoAvn perhaps as the Mai do Doutor Queiroga. 
In later 3'ears she lived retired, never left the house except for 
the church, and died (1853), aged eighty. Since that event the 
family has quitted Ouro Preto, and none could say where it had 
gone. She never would pronounce her lover's name, especially 
shunning the subject with strangers. On her death-bed she said 
to her confessor, " He (elle) was taken from me when I was 
seventeen." Those who knew her well described her as short of 
stature, and retaining in age finely formed features, and "a 
bocca risonha e breve " — the short smiling mouth — they agreed 
that her ej^es were blue, and that her hair, which was white, had 
been meio-louro, blonde or light chestnut. Her lover, curious to 
say in four places, makes her locks the "hue of jetty night," and 
in four others, " crisp threads of gold," and the author of the 
favourite edition of the Lyras defends him as only friends can 

* That is begging her right to the name the sighs of his lyre, all the tears, all tho 

of Heloise. The young and lamented torments of his misfortunes, whilst she 

author, A. P. Lopes de Mendonga (Memo- continued to live careless and indifferent, 

rias de Litteratura Contemi)oran9a, p. 37.5), She never thought of going to console him, 

is unjustly severe upon the hapless Marilia, of going to live with him, of going to 

not because she was unfaithful, but because die with him ! women ! women ! " 

she lived to the age of eighty-four (eighty). Moreover, he suspects that she used cold- 

" This man, this poet, tliis tender soul, this cream. 

passionate heart, this austere republican, "(0 t Marilia de Dirceu, Lyras de Thomaz 

this illustrious victim, this martjT to love Antonio Gonzaga, precedidos de uma noticia 

and native laml, lived through fifteen years biljliographica, e do Juizo Critico dos Auc- 

of exile in IMozambique, far from lier, far tores Estrangeiros c Nacionaes, e das LjTas 

from the bride to whom he had devoted all escriptas em resposta as suas, e accompaa- 

366 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxvl 

From the Praca we descended the Eua do Ouvidor to the 
south-east, and at a corner where four streets meet, frontmg the 
Eua dos Paulistas, we remarked that the historic house of 
Claudio Manuel still wants the commemorative tahlet. Perhaps 
the Ouro Pretanos think with the Greek that 'Avbpwv iirKJiavSiv 
iraaa yr} Tacpos. AVell does it deserve to hear a quotation from 
Plutarch, ' ' Vita, dignissimus est, quique morte sua patriae 
salutem quferit. It is a small five-windowed corner building, 
yellow, with green balconies. At the entrance is a dwarf hall ; up- 
stau's is a little square room with whitewashed walls, the studio 
of Vasconcellos,* and a second apartment, very similar, built round 
with old-fashioned brick seats, opens upon a roofed terrace or broad 
verandah. Here the Inconfidentes met to discuss then- poetry, 
their projects, and their* political aspu-ations ; and from it there is 
an uninterrupted vicAV to the home of D. Maria in the hollow. 

The house began its life of fame by its connection with the 
"Eevolution of the Tlu'ee Poets," as the movement is still called 
by the people. They are Gonzaga, Claudio Manuel, and Colonel 
Ignacio Jose de Alvarenga Peixoto,! a man of the noblest 
character, a philosopher and a poet of " intemperate imagination," 
but perhaps the least high-seated in the Portuguese Parnassus of 

hadas de Document os Historicos. Por J. Rio de Janeiro in 1748, he studied at 

Norberto de Souza Silva. Two yoIs., 8vo. Coimbra, and served the Crou-n as a niagis- 

Garnier, Talis, e Rio de Janeiro, 1862. trate at Cintra. Tlience lie returned home 

It is severely criticised by the scrupulous inl776, and became Ouvidor in theComarca 

and jiainstaking Dr. ]\rello iMoraes (Choro- of the Rio das Mortes. He preferred, 

graphia do Brazil, torn. iv. p. 612, of 1802), however, retiring into the co\mtry and 

who charges the editor with the additions writing verses, which were highly esteemed 

before alluded to, and many Musgi-avean by the amiable and liberal Viceroy, the 

corrections and conjectural emendations. Marquess de Lavradio. With a wife and 

As regards the important question of the four young children, he honouralily sacri- 

colour of Marilia's hair, Sr. Norberto ficed domestic happiness at the call of his 

remarks, certainly not in favoiu- of his country and his friends. On Ajiril 18, 

IJoet, that " loiiro " (blonde) rhjTnes well 1792, he was sentenced to death, which on 

with " ouro" and "tliesouro," qnoting the May 2 was commuted to transportation for 

Spanish sarcasm, — life, with confiscation of goods and attaint 

_, , , . , i„ ,„„ „io;^„e. of issiie to the second generation. -He 

Fuerza del consonante, a lo que obligas -i^ai' -ai ii 

1 , 1 ,' 1 1, • „, aiTived at Ambaca, in Angola, a broken - 

One haces, que sean blancas las horraigas. ,_, , i •. i • i i •* i • i 

^ ' ' hearted, white-haired man, white-haired 

Anglicc. when aged only forty-four, and tliere he 

Fault of the rhyme's compelling might, jied early in 1793. An ode inscribed to 

That turns the ant from black to white. D. Maria I., another to Tombal, and a 

The original ^IS. was not (as is generaUy third in honour of his Alma Mater Coimbra, 

said) Inirned by D. Maria ; a copy in MS. are admired as musical, facile in rhjtne, 

was given by her family to Dr. Jose Vieira ant^ abounding in tranquil beauty. ^ They 

Couto de Magalhaes, actual President of ^vill long be quoted m Coui;s de Litterature 

Mate GroBso and Chrestomathics ; the Parnasso Brasi- 

* Mr. Walsh ii. 214. 1^^™ ('^'°1- ^- 322—339) has given copious 

t The pastoral Alceu of Claudio Manuel, extracts from his other compositions, 
who called him cousin (prime). Bom at 


the present daj'. There were two others more or less concerned 

in the affaii", namely, Manuel Ignacio de Silva Alvarenga,* and 

Dr. Dommgos Vidal de Barhoso, who was banished for life to 

West Africa, and who died there also in 1793. This celebrated 

quintette may be called the heads of the Minas school. 

In tliis house Gonzaga, the central figure of the poetic group, 

used to pass his time embroidering weddmg-garments for D. 

Maria and himself, f Lately some of his letters have been found, 

ordering silk thread from various merchants. He was born at 

Oporto in August, 1744, and was there baptised on September 2. 

The Brazil claims him, as his father was a Brazilian official, and 

he himself calls the colony liis home. 

Por deixar os patrlos Lares 
Nao me pesa o sentimento.f 

■ And he mentions his youth having been spent at S. Salvador 

da Baliia, 

Pintam que os mares sulco da Bahia 
Onde passei a flor da IMinlia idade,§ 

He studied law at Coimbra, he took magisterial office at Beja 
and other places in Portugal, and finally he became Ouvidor of 
Villa Rica — m those days a more important person than the Presi- 
dent in tliese. His approaching marriage delayed him for two 
or three years, and he hngered even after he had been appointed 
Desembargador, or one of the Judges of the Supreme Court at 
Bahia, a delay Avhich told strongly against him. The general 
belief is that the home government, whose consent to the union 
was then necessary, hesitated to give leave, because it did not 
wish the poet's influence to be settled in Minas. A legend still 
told within these walls, and I believe it is true, makes a muffled 
figure on the night of ]May 17, 1789, warn him of the approach- 
ing storm. He paid no regard to it : on the 22nd he dined at 
home in the Rua de Ouvidor i| with his friends, and on the next 
day all were under arrest. 

* He has been noticed in Chapter li. § Vol. ii. Part 2, Lyra 7, — 
f Aqui um lengo 

Eu te borclava. ' ' They (ih-cams) paint luc ploughing through 

"For thee a kerchief I did enibroidcr. " ^ Bahian seas,— 

Pai-tL, " Amorcs/;.LjTa 10. The words ^''^''^' ^^^^^""^ ^^^ ^^''^^ ^^^^^ « fl°^^ ^''^t 

iilhulc tQ the i^oet's occupation, but the oomet . 

author-editor places them in the mouth of y Qn the left-hand side going do^-n. It 

^''^+ (f"i •• p q T o "^'^^ *^^ °^''^ residence of the Ouvidore.s, or 

J \ ol. II. Fart 3, Lyra o, Chief Justices, and is now a police office. 
"To leave my own paternal Lares, 
Little of regret I feel." 

368 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxvl. 

Gonzaga * was sent with the other accused to Eio de Janeiro. 
His friends were phiced in the prison where the Chamber of 
Dei^iities noAV stands : he was confined in a dungeon (masmorra) 
in the Ilha das Cobras, and afterwards in the houses of the Third 
Order of Francisco da Penitencia. Dming his 1095 daj's of 
solitude he relieved his mind by scrawlmg upon his dungeon 
walls with desperate charcoal, candle or torch soot, and an 
orange-stick. He was subject to four several examinations,! 
and he complained bitterly of the virulent hatred of a private 
enemy, Basilio de Brito — now an unknown name — who had sworn 
to " follow him to the gates of death." The evidence against him 
was very confiicting, and almost wholly presumptive : at times 
hopes were held out to him, and he thought that his marriage 
might take place. He was reported to have undertaken a code 
of laws for the new Republic ; on the other hand he was affirmed 
to have quarrelled with Tii'a-dentes, and the conspirators seem 
to have looked upon him as an outsider. His sentence, finally 
issued on Ajnil 18, 1792, dwells upon the fact that he was a " man 
of lights and talents," and he was evidently- lost by his high repu- 
tation. For daring to be an eminent and intellectual mind he 
was banished for life to the Pedras de Angoche (Encoge), in West 
Africa : after the execution of Tira-dentes, the penalty was com- 
muted to ten years' transportation to the deadh"" chmate of 
Mozambique, with pain of capital punishment in case of return. 
The voice of the jieople, Avhose instincts are so true in these 
matters, has done him justice, and the favomite name of the 
movement is now the " Inconfidencia do Gonzaga." 

On May 23, 1792, the third anniversar}^ of his confinement, 
the unhappy poet left for ever, in the ship N^ S* da Concei9ao 
Princeza de Portugal, the shores of his loved Brazil. At the 
pestiferous Mozambique his life was miserable, he tried vainly to 
practise law, and he lost the gift of poetry. + He forgot " Marilia 
bella," or perhajis on the principle " Saudades de mullier so 
mullier mata," six months after landing he married a rich 
mulatto girl who had nursed him through liis fevers. " J). 
Juliana de Souza Mascarenhs " was aged nineteen, nnd signed 
her contract with a +, and she was addicted to beating her 

* Spix and Martius have erroneously 1791. 

made him Ouvidor of "S. Joao del Re}^" + Whatever he VTOte there was .stami)ed 

t These Intcrrogatorios were dated Nov. with nostalgia, and shared the decay of 

17, 1789 ; Feb. 3, 1790, and Aug. 1 and 4, his intelligence. 

cUAi'. xxxvi.] OUEO I'llETU. 369 

husband. He became almost insane, and died in 1807,* aged 
sixty-three : he Avas buried in the Cathedal of Mozambique, and 
he wrote his own epitaph in the Lyras — 

Por-ine-hrio no sepulcliro 
A lioiirosa inscripc^'rio : 
— " Se teve delicto, 
So foi a paixSo, 
Que a todos faz ivo.s.""t 

" The " Proscript of Africa " is described as a manner of 
" Tonnny Moore," a short stout figure, with blond hair, bright 
and penetrating blue eyes, and a pleasing spirituel countenance : 
his address, at once frank and courteous, Avon every heart. He 
was a dandy, delighting in battiste shirts, laces, and embroidered 
kerchiefs ; he left some forty coats, some peach-coloured, others 
parrot-green — a Avardrobe aaIucIi suggests " Goldy's " bloom- 
coloured preferences. The portrait prefixed to the favourite 
edition Avas " eliminated from the depths of his self-conscious- 
ness " by the artist, Sr. J. M. Mafra. It shows the poet A-ery 
precisely as he Avas not, tall, thin, twenty-fom*, not forty-eight, 
Avith long dark HoAving h)cks, melanclioly regular features, and 
irreproachable top-boots— in jail. 

Gonzaga is still the popular Brazilian poet, and amongst the 
Latins he Avill take rank Avith IMetastasio. Some of his l^aics 
are remarkably operatic — avIio does not remember the Italian of — ■ 

Sao estes os sitios ? 
Sao estes, mas en 
mesmo nao sou.' 

Almeida- Garrett laments his "fatal error" in not devoting him- 
self to national subjects : yet his pastorals, Hke his politics, are 
destined to a long life. His hand may eA'idently be traced in the 
Cartas Chilenas : I some judges declare that the master's touch 

* Not in 1809, as MI\[. Wolf and A. P. Nem sempre de leoes leoes se gerilo : 

Lopes dc Mendonga any. Quantas vezes as pombas e os cordeiros 

t They shall 'grave on my toml) Sao partos dos leoes, das aguias partos." 

These words of fair dealing,— AnrjUci. 

" If the crime was his doom .. j^^^ .^l„..^j.^ g.^^lgg ^j.g fj-^^ eagles sprung, 

'Twa.s hut error of feeling, ^^ jj„t ^^^.^^.^ Ufj^^ ^re by lions got ; 

AA Inch makes all to eiT. _ jj^^^ ^f^g^^ 1,.^^,^ jt ^1,^^^ ti,^ jo^gg and 

"Lyras, Aol. u. Tart 2, 1/. j.^^y,^ 

X For instance, in the following lines Are Ijorn of lions, are of eagles boni." 
("EpistolaaCritillo,"p. 25),— j ,,.^^.g jth-eady alluded to this satire, 

" Xem sempre as aguias de outnis aguias which will be read as long as there are 

nascem, pompous governors and silly men in high 

AOL. I. B B 

370 THE HTGHLA^'DS OF THE BRAZIL. [cuap. xxxvi. 

is not there, others opine that it is. He has left certain prose 
jin-idical studies, especially on usury and education, Avliich still 
remain in MSS. 

In i)oetry Gonzaga is ahva^'s as he called himself, O bom 
Dirceu. Remarkable for grace and naivete his erotics contain 
not a trace of coarseness : they are sentimental, dashed -with a 
tinge of melancholy, which of course deepens in the gloom of his 
prison. As is the case •sntli all the better Portuguese poets his 
style is remarkably correct, and his language studiously simple, 
withal sufficient. Recognizing the fotal facility of rhj-me in his 
mother tongue he binds himself, by stringent rules, in grave and 
acute consonances, rejecting the former in his most laboured 
jneces. The Lyras, like the productions of the Minas school 
generally, are hardly to be translated adequately in foreign verse.* 
The last great inhabitant of the house was the councillor and 
senator Bernardo Pereira de Yasconcellos,! whose father. Dr. Diogo 
Pereira Ptibeiro de Yasconcellos, had bought it very cheaply' when 
the heirs-at-law lost their papers. The " Franklin " or "Adams " 
of the Brazil was born at Ouro Preto, and died paralytic at Rio 
de Janeiro, leaving a history, which is that of his young country's 
libert3\ Being unmarried, he bequeathed the tenement to his 
sister, D. Dioga, of whom a terrible tale is told : she was after- 
wards married to a Frenchman, still living. Thence it passed into 
the hands of the present owner, D. Jeronymo Maxiano Nogueira 

places. It has all the mystery, and much tliem an Italian, Spanisli, and German 

of the genius, of Junius. Claudio Manuel dress {M. Ferdinand Denis, "Resume de 

and Ignacio Jose de Alvarenga Peixoto are THistoire Litteraire du Bresil," cha]). 5, 

also .suspected of having as,sisted in vTiting p. 568, and Ferdinand Wolf, Le Bresil 

the Cartas (Introduction to Cartas Chi- Litteraire, chap. 7, p. 66). Of the three 

lenas, by Luiz Francisco da Veiza. Laem- jnincipal Brazilian poets not one has yet 

mert, Rio de Janeiro, 1863). Varnhagen reached a countiy which reads thousands 

(Epicos Erasileiros, p. 401) suggests that of rhymes like these, — 

the author may have been Domingos Bar- < < ^j^^ j^ .^j p^^^ j^^^ ^ j^^^, ^.^^.^^^ ^^ ^,^^. 

boza Caldass who vas banished to the Nova ^^.out working men and the railway ; ' 

Colonia It IS the custom to depreciate ^^^ j,^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ the great Broad 

these lettei-s ; but no one can assert of the ,.„ 

.1 ' uauge, — • 

author — t i -x -u • i i " 

I hope it will increase our trade. 

" The lessons he taught mankind were few, i tt„ , j. ^i i,„ t i i -ii t ' 

. , XT, i 1 1 1 .1 1 t JHe must not be confounded with Jose 

Anu none that rouUl make them good or m • • i -o -i^ n -r-- j. 

. _ ,, " Teixeira da Fonseca V asconcellos, First 

President of Minas, and cieated Visconde 

Dr. Muzzio, who I have said is a hard de Caethg ; the latter was one of those who, 

student of poetry, believes that the Cartas on Jan. 9, 1822, elicited from D. Pedro I""" 

were written by the Minas school, and that the exclamation famed in Brazilian history 

they show the hand of Gonzaga. as "0 Fico " — " the ' I remain.' " B. P. 

MM. de Montglave and Chalas ha\c de Vasconcellos and his sister were popu- 

wisely preferred prose. M. Ruscalla, D. larly known as Jupiter and Juno. 

Eni-ir|\ie Ycdra, and JNIr. Iffland, have given 

LiiAi'. XXXVI.] OURO PHETO. 371 

Peneclo. On the right is the Casa do Mercado, with mules 
tethered in front of the Large verandah, and yellow walls. Oppo- 
site it stood the Pillory, which, some thirty years ago, was pulled 
down by some young men by way of spree. To the south of the 
little square is the Church of S. Francisco de Assis. The 
outside is handsome, but the projecting facade shows two Ionic 
pillars ungracefull}' converted into pilasters. Over the entrance 
are steatite carvings by the indefatigable ''Aleijado," showdng a 
vision of the Patron, and above is a sepulchran cross. The 
yellow doors are of solid wood, cut into the usual highly-relieved 
bosses. In the interior are the normal six side-altars, a profusion 
of i^ictures let into the whitewashed wall ; a fanciful choir 
balcony; a large ceiling fresco of Santa Maria surrounded by 
angels, and the Trinity on life-size figures of painted wood. The 
pulpits at the entrance of the sacristy are of soapstone, well cut, 
and recalling to mind the far-famed " Prentice's bracket." 

Further down to the south-east is the N'"* S'"^ das Merces dos 
Perdoes, so called to distinguish it from the other Church of 
Mercies : it is a single-towered buildmg, still unfinished outside. 
To the north-east is N^ S"* da Conceicao, the Matriz of the 
eastern parish, called *' de Antonio Dias," from the famed old 
Taubatiense, who settled here in 1699, and of whom all but the 
name is forgotten. It was once the richest church in the place, 
now it is a long whitewashed building, gilt, but mean and tawxlry. 
Here on Feb. 11, 1853, Avere deposited *' the mortal remams of 
" Maiilia formosa " — Ilosa Mundi, non Kosa Munda, whose story 
I have been compelled to strip bare of all its romance. To the 
south-east is N^ S" das Dores, and far to the east rises the Alto 
da Cruz, before mentioned. 

Returning to the Pra9a Publica AVe visit, on its west, the largest 
church in the "Imperial City of Ouro Preto," N-' S"^ do Carmo. 
Based upon a high and solid platform, it is external]}' a liugc 
barn, Avith a bay facade, decorated as to the entrance Avitli 
cherubs and floAvers in blue steatite, ^tuck on to the gre}' -yellow 
sandstone. The two belfries are of the round-square order, 
Avith pilasters Avhere corners should be. It has glass AvindoAvs, 
here a sign of opulence : the inside is remarlvable only for gaudy 

^' I am tolil in the third catxiconil) on sjhow ii iVi tliati of D. Maria ; ))ut it liad 
tlic Epistle side, a kind of family vault. cviilciitly not been worn hy an octogenarian; 
Lately, when it was opened, a skull was 

B B 2 

3/2 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BKAZIL. [chap, xxxvl. 

hangings of crimson and gold ; and the choir is supported by two 
ci^lunnis and a pair of pilasters shaped like gigantic balustrades, 
a kind of " barrigudo " style, which deserves to be called the 
Flunkey-calf Order. The little catacombs of the Brotherhood are 
on the south, and detached. The Capital of the Gold and Diamond 
Province has not yet a public cemetery, and her sons must still be 
buried in their churches. This is somewhat too primitive for 1867. 

In the street, to the north of the Carmo, is the theatre, known 
by its yellow wash : it claims to be the oldest in the Empu-e. 
The house belonged to a certain Coronel Joiio de Sousa Lisboa, 
also a victim of the royal tithes: he was declared bankrupt, yet 
it is said that the property, when sold, left no deficit. It has 
lately been repaired at the expense of the Province, and it is 
usually occupied by amateurs, Avho perform always respectably, 
sometimes remarkably' well. The very civil Impresario, a Portu- 
guese, led us round the house, whilst his company Avere rehears- 
ing. The interior is laid out in the democratic style of the 
United States, here generally adoi)ted ; all the circles are open, 
and a single central box, the President's, fronts the stage. I much 
jjrefer this disposal to the European exclusiveness of pens and 
pews ; the prospect is more pleasing, and there is better ventila- 
tion, always a grand desideratum ; moreover, ciA^ilisation here 
does not demand the " dress-circle " to be kept " select," nor 
does your coat determine whether you are god or swell. 

To the far south of the theatre is the old Tyburn, the Morro da 
Forca, or Gallows Hill.* It was levelled at an exi)ense, they 
say, often contos (i'lOOO) ; for an intended Industrial Exhibition, 
which proved the veriest failure. The projecting mound should 
be visited for the sake of the view. Thence we fall into the Pua 
de S^'* Quiteria, execrating its slope and its abominable i)avement, 
and finally the Pua dos Contos lands us where we set out. 

During our short stay at Guro Preto, a glimpse ai society left 
many pleasant impressions, and we could hardly understand 
those foreigners who complain that it is "not the style of tiling 
to which they are accustomed." We spent a musical evening of 
many "modinhas," with the agreeable family of the ex-Secretary to 
Government, Jose liodrigues Duarte, whom I afterwards met on 
the Pdo dos Vellias ; I also made the acquaintance of D. Antonio 
de Assis Martins, of the Government Secretariat, and part editor 

* Tlie pillory wa.s for whipping, exposing liuil s, and minor punislinicnt.s. 



of the Almanak de Minas, Although a Conservative he has been 
assisted by the Liberal authorities, and indeed such works deserve 
not only local but general attention. They here represent the 
issues of those historical societies, ever increasing in the States 
of the North American Union, and tliey prove to the Old World 
that the young, whilst looking to the Future, has not forgotten 
the Past. In times to come the historian will derive from them 
invaluable assistance. 

Party feeling runs high at Ouro Preto, as it did amongst us 
when unbreeched boys were asked — " Are you for Pitt or Fox?" 
And here a word upon this most important subject in the Brazil. 
Europeans and foreigners, who, hastening to make fortunes, hate 
every excitement which can interfere with the money market, are 
very severe upon the "arid and acrid politic" of the land.* They 
never think that the excitement of partisanship is a phase through 
which all juvenile societies and governments must jiass, like the 
hot youth of the individual. " Un peuple nouveau, i)ositif par 
consequence," has to provide for its physical wants, to establish 
civil order, and to secure life and property : it will indulge in 
wars, and other calamities must occur : the breathing time is 
necessarily spent not in science and philcjsophy, the highest aims 
of its later life, but in religious functions, and in adjusting its 
political questions. And indeed these are the two noblest exer- 
cises of youthful human thought, thus embracing all interests 
between heaven and earth — Um die Erde mit dem Himmel zu 
verbinden. Nor should it be otherwise : the most wholesome 
sign in a 3'oung people is a determination to enter into "the 
affairs of the nation," affairs which older communities, finding 
the machinery too complex for the general comprehension, are 
fond of abandoning to professional thinkers. Of course this 
laudable curiosity will often degenerate into violent and personal 
party feeling, but none will condemn the useful because it is open 
to abuse. 

I find in the Brazil another symptom of strong and healthy 
national vitality. Men wage irreconcilable war with the present ; 
thev have no idea of the " Rest and be thankful" state. Thev 

* Tlie i)leasant operation, parentally stranger may not assail, i^i'ovided he show 

called "telling you of your faults," is a friendly spirit, not a mere desire to 

nowhere endured with a better grace than Manie. 
in the Brazil. There is nothing that a 

374 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxvi. 

balance " Whatever is, is good " by the equation " Whatever is 
is bad; " yet they are neither optimists nor pessimists. The3'have 
as httle idea of " finality " as have New Yorkers. They will 
move and remove things quiet, and they will not leave well or ill 
alone. They are not yet, happily — 

Men of long enduring hopes, 

And careless what the hour may bring. 

Were infanticide disgracefully prevalent amongst them — it is 
rare as in Ireland — they would find some means of checking it. 
They are determined to educate their children, unlike the lands 
where tlie political phj'sicians allow the patient to perish whilst 
they wrangle over how to save him — what physic is to be or is not 
to be given. They will emancipate their women* and convert 
them into "persons." They provide against pauperism, and they 
study to bring the masses up to the high standard of Prussia and 
Belgium. They would assimilate their army to that of France, 
not preserve a "sham army," or an "army of deserters." 
They would model their navy ujion that of the United States, 
not " Monitors," — and so forth. 

There is everything to hope from a race with prepossessions 
for progress towards such a high ideal. Of late years in 
England it has been the fashion of the many non-thmkers to be 
facetious about " ideas ;" t and yet I would ask what word best 
describes the suppression of the export slave-trade and its 
expression, the Sentimental or Cofiin Squadron ? What but an 
idea is it to send thousands of missionaries bearing the " bread 
of hfe " to the heathen of Asia, Africa, America, and Australasia, 
whilst the children of the kingdom starve at home ? On the 
same principle some acute observer discovered that Napoleon 
Bonaparte always spoke of glory : Arthur Wesley invariably 
used the word duty. No truer measure of difi'erence in mental 
stature between the Exile of St. Helena and the owner of 

* At a time wlien common sense is tages in the management of children, pro- 
demanding tlie pohtical emancipation of perty, and servants, and in real freedom, 
women in England, it is curious to read an despite apparent seclusion, which in modest 
old book, the "Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb women is always voluntary. 
Khan" (1799-1803; Longmans, 181 4), show- f Of course this does not apply to those 
ing the superior liberty of the sex amongst wlio do tliink. "Rebellions are never 
Moslem i-aces. He admirably accounts for really unconquerable until they have be- 
the Vulgar prevalent idea that the Asiatic come rebellious for an idea," says Mr. 
wife is a slave, and proves that she has J. S. Mill vvdth profound tnith. 
over her European sister innnense advan-'. xxxvi.] OUPvO PRETO. ' S75 

Apsley House can well bo iniiigined. Duty was at once 
enthroned, if not deified ; it ^^■as real, solid, practical, English 
(which mostly means routineer) ; ' whilst glory was romantic, 
flimsy, flippant, French. The effect was to exaggerate the 
involuntarj' evils which Bacon* and Locke carried out to 
extremest doctrines, bequeathed with all their immense services 
to our national mind. Hence the bit of truth in the often 
quoted saying, " a nation of shopkeepers," which stiQ stmgs too 
hard. The one-sided view of life made the eye say to the 
hand, " I have no need of thee." And worse still, it pitched 
unduly low the tone of thought by satisfying men with a 
moderate tangible desideratum, and by ordering the spii'it to go 
so far and no farther. For what is Glory, rightly understood, 
but Duty nobly done, and honourably acknowledged by the 
world ? Is it not the temple of Idealit}', to be reached only 
by the steady plodding path of Realit}' ? 

* Thus a popular writer of the present day gravely informs us that Bacon's way is 
" the only way of procuring knowledge." 



Pelos ingremes trilhos tortuosos 

Da Sen"a Altiva, que os CabeQos ergui 

Calvos, arripiados. 

{,riiii(/inm Norhi'vto de Soiizn Sih'a.) 

The evening of tlie last da}- showed thick and heavy vapours 
surging up from the lowlands, and careering over the Peak. All 
judged it to be a sign of cold, perhaps of snow. I augured, 
and too rightly, that it was rain. Heavy showers fell at intervals 
during the night, and the morning Avas misty. We were to he 
guided by Sr. Jose da Costa Lana, an employe of the Com- 
mendador. He opined that the clay-paths or rock-streets Avould 
be sli2:)pery, and that the hangings of purple cloud upon the 
summit would conceal the view. We resolved, however, to take 
our chance, and about 8 a.m. we found ourselves upon the 
Marianna road. 

Presently we turned off to the south, and making easting, 
reached the little church of Padre (Joiio de) Faria (Fialho), 
another ancient colonist : a fine Cruzeiro or stone-cross stands in 
front of it. In the hollow lies the " mine of Padre Faria," now 
filled up with rubbish. It dates from the first Golden Age of 
Minas : the " old men "have run levels into the hard lode, and 
the position on a hill side will enable it to be unwatered without 
much pumping : therefore Mr. S. OUivant, of Ouro Preto, 
proposes to exploit it by means of a Company. The main 
auriferous veins dip northwards, and the lateral branches form 
zigzags in all directions. The mateiial is " Carvoeira " (j^lace of 
coal) or rich Jacutinga, Pedra IMulata (Adularia), a felspar 
containing gold, sometimes in sight and sometimes not, and 
finely disseminated spots and lumpy lines of arsenical jjjTites. 
The precious metal is found also in pot-holes (panellas), in 

cH.U'. xxxvii.] TO ITACOLl'Ml TEAK. 877 

cavities called " fovmigueiros " or ant-holes. Tlie assay gave a 
carat of 23 and 23'3, and the loss in treatment was 5 per cent. 

I'urning to the right, we crossed a s])ur of ground, and fell into 
tlie " Funil" ^^lllev ; over the torrent rushing down the deep 
hlack gap is thrown a very shaky bridge, with the " garde-fou " 
on the ground. Here is a small cascade wliich perhaps merits 
its romantic name, " Cachoeira de Cintra." * After a long 
elbow to the east, we turned westward, and began a serious 
ascent, which jiresently showed us a clump of white houses, in 
which we recognised Passagem. INIarianna and its pretty basin 
are hidden by a hill, but a quarter of a mile ride to the left shows 
them in bird's-eye plan. From the episcopal city there is a line 
of ascent, but it is described as a kind of gulley, and many of 
the citizens had never heard of it. 

On these heights we passed fellows with pistols slinking about 
the bush : they had probably been baulking the recruiting 
officer. In the Bi"a/.il, where leagues are many and where men 
are few, people readily follow the precept of Montesquieu, " If 
you are accused of having stolen the towers of Notre-Dame, bolt 
at once." Here "misenim est deprensi," not for that sin only, but 
for all offences. There were two places, mere ledges of rock with 
loose stones, up which the mules had to s|)ring like goats. The 
vegetation dwindled as we rose higher, and the ground was 
clothed with the dwarf Sumara and other Bromelias. These may 
be compared with the " arbres des vo3'ageurs " in various regions. 
A full-grown plant gives a pint of water, collected between the 
stalk and the bases of the leaves. Wlien fresh it is pure, whole- 
some, and free from vegetable taste, but not "nectar." After a time 
of drought the fluid becomes turbid, a fine black mould collects in 
it, and dead insects and live tadpoles, especialh' those of a small pale 
yellow frog (Hyla luteola), require it to be filtered. The shrubby 
growth suggested the Carrapato-tick ; but we are now above his level. 

After an hour's ride Ave reached the last and highest spring, 
and here the two negroes, who carried the provision basket, de- 
(dared they would await us, as we were now close to the " Stone." 
The proposition was at once overruled. Itacolumi Peak rose 
straight before us, now a spectre looining tall through tlie grey 

* A friend told Soutliey, the historian, would have Ixen juster if api»lied to the 
that the lands around S. Paulo, the city, Itacolumi neighbourhood, 
reminded him of Ointra. The comparison 

378 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxvii. 

mist, tlieii completely wrapped in cloiul-swatlie, then standing out 
with startling distinctness. It looked like a diamond edition of 
the " Serra do Caraca," and indeed the material is the same. It 
also reminded me of Pilot Knob, Mo., where 700 feet of specular 
iron are piled in " masses of all sizes, from a pigeon's egg to a 
middle-sized church." Botli mother and child seem to change 
shape when viewed from each hundred Aards. But a belt of 
impassable forest lay between us and our bourne, and these giants 
always look much nearer than they reall}^ are. Therefore we 
/'sprang " the niggers. 

Many places in the Brazil are called " Itacolumi." There are 
two others in Minas — one to the west of Itambe, called also from 
its seven smnmits " Sete Peccados Mortaes : " another is on the 
light bank of the Upper S. Francisco, south of Paranagua, and 
there is a tliird and a fourth to the north-west of Maranhao. The 
word is properly rendered " Pedra e Menino," Stone andPappoose 
(Red-skin child). Mr. AValsh mistranslates it "child of stone;" 
and he is followed by Sr. Norberto de Souza Silva, Avho exi)lains 
"Ita-conuni" by " Mancebo de Pedra."*' It is also written 
"Itacolumy," and more exactly " Itacolumim." f 

This Peak has given its name to a rock, or rather to three very 
different kinds of rock. The older writers apply " Itacolumite " 
to a Avhite or yellow sandstone, flexible like a plate of gutta 
perclia, termed a " great geological curiosity " by our press. 
It is found in Georgia and North Carolina, and it greatly 
resembles that of the Lower Himalaya, in which thin layers of 
the silicious granular matter are associated Avith small plates of 
talc. The " Pedra elastica " Avas described two centuries and a 
half ago by the Padre Anchieta. Dr. Charles WetheriU 
(American Journal of Science and Art) declares that the pre- 

* alto cuiiie (aba), middle-aged ; 6. Tliouyuae, old man. 

Do Itacolumi, gentil mauceljo St. Hil. (III. ii. 261) gives "Cunimim," 

Que Imlio converter-se em pedra ilea. gai'9oii, in tiie dialect of the Aldea do Kio 

{A Caheqa do Martyr), das Pedras, and the Tupy Dictionary trans- 

t Curious to say, 8r. B. J. da Silva lates "Curuniim" hy Meniuo. The Indian 
Guimaraes (p. 408, Poesias ; Ilio de Janeiro, r was changed to I by the colonists, who 
Gamier, 186.5) declares that "Itacohuny" also docked the termination. I find a 
was a name substituted for " Itamonte " distinct laliial nasalization like the Dewana- 
by the poet Claudio Manoel. Yves D'Evreux gari jj, somewhat like a French i pro- 
corrupts Curumim to " Kounonmy ; " nounced through the nose, and as in the 
perhaps, however, the sounds were hardly Portuguese Jard(»!. The Iberian tongues 
distinguishable. He gives as the ages of take a pride in pronouncing all their letters, 
mankind, — 1. Peitan, babe ; 2. Kounoumy and it is regrettable to see a word ^vl■itten 
miry,^ child ; 3. Kounoumy, adolescent ; as it should not be spoken. 
4. Kounoumy Ouassou, mau ; 5. Ava 


vailing opinion as to the elasticity of the stone resulting from 
the presence of mica is erroneous, and that if a thin plate of this 
sandstone he suhjected to examination hy the microscope, the 
flexibility will be found to depend upon minute articulations 
where the sand-grains interlock. In my specimens the stone 
abounds in light j'ellow mica, and when the friable material 
crumbles, the two main component parts at once separate. Near 
Sao Thome das Letras, before alluded to, there is a fine quarry 
of this elastic variety. In the deeper parts the strata become 
thin, and gradually pass into natural slabs of the finest quartzite, 
stratified quartz, of course losing all elasticity. 

This flexible stone is not the matrix of the diamond and the 
topaz, although sometimes associated with it. Diamantine 
' •' Itacolumite " is, as will presently appear, a hard talcose rock 
of distinctly laminated quartz, Avhite, red, or yeUow, granular, 
with finel}' disseminated points of mica : it is either stratified 
or unstratified. In Minas the name is popularly given to 
the refractory sandstone grits, and to a fine crystalline rock 
evidently aft'ected by intense heat. Curious to sa}', Itacolumi 
Peali consists neither of this, nor of that, nor of the other, yet 
its name has been given to all three.*' 

The last formations, laminated quartz and sandstone grits, 
fonu with Itaberite, almost all the Highlands in this part of 
the Brazil. Considerable confusion is often caused by the triple 
use of the word. Thus M. Halfieldt explains Itacolumite by 
" quartzo-schistoso, schisto de quartzo, micachisto-quartzoso, 
gelenk-quartz, and elasticher sandstein." In school-books each 
author interprets it his own way. It would be well to limit it, as 
Gardner does (Chap. 13) "to hard iron slate." 

Leaving the water, we turned westward, passing the Capao dos 
Ingiezes or " Tree Motte " of English pic-nickers, which reminded 
me of a certain estancia at Tenerife. I cannot find that any 

* Allow me, as regards the term " Ita- woi-se than to substitute "Devonian" for 

columitc/' to quote what A[. IJouhee said "Old Red Sandstone," for a system which 

with great truth aliout the groups of the extends not only over Northern Europe, 

Transitional formation known as Silurian but also over Northern America. ' ' Ita- 

and Cambrian, — " I cannot understand the columite" in its three .several be- 

necessity of going to seek in a corner of longs to the glolie, not to IMinas Geraes, to 

England the type of divisions and a classi- which but not by which it has been limited, 

fication of so iiupoitant a nature which is f Relatorio, on p. 78. He might have 

found fully developed in Normandy and termed it more coiTectly flexible Itacolu- 

Brittany, Cevennes, Ardennes, the PjTe- mite, granular or quartzose Itacolumite, 

uees generally, &c." Again, what can Ije and crystalline Itacolumite. 

380 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [<hap. xxxvir. 

of the writing travellers have made the ascent, ,yet all the silent men 
have so done. Ahout this Capao is a fine site for a small settlement : 
tlie hydropathist who " miiss gehirge liaben " will here find in 
the dry season the clearest air and the purest Avater. Our next 
operation was to lose the way amongst paths ramifying to every 
ihumb, and we went too for west towards the Itatiaia village which 
gleamed Avliite upon its hill. At last, after a tough struggle over 
rocks and slides, we passed round to the south of the " Stone," 
and after three hours' riding stood a little above it. The winding 
goat-track numbered some six to seven miles, and the direct 
distance cannot be more than three, for we heard the clocks of 
Ouro Preto striking the hour. 

After a fight with the high winds I boiled the thermometer, 
which gave 5860 feet,* still showing that the culminating range 
in this section of the Brazil is, as in Eastern Africa, the Maritime 
Chain. t We then proceeded to examine the singular formation, 
and the ii-on-stone so distracted ni}' hearings, that they deserve 
little confidence. The base is a short ridge, a latitudinal expan- 
sion, a vertebra in the " Serra Grande " or do Espinha^o, which 
liere trends from south to north. The material is " Jacutinga," 
soft micaceous and ferruginous schist, " Itacolumite" proper or 
hard iron slate, and quartzose micaceous slate, with a dip of G5°. 
The " Ita " rises on the western side of a quoin-shaped mass, 
bluff to the west : it is one of the many pikes and organs which 
at lower elevations are seen bristling over this part of the chain, 
and it is surrounded by huge blocks and boulders of all shapes 
and sizes. To judge by the eye, it lies 500 to GOO feet below the 
highest point of the parent-bluff, which, seen from the Avest, has 
a tabular form ; and thus the extreme height above sea level 
would be about 6400 feet. The " Pedra" is a core of the hardest 
iron-slate, black and polished like a metal casting, and the surf\ice 
shows joints but no stratification, whilst the sides are striped by 
wind and Aveather into vertical and inclined striae. Formerlv it 

* The usual estimate is about 8000 203°-l, Temp. 59°) above .sea-level, and 

palmas = 5733 English feet. Mr. Gerber has 765 feet below the " Ita." 
1750 metres = 5727 feet, and Mr. Keith + Nearly half a centuiy ago it was 

Johnston's last map 5750 feet. My obser- remarked that these Organ Mountains, 

vations on a level with the summit of the where even small glaciers are found, would, 

Pedra gave 5860 feet above sea-level (B. P. like the Sant' Angelo Mountains of the Bay 

202°-50 , Temp. 57°), or 2487 feet above of Naples, supply the Fluminenses with 

Ouro Preto. At the Hermit's Cave below ice, which they import at a high price, 
the "Pappoose" I obtained 5095 (B. P. 

ciLVp. xxxvii.] TO ITACULUMI PEAK. 381 

could be uscended by a chain fastened to the summit ; this aid 
has now disappeared, and nothing but a fly or a lizard could 
swarm up its smooth metal. 

We then proceeded to view the '* Oolumi." Seen from Ouro 
Preto it appears almost to touch the mother stone, a smooth slope 
intervening. It is found to be separated by a deep gap of loose 
humus, protruding rock, and decomposed vegetation, and the 
l)ath is matted with a tangled growth of trees and shrubs, thorny 
bushes and llianas, which catch the legs like man-traps. De- 
scending to the east, we stood opposite a dark mass of the same 
metallic formation and aspect as the upper feature ; the shape was 
that of a gorilla's skull, not unlike, but about three times larger 
than the " Bosistow Logan Stone." Slipping down sundry 
rock-drops, we found below the eastern base a cross and a 
cave once inhabited by a hermit. A skull was lately picked 
up in this Troglodytic refuge, which the black guide called 
a " Sariio ; " * and doubtless it has given shelter to many a 

Returning after a difficult climb to the breakfast-ground, we 
soon ascertained that the two negroes left to guard the provaunt 
had spent their time well — were drunk as drunk could be. They 
paid the penalty by not reaching home before midnight, and how 
they reached it at all without cat's eyes is still a puzzle to me. 
The last shred of mist had now been melted by the sun of noon, 
and the tall pillar glowed and glanced in the fervid rays like a bar 
of specular iron-stone. A little to the east of north t lay the 
city of Ouro Preto, sitting stiffiy u})on the hard lap of Siio 
Sebastiao, with feet dipping to the stream-bank on its south. 
13ehind it lay the brown lines of the Morro de Santa Anna, cragg}', 
with ruined chapel ; a little to the west of north stretched the 
blue lines of the " Serra '\o Caraca," and north the Piedade 
range, t like a lumpy cloud, closed the horizon. On the south- 
west the jagged walls of S. Jose d'El-Rei struck the eye, and the 
rest was a tumbled surface of rounded hills subsiding into longer 

* For Salai), a salunn. The skull was sii\itli-east uf Oiin) I'letu. ]\Lr. Jolmston's 

jironiised to uie, or rather through me to \nits it too far to the south-west. I took 

the Anthroii()lo<,'ical Soi-iety of Loiiddii. Jt lieariiigs, Init when protracted they iiroved 

was not sent, Imt this gentle liint may useless. 

cause it to he forwarded. The direction of J Mr. Gordon took an obsen'ation from 

the Anthroi>ological Society is No. 4, St. the ea-stern side of the Peak base, whence 

^lai-tin's Place, London, W.C. the western point of the SciTa da Piedade 

f M. <.TCrl>cr's map places the Peak bore due north. 

382 THE HIC4HLANDS OF THE BEAZIL. [ciiAr. xxxvil. 

and more level Hues as tliej' reached the rim of the basin in whose 
centre we stood. 

The descent was far more pleasant than the ascent, not always 
the case in Brazilian mule-travelling. The beauties of an 
enchanting prospect lay full before us, and thus we could enjoy 
the "unfading and inexhaustible pleasure Avhich the face of 
Nature always gives when presented under new and varying 
aspects." In the lower levels smokes by day and nightly blaze 
show that the grass is being fii'ed ; the proceeding, however, is 
punished at this season with "posturas" or fines, because the 
birds, especially the fine game Cadorna,* at which dogs point, 
are nesting. This sensible idea deserves to be carried out beyond 
the lunits of city jurisdiction. The afternoon was magnificent, 
and we returned long before sunset, delighted with our excursion, 
and grateful to our guide, Sr. Ijana, who had made the toil so 
great a pleasure. 

* S. Hil. (HI. ii. 203) suspects that the "pheasant," "partridge," and " qnail" 

Cadorna is the TjTiamus brevipes of Pohl, in Northern America and British India, 

and that the Perdiz (Ynambii, or Inambii) The other common kinds of Tinamns arc 

is the T. rufiscens. Both words are taken the Juo (Tinannis noctivagns), described 

from Portugal, and ajiplied to birds of the by Prince Max. A hirger species is the 

New Workl, specifically, and often gene- Macfica (Tinamns Braziliensis). 
rically, different. The same was done with 



Die klaren Regioneu 

^Yo die Reinen Formen wohnen. 


Section I. 

Before leaving the Imperial City, which is the modeni t^-pe 
of old Miiias, it appears advisable to give a sketch of its inhabi- 
tant, the Mineiro, avIio, like his ancestor the Paulista, is still the 
tA'pical man in the Brazil.* 

The first colonists from Portugal settled in S. Paulo in the 
earlier half of the sixteenth century. As happened to the 
refugees from England, the morgue of the old country repre- 
sented them to be mere roturiers.f The accurate and pains- 
taking Santista Fr. Gaspar Madre de Deus has, therefore, 
thought proper to investigate the origin of the settlers at Santos, 
now the port of S. Paulo, and he has proved that they belonged 
to lionourable families in Portugal and Italy. 

The blood was, in fact, too honourable ; it brought with it 
an ahnost insane vanit}', connnonly called pride of birth, and the 
immediate result was a deterioration of race. "White Avomen were 
rarel}' imported to a country which Avas in a chronic state of savage 

* My si^ace will permit nie to toucli De sens clavos Avos, que tie cii foram 

upon the siil)ject veiy lightly ; moreover, Km jaleco e ceroulas. 

throughout these volumes a variety of « jrothinks l.y Paulistas <,'irt I stand, 

anthropological notes have been recor.led ^^.j,^ f^,,j ^;^ ^-^^^ . ^^^^^, ^^^^^^,^i ^,y 
wherever the suliject suggested them. 

+ Both rajili.sUs and rortugriesc can now wSirfal.ulous illustrious descent 

r.Bord to snnlc at the witticisms ot the old y^.^^^^ nnccstoi-s renowned, who hence do- 

comedy-writcr (iar(;;io. nii-tod 

Parccc-me que cstou cntrc Paulistas, lu drawers and doublet." 

Que aiTotando Longonha, me aturduim 

Co' a fahulosa illusti-c dcscendencia Mate I have explained to mean Paraguay tea. 

384 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxviii. 

war, and the settlers, as a rule, disdained to intermarry with the 
daughters of the Redskin. Yet, as in the United States, unions 
Avith the free-born but barbarous blood * were never held to be 
disgraceful, and in process of time some houses have come to 
boast their descent from the " Indian Princess." 

But when agriculture began in earnest the African was 
imported, and the servile mixture, at all times and in all places a 
dishonour amongst white races, who in this point obey an 
unerring instinct, advanced at a rapid pace. I can quote the 
case of a city in Minas where amongst three thousand, or includ- 
ing the vicinity, five thousand souls, there are only two families 
of pure European blood. On the coast the colonists found 
opportunities of marrying their daughters to men from the Old 
World, and the lowest of "high-born beggars " was preferred to 
the Avealthiest and most powerful of mule-breeds. But in the 
interior mulattisni became a necessary evil. Hence, even to the 
present day, there is a strange aversion to marriage, which, in so 
young a country, forcibl}^ strikes the observer. Men do not like 
to " marry for ever," and the humane Latin law, which facilitates 
the naturalisation of illegitimate children, deprives matrimony of 
an especial inducement. ]^razilian moralists have long since 
taken the evil in hand, and have even proposed that public 
employment should be refused to those living openly in a state of 
concubinage. The day of sumptuary and domestic laws, however, 
is now departed, and men no longer respect rulers who cannot 
separate the private from the public lives of their subjects. 

Presently to hunting red-skins was added another industry — 
gold-digging. Before the end of the century which witnessed the 
establishment of the first l\)i'tuguese colony, multitudes fiocked 
to the Far AVest, and thus much of the noblest Paulista blood 
became Mineiro. The " turbulent riches of metals " did their 
usual work ; a vagrant horde, a " colluvies gentiiun," displayed all 
the rowdyism and ruffianism which Ave of this day have Avitnessed 
in California, San Francisco, and Carson CitA'. As Avas said of 
the Indians, the immigrants had neither " F., L., nor II " — Faith, 
IjaAv, nor Buler — and the motto of the moving multitude seems to 
have been— 

Queiu (liuheiro tivel', 
Far;i o que quizer.f 

'* The IiuliaiiH used to call negroes " ^la- t Wlioso money acfiuircs, 

eacos i_la Terra " — monkeys of the land. May do all he desires. 


As I am not writing a history of Minas, a mere sketch of events 
which distinguished her capital will show the spirit which 
animated the race. 

Shortly after the "War of the Emboabas " the village of 
Antonio Dias was promoted, by the Act of June 8, 1711, to 
township, with the merited name of " ViUa Eica." Between 1700 
and 1713 the lloyal Quint of gold had been raised upon the batea 
or i^an ; in 1714, however, D. Braz Balthasar Silveira, in its 
stead, established capitation Fifths and toll-houses (Registros or 
Contagens). The latter aided in the collection by taking dues 
upon all imports. In 1718 they were dismembered from the 
Fifths and were farmed out. In 1719, when D. Pedro de Almeida, 
Conde de Assumar, Governor and Captain-General of Minas, 
proposed, instead of the poll-tax, to erect pubhc mints and 
smelting-houses, serious troubles took place. At Ouro Podre, the 
richest place adjoining Ouro Preto, some two thousand men rose 
in arms, and about midnight of June 28, razed the foundations of 
the building that had been begun, and attempted to massacre the 
Ouvidor Geral of the Comarca, Martinho Vieira. This violent 
partisan fled, leaving his house to be plundered. On July 2 
the mutineers compelled their Municipal Chamber to take 
the van, and, marching to the " Leal Villa de N'"* S'^ do Carmo." 
now Marianna, forced their fifteen conditions upon the Governor,* 
Some of the articles signed by the contending parties are quaint 
in the extreme. The authorities are accused of "working more 
miracles than Santa Lusia," in defrauding the people, whilst 
No. 11 runs thus : " They (the msurgents) require that the Com- 
panies of Dragoons shall feed at their own cost, and not at the 
expense of the public." 

Thus the mutineers obtained their pardon, which was, of 
course, officially- null. The ringleaders (os cabecas) returned to 
Villa Rica ; and, in the pride of success, divided the spoils of 
war. The Mestre de Campo, Pascoal da Silva Guimaraes, 
disposed of various appointments ; his son, D. Manoel Mos- 
queu'a da Rosa, elected himself Ouvidor ; and Sebastiiio da Veiga 
Cabral, becoming President of an independent organisation, 

* The letter of the Count of Assumar, in Almanack, 18G4 (p. 56). Southey (iii. 

describing this " horroroso raotim " is 38, 158 — 161) has translated the Count's 

printed in the Almanack, 1865 (p. 101 — rei^ort almost literally, and has thus taken 

104), and the conditions which he signed a one-sided view of the atlair. 

VOL. I. C C 

388 THE HIGHLANDS OF THE BRAZIL. [chap, xxxviii. 

instanced, in a friendly way, tlie Governor to take refuge at Sao 

But the Count of Assumar was now prepared for energetic 
action. He sent a Company of Dragoons to Villa Rica, seized 
Cabral and despatched him to Bio de Janei